Low Birth Weight
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F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 935
Md. Sabbir Ahmed ◽  
Sumaia Sahrin ◽  
Fakir Md Yunus

Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW) is a global health concern for childhood mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this study were to assess the association between the number of Antenatal Care Visits (ANC) and LBW among Bangladeshi newborns, and to identify the demographic and socio-economic predictors of LBW.   Methods: Our present cross-sectional study is based on the secondary data of the Bangladesh Demography and Health Survey (BDHS) 2014. Complete data of 4,235 (weighted) mother-child pairs were included in the analysis.   Results: The overall prevalence of LBW among newborns were found to be 19.3% (95% CI: 17.8-20.9). Among the mothers who received antenatal care services 1-3 times during pregnancy, 35% had less possibility of having LBW babies [COR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50-0.85]. The association remained significant after adjusting the analysis with the sex of the newborn, administrative regions (division), maternal educational status, mother’s weight status and fathers’ occupation [AOR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99]. Additionally, the sex of the newborn, division, maternal education, maternal weight status, and fathers’ occupational status were found to be significantly associated with LBW.   Conclusion: Increasing the coverage of antenatal services and enabling mothers to receive quality antenatal services may substantially contribute to reducing the prevalence of LBW in Bangladesh.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Tahir Ahmed Hassen ◽  
Catherine Chojenta ◽  
Nicholas Egan ◽  
Deborah Loxton

Abstract Background Birth weight has a substantial effect on children’s cognitive development, physical capability, and emotional development, which in turn impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Generally, evidence indicates that children born with low birth weight tend to have poorer proxy-reported HRQoL, particularly at school age. However, there is limited evidence on whether variation in HRQoL exists across the entire range of possible birth weights. This study aimed to examine the association between birth weight and proxy-reported HRQoL among children aged 5–10 years old. Methods Data from the 1973–78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were linked with state-based Perinatal Data Collections and the Mothers and their Children’s Health study for 1,589 mothers and 2,092 children aged 5 − 10 years old. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the association between birth weight and proxy-reported HRQoL measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Results are presented as odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. Results In this study, 15.61 % of children were at risk of impaired proxy-reported HRQoL. Each 100-gram increase in birth weight was associated with a 3 % reduction in the odds of impaired HRQoL (AOR = 0.97; 95 % CI: 0.94, 0.99). However, there was only limited evidence of an effect within the normal birth weight range (AOR = 0.97; 95 % CI: 0.94, 1.01). Conclusions The findings indicate that increased birth weight was protective against impaired HRQoL, although there was limited evidence of variability within the normal birth weight range. This study contributes to the existing literature by not only emphasizing the impact of low birth weight on children’s health and health-related outcomes but also by focusing on the variability within the normal birth weight range, particularly in a setting where low birth weight is less prevalent.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Rayhan Sk ◽  
Anuradha Banerjee ◽  
Md Juel Rana

Abstract Background Malnutrition was the main cause of death among children below 5 years in every state of India in 2017. Despite several flagship programmes and schemes implemented by the Government of India, the latest edition of the Global Nutrition Report 2018 addressed that India tops in the number of stunted children, which is a matter of concern. Thus, a micro-level study was designed to know the level of nutritional status and to study this by various disaggregate levels, as well as to examine the risk factors of stunting among pre-school children aged 36–59 months in Malda. Method A primary cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted using structured questionnaires following a multi-stage, stratified simple random sampling procedure in 2018. A sum of 731 mothers with at least one eligible child aged 36–59 months were the study participants. Anthropometric measures of children were collected following the WHO child growth standard. Children were classified as stunted, wasted, and underweight if their HAZ, WHZ, and WAZ scores, respectively, were less than −2SD. The random intercept multilevel logistic regression model has been employed to estimate the effects of possible risk factors on childhood stunting. Results The prevalence of stunting in the study area is 40% among children aged 36–59 months, which is a very high prevalence as per the WHO’s cut-off values (≥40%) for public health significance. Results of the multilevel analysis revealed that preceding birth interval, low birth weight, duration of breastfeeding, mother’s age at birth, mother’s education, and occupation are the associated risk factors of stunting. Among them, low birth weight (OR 2.22, 95% CI: 1.44–3.41) and bidi worker as mothers’ occupation (OR 1.92, 95% CI: 1.18–3.12) are the most influencing factors of stunting. Further, about 14 and 86% variation in stunting lie at community and child/household level, respectively. Conclusion Special attention needs to be placed on the modifiable risk factors of childhood stunting. Policy interventions should direct community health workers to encourage women as well as their male partners to increase birth interval using various family planning practices, provide extra care for low birth weight baby, that can help to reduce childhood stunting.

