Beneficial Effects
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0254834
Author(s):  
Rodrigo Pérez-Arancibia ◽  
Jose Luis Ordoñez ◽  
Alexis Rivas ◽  
Philippe Pihán ◽  
Alfredo Sagredo ◽  
...  

Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain is a common hallmark of most age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies from our group identified the presence of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds in leaves derived from the Chilean berry Ugni molinae (murtilla), in addition to show a potent anti-aggregation activity in models of Alzheimer´s disease. However, possible beneficial effects of berry extracts of murtilla was not investigated. Here we evaluated the efficacy of fruit extracts from different genotypes of Chilean-native U. molinae on reducing protein aggregation using cellular models of Huntington´s disease and assess the correlation with their chemical composition. Berry extraction was performed by exhaustive maceration with increasing-polarity solvents. An unbiased automatic microscopy platform was used for cytotoxicity and protein aggregation studies in HEK293 cells using polyglutamine-EGFP fusion proteins, followed by secondary validation using biochemical assays. Phenolic-rich extracts from murtilla berries of the 19–1 genotype (ETE 19–1) significantly reduced polyglutamine peptide aggregation levels, correlating with the modulation in the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins. Using LC-MS and molecular network analysis we correlated the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and ellagitannins with the protective effects of ETE 19–1 effects on protein aggregation. Overall, our results indicate the presence of bioactive components in ethanolic extracts from U. molinae berries that reduce the load of protein aggregates in living cells.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Patricia Soriano Roque ◽  
Mehdi Hooshmandi ◽  
Laura Neagu-Lund ◽  
Shelly Yin ◽  
Noosha Yousefpour ◽  
...  

AbstractLong-lasting cognitive impairment in juveniles undergoing repeated general anesthesia has been observed in numerous preclinical and clinical studies, yet, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown and no preventive treatment is available. We found that daily intranasal insulin administration to juvenile mice for 7 days prior to repeated isoflurane anesthesia rescues deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. Moreover, intranasal insulin prevented anesthesia-induced apoptosis of hippocampal cells, which is thought to underlie cognitive impairment. Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a major intracellular effector of insulin receptor, blocked the beneficial effects of intranasal insulin on anesthesia-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this finding, mice lacking mTORC1 downstream translational repressor 4E-BP2 showed no induction of repeated anesthesia-induced apoptosis. Our study demonstrates that intranasal insulin prevents general anesthesia-induced apoptosis of hippocampal cells, and deficits in synaptic plasticity and memory, and suggests that the rescue effect is mediated via mTORC1/4E-BP2 signaling.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Shin Young Ahn ◽  
Yoon Jin Choi ◽  
Jieun Kim ◽  
Gang Jee Ko ◽  
Young Joo Kwon ◽  
...  

AbstractSeveral studies have demonstrated the nephroprotective effects of estrogen on renal damage. In light of the inconsistent results of previous findings, this study aims to evaluate the in-depth role of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on the development of end stage renal disease (ESRD). 3,109,506 Korean adult women who had undergone a medical examination in 2009 (index year) were initially identified for inclusion in this study. We excluded subjects had not experienced menopause naturally, had data missing for at least one variable, and were diagnosed with ESRD within 1 year from the index year. MHT data was obtained from self-reporting questionnaires and the primary outcome was the development of ESRD from the index year until December 31, 2018. A final total of 1,460,311 subjects were included in this study. The participants were divided into four groups according to the duration of MHT; no history of MHT, MHT < 2 years, 2 ≤ MHT < 5 years, MHT ≥ 5 years. During the 9-year study period, a total of 4905 participants developed ESRD. The participants who had a history of MHT use were found to have a 30% reduced risk of developing ESRD. Results from the subgroup analyses were similar to that of the primary study. The findings in this study demonstrate the beneficial effects of MHT on the development of ESRD in postmenopausal women. Based on results, our study may offer suggestions for further studies to investigate the therapeutic options on kidney disease.


Children ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (8) ◽  
pp. 660
Author(s):  
Joëlle Provasi ◽  
Loreline Blanc ◽  
Isabelle Carchon

The fetal environment provides the fetus with multiple potential sources of rhythmic stimulation that are not present in the NICU. Maternal breathing, heartbeats, walking, dancing, running, speaking, singing, etc., all bathe the fetus in an environment of varied rhythmic stimuli: vestibular, somatosensory, tactile, and auditory. In contrast, the NICU environment does not offer the same proportion of rhythmic stimulation. After analyzing the lack of rhythmic stimulation in the NICU, this review highlights the different proposals for vestibular and/or auditory rhythmic stimulation offered to preterm infants alone and with their parents. The focus is on the beneficial effects of auditory and vestibular stimulation involving both partners of the mother–infant dyad. A preliminary study on the influence of a skin-to-skin lullaby on the stability of maternal behavior and on the tonic emotional manifestations of the preterm infant is presented as an example. The review concludes with the importance of introducing rhythmic stimulations in the NICU.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 720
Author(s):  
Marina Carcea

Rice is one of the most widely consumed cereals in the world. The husks of harvested, unprocessed rice are not digested by humans and need to be removed to obtain edible grains, whereas the bran can be partially (brown rice) or totally removed (white rice). Brown rice is a wholegrain cereal and, as such, is known to have beneficial effects on human health. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce the risk of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and some types of cancer. However, white rice is preferred for reasons connected to appearance, taste, palatability, ease of cooking, tradition, safety, shelf-life, and lack of awareness about its benefits and availability. In this review, the latest scientific reports regarding the nutritional composition of brown rice and the evolution of the technology for its production will be briefly reviewed together with research on nutritional implications of brown rice consumption also in relation to cancer development in humans. A specific chapter is devoted to pigmented rice which, thanks to its composition, has attracted the growing interest of consumers worldwide. The need for further studies to help promote the consumption of wholegrain rice are also discussed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1002
Author(s):  
Vincenza Tarantino ◽  
Francesca Burgio ◽  
Roberta Toffano ◽  
Elena Rigon ◽  
Francesca Meneghello ◽  
...  

