Beneficial Effects
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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan ◽  
Arsalan Salari ◽  
Eshagh Mohammadyari ◽  
Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi ◽  
Aydin Pourkazemi ◽  
...  

Purpose It is argued that COVID-19 patients show various neuropsychiatric symptoms, including fatigue, depression and anxiety. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated that green tea could potentially have antiviral effects and ameliorate psychiatric disorders. However, there is a lack of clinical evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether drinking green tea can clinically improve psychiatric complications of COVID-19 infection. Design/methodology/approach This study included 40 patients with laboratory confirmed mild-to-moderate COVID-19 disorder in the current randomized open-label controlled trial. Patients were instructed to include three cups/day of green tea (intervention) or black tea (control) to their usual diet for four weeks immediately after diagnosis of the disease. At the study baseline and after the intervention, the enrolled patients’ fatigue, depression and anxiety were assessed by the Chalder Fatigue Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires. Findings A total of 19 COVID-19 cases in the intervention group (mean age = 52 years) and 14 cases (mean age = 50 years) in the control group completed the study. Analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline levels, and confounders revealed that those who consumed three cups/day of green tea compared to the patients who received black tea experienced significantly lower fatigue, depression and state and trait anxiety levels (adjusted means for fatigue = 12.3 vs 16.2 (P = 0.03), depression = 0.53 vs 1.8 (P = 0.01), 37.4 vs 45.5 (P < 0.01) and 37.9 vs 45.2 (P < 0.01)). Research limitations/implications The open-label design may bias the evaluation of the self-reported status of fatigue, depression or anxiety as the main outcomes assessed. Moreover, as this study did not include patients with severe COVID-19, this might affect the generalizability of the present results. Thus, the recommendation of daily drinking green tea may be limited to the subjects diagnosed with mild-to-moderate type of infection or those with long-term neuropsychiatric complications owing to COVID-19. Besides, considering the ethical issues, this study could not exclude the drug therapy’s confounding effects; thereby, this point should be considered when interpreting the current results. Besides, it is worth noting that Guilan province in the north of Iran is recognized as a tea (and particularly green tea) producing region; thereby, it is an available and relatively inexpensive product. Considering this issue, the recommendation to consume this medicinal plant in adjunct to the routine treatment approach among patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 based on its beneficial effects may be widely accepted. Practical implications Green tea consumption could be considered an option to combat COVID-19 associated psychological complications, including fatigue, depression and anxiety among patients suffering from mild-to-moderate type of this viral infection. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, in this study, for the first time, the effects of green tea compared to black tea on COVID-19 associated fatigue, depression and anxiety status within an open-label controlled trial have been investigated.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zahra Gohari-Bajestani ◽  
Xiao Wang ◽  
Amandine Guiet ◽  
Romain Moury ◽  
Jean-Marc Grenèche ◽  
...  

Mixed-metal oxides are generally considered to be the highest-performance catalysts for alkaline water oxidation. Despite significant efforts dedicated to understanding and accelerating their efficiency, most works have been limited investigations of Ni, Co, and Fe oxides, thus overlooking beneficial effects of hetero-anion incorporation. To this end, we report on the development of Co0.5Fe0.5O0.5F1.5 oxyfluoride materials featuring a rutile crystal structure and porous morphology via a scalable and green synthetic route. The catalyst surface, enhanced through electron withdrawing effects imparted by the fluoride ions, give rise to highly effective catalytic sites for electrochemical water oxidation. In particular, their performance across metrics of Tafel slope (27 mV/dec), mass activity (846 A/g at 1.53 V vs. RHE), turnover frequency (21/s at 1.53 V vs. RHE), overpotential (220 mV for 10 mA/cm2), and stability (27 days of continuous operation) largely surpasses most known Co-based catalysts. Mechanistic studies suggest that this performance is driven by a bimolecular, oxygen coupling reaction mechanism through proximal active sites on the catalyst surface, thus enabling a new avenue for achieving accelerated oxygenic electrocatalysis.


Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1101
Author(s):  
Daniela Bebbere ◽  
Stefano Mario Nieddu ◽  
Federica Ariu ◽  
Davide Piras ◽  
Sergio Ledda

In vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) is a well-established technique. Despite the high IVM rates obtained in most mammalian species, the developmental competence of IVM oocytes is suboptimal. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of a liquid marble microbioreactor (LM) as a 3D culture system to mature in vitro prepubertal ovine oocytes, as models of oocytes with intrinsic low competence. Cumulus–oocyte complexes of prepubertal sheep ovaries were in vitro matured in a LM system with hydrophobic fumed-silica-nanoparticles (LM group) or in standard conditions (4W control group). We evaluated: (a) maturation and (b) developmental rates following in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo culture; (c) expression of a panel of genes. LM and 4W groups showed similar IVM and IVF rates, while in vitro development to blastocyst stage approached significance (4W: 14.1% vs. LM: 28.3%; p = 0.066). The expression of GDF9, of enzymes involved in DNA methylation reprogramming and of the subcortical maternal complex was affected by the IVM system, while no difference was observed in terms of cell-stress-response. LM microbioreactors provide a suitable microenvironment to induce prepubertal sheep oocyte IVM and should be considered to enhance the developmental competence of oocytes with reduced potential also in other species, including humans.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 11774
Author(s):  
Jana Sophie Kesenheimer ◽  
Tobias Greitemeyer

The COVID-19 pandemic led to serious restrictions on peoples’ everyday lives and had severe economic impacts. In contrast, “lockdown” restrictions led to short-term beneficial effects for the environment. In the present study, we compared pro-environmental behavior and materialism values before, during, and after COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in the spring of 2020. The results of an online study using 370 participants showed a decrease in materialism values and pro-environmental sacrificing actions. In contrast, ecologically compatible actions decreased during the lockdown and increased again to the initial level after restrictions were loosened. Moreover, pro-environmental attitudes had a diminishing effect on materialism values, especially during lockdown restrictions. Agreeableness had a diminishing effect on materialism values during the lockdown. In contrast, trait narcissism enhanced materialism values, which were strongest after the lockdown was over. In conclusion, materialism values and pro-environmental behaviors were “locked down” due to COVID-19 restrictions but did not show the expected rebound effects. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Author(s):  
Qiao Chen ◽  
Die Zhao ◽  
Jie Sun ◽  
Chengzhi Lu

Background. A comprehensive evaluation of the benefits of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients is lacking. Objective. To summarize the evidence on the efficacy and safety of MRA in patients admitted for AMI. Methods. Articles were identified through PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Ovid (Medline1946-2021), and ClinicalTrials.gov databases from their inception to December 31, 2020. Results. 15 articles with a total of 11,861 patients were included. MRA reduced the risk of all-cause mortality by 16% (relative ratio (RR): 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.76, 0.94); P = 0.002 ) and the incidence of cardiovascular adverse events by 12% (RR: 0.88, 95% CI (0.83, 0.93), P < 0.00001 ) in post-AMI patients, and further analysis demonstrated that early administration of MRA within 7 days after AMI resulted in a greater reduction in all-cause mortality (RR: 0.72, 95% CI (0.61, 0.85), P < 0.0001 ). Subgroup analyses showed that post-STEMI patients without left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) treated with MRA had a 36% reduction in all-cause mortality (RR: 0.64, 95% CI (0.46, 0.89), P = 0.007 ) and a 22% reduction in cardiovascular adverse events (RR: 0.78, 95% CI (0.67, 0.91), P = 0.002 ). Meanwhile, post-STEMI patients without LVSD treated with MRA get significant improvements in left ventricular ejection fraction (mean difference (MD): 2.69, 95% CI (2.44, 2.93), P < 0.00001 ), left ventricular end-systolic index (MD: -4.52 ml/m2, 95% CI (-8.21, -0.83), P = 0.02 ), and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (MD: -0.11 cm, 95% CI (-0.22, 0.00), P = 0.05 ). The corresponding RR were 1.72 (95% CI (1.43, 2.07), P < 0.00001 ) for considered common adverse events (hyperkalemia, gynecomastia, and renal dysfunction). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that MRA treatment reduces all-cause mortality and cardiovascular adverse events in post-AMI patients, which is more significant in patients after STEMI without LVSD. In addition, MRA treatment may exert beneficial effects on the reversal of cardiac remodeling in patients after STEMI without LVSD.


Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1679
Author(s):  
Jose Rodríguez-Morató ◽  
Anna Boronat ◽  
Gabriele Serreli ◽  
Laura Enríquez ◽  
Alex Gomez-Gomez ◽  
...  

Ceramides are a class of sphingolipids which have recently been shown to be better cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk predictors than traditional CVD risk biomarkers. Tyrosol (TYR) is a dietary phenolic compound known to possess cardioprotective effects per se or through its in vivo active metabolite hydroxytyrosol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the co-administration of white wine (WW) and TYR on circulating levels of ceramides and other lipids in humans at high CVD risk. Volunteers underwent a randomized controlled crossover clinical trial (4-week duration per intervention) with three different interventions: control, WW, and WW enriched with a capsule of TYR (WW + TYR). Endothelial function cardiovascular biomarkers and plasma lipidomic profile were assessed before and after each intervention. It was found that the WW + TYR intervention resulted in lower levels of three ceramide ratios, associated with an improvement of endothelial function (Cer C16:0/Cer C24:0, Cer C18:0/Cer C24:0, and Cer C24:1/Cer C24:0), when compared to the control intervention. Moreover, WW + TYR was able to minimize the alterations in plasma diacylglycerols concentrations observed following WW. Overall, the results obtained show that the antioxidant TYR administered with WW exerts beneficial effects at the cardiovascular level, in part by modulating blood lipid profile.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tiffany M. Zarrella ◽  
Anupama Khare

Bacteria typically exist in dynamic, multispecies communities where polymicrobial interactions influence fitness. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions is critical for understanding and modulating bacterial behavior in natural environments. While bacterial responses to foreign species are frequently characterized at the molecular and phenotypic level, the exogenous molecules that elicit these responses are understudied. Here we outline a systematic strategy based on transcriptomics combined with genetic and biochemical screens of promoter-reporters to identify the molecules from one species that are sensed by another. We utilized this method to study interactions between the pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus that are frequently found in co-infections. We discovered that P. aeruginosa senses diverse staphylococcal exoproducts including the metallophore staphylopine, intermediate metabolites citrate and acetoin, and multiple molecules that modulate its iron starvation response. Further, we show that staphylopine inhibits biofilm formation and that P. aeruginosa can utilize citrate and acetoin for growth, revealing that these interactions have both antagonistic and beneficial effects. Our screening approach thus identified multiple S. aureus secreted molecules that are sensed by P. aeruginosa and affect its physiology, demonstrating the efficacy of this approach, and yielding new insight into the molecular basis of interactions between these two species.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11463
Author(s):  
Masao Koike ◽  
Hitoki Saito ◽  
Genta Kohno ◽  
Masahiro Takubo ◽  
Kentaro Watanabe ◽  
...  

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), in addition to lowering glucose, have pleiotropic effects on the heart, kidneys, and liver. These drugs have thus come into widespread use for treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, mechanistic comparisons and effects of combining these drugs have not been adequately studied. Employing diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and db/db mice as models of the early and advanced stages of T2DM, we evaluated effects of single or combined use of liraglutide (a GLP-1RA) and ipragliflozin (a SGLT2i). Treatments with liraglutide and/or ipragliflozin for 28 days improved glycemic control and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation similarly in DIO mice. In contrast, in db/db mice, despite similar favorable effects on fatty liver, liraglutide exerted no beneficial effects on glycemic control. Improved glycemic control in db/db mice treated with ipragliflozin was accompanied by increased pancreatic β-cell area and insulin content, both of which tended to rise further when ipragliflozin was combined with liraglutide. Our data suggest that liraglutide is more efficient at an earlier stage and ipragliflozin can be effective in both stages. In addition, their combined use is a potential option for treating advanced stage diabetes with fatty liver disease.


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