Bella D. Tsintsadze ◽  
Klavdiya A. Kazakova ◽  
Vladislav V. Chernikov ◽  
Andrey P. Fisenko ◽  
Aleksey N. Tsygin

Introduction. The impact of prematurity on the functional state of the kidneys in infants has not yet been sufficiently studied. Aim. To determine the influence of birth weight and gestational age on the creatinine level in the blood and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in early childhood. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis was conducted on medical records of 316 children aged from 1 month to 1.5 years, hospitalized at the Department of Early Childhood Pathology (National Medical Research Center for Children’s Health, Moscow) from 2012 to 2020 due to consequences of perinatal CNS damage. Children without congenital kidney diseases, with normal urine values in medical history, without structural abnormalities on ultrasound were included in this study. Serum creatinine was determined by the enzymatic method, GFR - by the Schwartz’s formula using a coefficient of 0.413, as well as, previously proposed coefficients of 0.33 for premature and 0.44 for full-term infants. Results. In premature infants, notably born with extremely low birth weight and very low birth weight, at the age of 1 year, serum creatinine is reduced compared to full-term infants, GFR in deep-premature infants exceeds the level of GFR in full-term infants by the year. The results allow concluding the method of calculating GFR by formulas based on serum creatinine to be invalid. Due to possible hyperfiltration in preterm infants, they need regular monitoring urine tests, blood pressure, due to the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. Conclusions. It is necessary to search for other methods for determining GFR in extremely premature infants. The established indices of the blood creatinine content can be used as reference values for different periods of gestation and body weight at birth in institutions using the enzymatic method for determining blood creatinine. The obtained GFR indices as a reference can be recommended for full-term and premature babies born after 32 weeks of gestation and with a birth weight of more than 1500 g.

2021 ◽  
Wilson Ndukwe Nwigboji ◽  
John Okafor Egede ◽  
Peace Chinyere Igwe ◽  
Matthew Nwali Igwe ◽  
Gregory Chinedu Nwigwe ◽  

Abstract Background: Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and can result in placental malaria with its associated adverse pregnancy outcomes.Method: This was a case control study involving 190 consenting, asymptomatic, booked parturients, recruited consecutively at 36 week. The aim was to determine the effect of placental malaria on pregnancy outcome in asymptomatic women delivering at term. The participants were screened for malaria parasites using peripheral blood film. Based on their results, the participants were grouped into parasitemia positive cases (Group 1) and parasitemia negative controls (Group 2). Both groups were then followed up in the clinic till they presented in labour at term. In labour, participants’ peripheral venous blood sample were collected and used to determine intrapartum haematocrit and peripheral parasitemia. After delivery, cord blood and a section of the placenta were collected for investigation. Data analysis: Collected data were analysed using Statistical Product and service solutions (SPSS) software (version 20). Numerical variables were presented as mean and standard deviation (Mean SD), while categorical variables were presented as numbers and percentages. Chi-square test(X2) was used to compare qualitative variables. Odds ratio (OR) and Confidence interval(CI) were used to observe the odds of outcomes. A p-value 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: The prevalence of placental malaria and congenital malaria were 41.05% and 29.47% respectively. Birth weight, APGAR score, NICU admission or congenital malaria were not statistically significant between the two groups. The mean birth weight was 3.16 ± 0.5 kg while 17.89% had low birth weight. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the association of placental parasitaemia and maternal anaemia or dose of IPT taken. There was no significant association between placental parasitaemia and low parity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of maternal anaemia and low birth weight showed significant placental parasitaemia in both cases (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Placental parasitaemia is a major complication of malaria in pregnancy and is associated with adverse feto-maternal effects. Early booking and uptake of intermittent preventive therapy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine may help reduce the adverse effects.

