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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 418
Fatima Leon-Larios ◽  
Cecilia Ruiz-Ferron ◽  
Rocio-Marina Jalon-Neira ◽  
Juan-Manuel Praena-Fernández

The emergency contraception pill (ECP) is a non-prescribed medication in Spain. However, there is not enough evidence of its use among young people to define sex education contents. The aims of this research were to describe the experiences of the use of the ECP in university students and analyze their knowledge, attitude, and awareness regarding the ECP. The cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted with nursing degree students at the University of Seville. A total of 478 students answered the questionnaire. All of the students (100%) had heard about the ECP and had a positive attitude towards this contraceptive. A total of 25.7% had used the ECP, mainly because a condom had failed or because they did not use any contraceptive at all. Deficiencies in knowledge are related with the ECPs’ mechanism of action, efficacy after repeated use, and the type of ECP available. Female students who used no method at all or withdrawal, and who were over 20 years old, used ECP to a greater extent (p < 0.005). Further education initiatives focused on the use of the ECP, its efficacy, and typology are needed, particularly among future health professionals who will later educate other young people.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andreas Hinz ◽  
Michael Friedrich ◽  
Tobias Luck ◽  
Steffi G. Riedel-Heller ◽  
Anja Mehnert-Theuerkauf ◽  

Background: Multiple studies have shown that people who have experienced a serious health problem such as an injury tend to overrate the quality of health they had before that event. The main objective of this study was to test whether the phenomenon of respondents overrating their past health can also be observed in people from the general population. A second aim was to test whether habitual optimism is indeed focused on events in the future.Method: A representatively selected community sample from Leipzig, Germany (n = 2282, age range: 40–75 years) was examined. Respondents were asked to assess their current health, their past health (5 years before), and their expected future health (in 5 years) on a 0–100 scale. In addition, the study participants completed several questionnaires on specific aspects of physical and mental health.Results: Respondents of all age groups assessed their health as having been better in the past than it was at present. Moreover, they also assessed their earlier state of health more positively than people 5 years younger did their current state. Habitual optimism was associated with respondents having more positive expectations of how healthy they will be in 5 years time (r = 0.37), but the correlation with their assessments of their current health was nearly as high (r = 0.36).Conclusion: Highly positive scores of retrospectively assessed health among people who have experienced a health problem cannot totally be accounted for by a response to that health problem.

Ishak Kartal ◽  
Aslihan Abbasoglu ◽  
Seyithan Taysi

Objective As newborns are exposed to oxidative stress during delivery, cord clamping techniques play significant role on antioxidant status. In this study, we aimed to show the relationship between early cord clamping (ECC), delayed cord clamping (DCC) and cut umblical cord milking (C-UCM) techniques with total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and peroxynitrite levels. Study Design Sixty-nine term infants were selected with APGAR score of 7 and above in the first and fifth minutes. The mothers of all infants had uncomplicated pregnancy, had no congenital anomaly, and delivered by cesarean section. Newborns were randomised to one of three groups: ECC (n: 23), DCC (n: 23) or C-UCM (n: 23). After all newborn babies were taken under radiant heater, blood samples were collected from the umbilical cord. The plasma samples were then frozen and stored at -80 °C until analysis and TOC, TAC and peroxynitrite levels were studied. Results The ages of the mothers participating in the study were between 17 and 42, with an average of 29.14 ± 6.28. 30 (43.5%) of the babies were girls and 39 (56.5%) were boys. The 5th minute APGAR score of the babies in early cord clamping group was significantly lower than the babies in delayed cord clamping and cut cord milking group (p = 0.034; p = 0.034; p <0.05). The TOC, OSI and Peroxynitrite measurements of three groups did not differ statistically. The TAC value of the C-UCM group was significantly higher than the patients with the ECC and DCC group (p = 0.002; p = 0.019; p <0.05). Conclusion C-UCM and DCC would be feasible methods by increasing antioxidant status and providing protective effect on the future health of the term newborns,

Nature ◽  
2022 ◽  
Morten Rasmussen ◽  
Mitsu Reddy ◽  
Rory Nolan ◽  
Joan Camunas-Soler ◽  
Arkady Khodursky ◽  