Sagad Omer Obeid Mohamed ◽  
Sara Mohamed Ibrahim Ahmed ◽  
Reem Jamal Yousif Khidir ◽  
Mutaz Tarig Hassan Ahmed Shaheen ◽  
Mosab Hussen Mostafa Adam ◽  

Abstract Background Neonatal admission hypothermia (HT) is a frequently encountered problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and it has been linked to a higher risk of mortality and morbidity. However, there is a disparity in data in the existing literature regarding the prevalence and outcomes associated with HT in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. This review aimed to provide further summary and analyses of the association between HT and adverse clinical outcomes in VLBW infants. Methods In July 2020, we conducted this review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A systematic database search was conducted in MEDLINE (PubMed), Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, World Health Organization Virtual Health Library, Cochrane Library databases, and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE). We included studies that assessed the prevalence of HT and/or the association between HT and any adverse outcomes in VLBW infants. We calculated the pooled prevalence and Odds Ratio (OR) estimates with the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) using the Comprehensive meta-analysis software version 3.3 (Biostat, Engle-wood, NJ, USA; http://www.Meta-Analysis.com). Results Eighteen studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were meta-analyzed. The pooled prevalence of HT among VLBW infants was 48.3% (95% CI, 42.0–54.7%). HT in VLBW infants was significantly associated with mortality (OR = 1.89; 1.72–2.09), intra-ventricular hemorrhage (OR = 1.86; 1.09–3.14), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR = 1.28; 1.16–1.40), neonatal sepsis (OR = 1.47; 1.09–2.49), and retinopathy of prematurity (OR = 1.45; 1.28–1.72). Conclusion Neonatal HT rate is high in VLBW infants and it is a risk factor for mortality and morbidity in VLBW infants. This review provides a comprehensive view of the prevalence and outcomes of HT in VLBW infants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 157-163
Anisha Bag ◽  
Khooshbu Gayen ◽  
Rajib Sikdar

Preterm births are which occur prior to 37 weeks gestation and in developed Western nations it comprise approximately 6 per cent of all live births. Along with having many serious medical problems, it has been hypothesized that the development of oral tissues may get affected in the neonatal period. In preterm children, a high prevalence (around 40-70%) of generalized enamel hypoplasia had been found in previous studies in the primary dentition and it is plausible to be associated with low bone mineral stores. Other than enamel hypoplasia, crown dilacerations, and palatal distortions are other defects that are frequently observed in preterm children which are usually associated with traumatic laryngoscopy and prolonged endotracheal intubation. The incidence of ECC (International Caries Detection and Assessment System: ICDAS ≥ 2) was also found to be high in low birth weight children. The etiology behind this is multifactorial but maternal factors, maternal factors might play the role of contributing factors. The current review would analyse the dental anomalies in preterm children in depth which might have significant implications in monitoring possible anomalies and in treatment intervention can be done at an early stage. Key words: Premature birth, Very low birth weight, Dental defects, Enamel hypoplasia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Qi Sun ◽  
Hongguang Zhang ◽  
Ya Zhang ◽  
Zuoqi Peng ◽  
Jianbo Lu ◽  

Background. The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate whether TB is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes including premature birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth. Method. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study in mainland China. A total of 3,668,004 Chinese women, along with their partners, were included in this study, within the National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project, during 2015–2018. Propensity score matching was used to balance the two groups (cases: women or partners with TB; controls: women and partners without TB). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the OR of stillbirth for cases was 1.89 (95% CI: 1.09–3.16), in comparison with the control group. In the subgroup analysis, women whose partner had TB had a higher risk of stillbirth (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.10–3.86) than women whose partner did not have TB. There was no significant difference in adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and stillbirth, between women with and without TB. Conclusions. Women whose partner had TB were more likely to have stillbirth than women whose partners did not have TB.

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