AbstractMaternal morbidity and mortality continue to rise, and pre-eclampsia is a major driver of this burden1. Yet the ability to assess underlying pathophysiology before clinical presentation to enable identification of pregnancies at risk remains elusive. Here we demonstrate the ability of plasma cell-free RNA (cfRNA) to reveal patterns of normal pregnancy progression and determine the risk of developing pre-eclampsia months before clinical presentation. Our results centre on comprehensive transcriptome data from eight independent prospectively collected cohorts comprising 1,840 racially diverse pregnancies and retrospective analysis of 2,539 banked plasma samples. The pre-eclampsia data include 524 samples (72 cases and 452 non-cases) from two diverse independent cohorts collected 14.5 weeks (s.d., 4.5 weeks) before delivery. We show that cfRNA signatures from a single blood draw can track pregnancy progression at the placental, maternal and fetal levels and can robustly predict pre-eclampsia, with a sensitivity of 75% and a positive predictive value of 32.3% (s.d., 3%), which is superior to the state-of-the-art method2. cfRNA signatures of normal pregnancy progression and pre-eclampsia are independent of clinical factors, such as maternal age, body mass index and race, which cumulatively account for less than 1% of model variance. Further, the cfRNA signature for pre-eclampsia contains gene features linked to biological processes implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Daniela Rodrigues Recchia ◽  
Holger Cramer ◽  
Jon Wardle ◽  
David J. Lee ◽  
Thomas Ostermann ◽  

Abstract Introduction The identification of typologies of health care users and their specific characteristics can be performed using cluster analysis. This statistical approach aggregates similar users based on their common health-related behavior. This study aims to examine health care utilization patterns using cluster analysis; and the associations of health care user types with sociodemographic, health-related and health-system related factors. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey were used. Health care utilization was measured by consultations with a variety of medical, allied and complementary health practitioners or the use of several interventions (exercise, diet, supplementation etc.) within the past 12 months (used vs. not used). A model-based clustering approach based on finite normal mixture modelling, and several indices of cluster fit were determined. Health care utilization within the cluster was analyzed descriptively, and independent predictors of belonging to the respective clusters were analyzed using logistic regression models including sociodemographic, health- and health insurance-related factors. Results Nine distinct health care user types were identified, ranging from nearly non-use of health care modalities to over-utilization of medical, allied and complementary health care. Several sociodemographic and health-related characteristics were predictive of belonging to the respective health care user types, including age, gender, health status, education, income, ethnicity, and health care coverage. Conclusions Cluster analysis can be used to identify typical health care utilization patterns based on empirical data; and those typologies are related to a variety of sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. These findings on individual differences regarding health care access and utilization can inform future health care research and policy regarding how to improve accessibility of different medical approaches.

James Eynstone-Hinkins ◽  
Lauren Moran

The Australian mortality data are a foundational health dataset which supports research, policy and planning. The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the need for more timely mortality data that could assist in monitoring direct mortality from the virus as well as indirect mortality due to social and economic societal change. This paper discusses the evolution of mortality data in Australia during the pandemic and looks at emerging opportunities associated with electronic infrastructure such as electronic Medical Certificates of Cause of Death (eMCCDs), ICD-11 and automated coding tools that will form the foundations of a more responsive and comprehensive future mortality dataset.

2022 ◽  
pp. 256-272
Patrícia Rodrigues ◽  
Manuela Soares Rodrigues ◽  
Diana Pinheiro ◽  
Cecília Nunes

Health influences general well-being, and well-being affects future health. Oral health professionals report a decreased well-being and a higher burnout. This chapter measures and evaluates the perception of the health professional and the patient about factors of stress and well-being. It evaluates the strategies used to overcome the anxiety and stress that involve the meeting. Two surveys applied by questionnaire, with face-to-face and online dissemination, the first to patients and second to dentists, were done. Of the 245 patients, 46% consider themselves to be anxious. The instruments used in a clinical environment cause discomfort, and their noise is the predominant cause for this fear. Of the 306 dentists, 80% show the ability to face difficult situations. Finally, 90% have an awareness that contributes to the well-being of others. Oral health professionals should prepare themselves with techniques to develop a therapeutic relationship that is more positive, calm, and less stressful.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 17-25
Kelly Powers ◽  
Shanti Kulkarni ◽  
Andrew Romaine ◽  
Dulce Mange ◽  
Caleb Little ◽  

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