Cognitive impairment after a stroke has a direct impact on patients’ disability. In particular, impairment of Executive Functions (EFs) interferes with re-adaptation to daily life. The aim of this study was to explore whether adding a computer-based training on EFs to an ordinary rehabilitation program, regardless of the specific brain damage and clinical impairment (motor, language, or cognitive), could improve rehabilitation outcomes in patients with stroke. An EF training was designed to have minimal motor and expressive language demands and to be applied to a wide range of clinical conditions. A total of 37 stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups: a training group, which performed the EF training in addition to the ordinary rehabilitation program (treatment as usual), and a control group, which performed the ordinary rehabilitation exclusively. Both groups were assessed before and after the rehabilitation program on neuropsychological tests covering multiple cognitive domains, and on functional scales (Barthel index, Functional Independence Measure). The results showed that only patients who received the training improved their scores on the Attentional Matrices and Phonemic Fluency tests after the rehabilitation program. Moreover, they showed a greater functional improvement in the Barthel scale as well. These results suggest that combining an EF training with an ordinary rehabilitation program potentiates beneficial effects of the latter, especially in promoting independence in activities of daily living.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eeva-Leena Kataja ◽  
Ana João Rodrigues ◽  
Noora M. Scheinin ◽  
Saara Nolvi ◽  
Riikka Korja ◽  
...  

Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) are frequently administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery to promote fetal lung maturation. Despite their undeniable beneficial effects in lung maturation, the impact of these hormones on developing brain is less clear. Recent human studies suggest that emotional and behavioral disorders are more common among sGC-exposed vs. non-exposed children, but the literature is sparse and controversial. We investigated if prenatal sGC exposure altered fear bias, a well-established infant attention phenotype, at 8-months. We used eye tracking and an overlap paradigm with control, neutral, happy, and fearful faces, and salient distractors, to evaluate infants’ attention disengagement from faces, and specifically from fearful vs. neutral and happy faces (i.e., a fear bias) in a sample (N = 363) of general population from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study. sGC exposed infants (N = 12) did not differ from non-exposed infants (N = 351) in their overall probability of disengagement in any single stimulus condition. However, in comparison with non-exposed infants, they did not show the age-typical fear bias and this association remained after controlling for confounding factors such as prematurity, gestational age at birth, birth weight, sex, and maternal postnatal depressive symptoms. Prenatal sGC exposure may alter emotional processing in infants. The atypical emotion processing in turn may be a predictor of emotional problems later in development. Future longitudinal studies are needed in order to evaluate the long-term consequences of sGC exposure for the developing brain.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gil Zandani ◽  
Sarit Anavi-Cohen ◽  
Nina Tsybina-Shimshilashvili ◽  
Noa Sela ◽  
Abraham Nyska ◽  
...  

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and gut dysbiosis. Gut microbiota profoundly affects the host energy homeostasis, which, in turn, is affected by a high-fat diet (HFD) through the liver-gut axis, among others. Broccoli contains beneficial bioactive compounds and may protect against several diseases. This study aimed to determine the effects of broccoli supplementation to an HFD on metabolic parameters and gut microbiome in mice. Male (7–8 weeks old) C57BL/J6 mice were divided into four groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet+10% broccoli florets (HFD + F), and high-fat diet + 10% broccoli stalks (HFD + S). Liver histology and serum biochemical factors were evaluated. Alterations in protein and gene expression of the key players in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in gut microbiota alterations were also investigated. Broccoli florets addition to the HFD significantly reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR index, and upregulated adiponectin receptor expression. Conversely, no significant difference was found in the group supplemented with broccoli stalks. Both broccoli stalks and florets did not affect fat accumulation, carbohydrate, or lipid metabolism-related parameters. Modifications in diversity and in microbial structure of proteobacteria strains, Akermansia muciniphila and Mucispirillum schaedleri were observed in the broccoli-supplemented HFD-fed mice. The present study suggests that dietary broccoli alters parameters related to insulin sensitivity and modulates the intestinal environment. More studies are needed to confirm the results of this study and to investigate the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marie-Pierre Piccinni ◽  
Raj Raghupathy ◽  
Shigeru Saito ◽  
Julia Szekeres-Bartho

Its semi-allogeneic nature renders the conceptus vulnerable to attack by the maternal immune system. Several protective mechanisms operate during gestation to correct the harmful effects of anti-fetal immunity and to support a healthy pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy is characterized by gross alterations in endocrine functions. Progesterone is indispensable for pregnancy and humans, and it affects immune functions both directly and via mediators. The progesterone-induced mediator - PIBF - acts in favor of Th2-type immunity, by increasing Th2 type cytokines production. Except for implantation and parturition, pregnancy is characterized by a Th2-dominant cytokine pattern. Progesterone and the orally-administered progestogen dydrogesterone upregulate the production of Th2-type cytokines and suppress the production of Th1 and Th17 cytokine production in vitro. This is particularly relevant to the fact that the Th1-type cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ and the Th17 cytokine IL-17 have embryotoxic and anti-trophoblast activities. These cytokine-modulating effects and the PIBF-inducing capabilities of dydrogesterone may contribute to the demonstrated beneficial effects of dydrogesterone in recurrent spontaneous miscarriage and threatened miscarriage. IL-17 and IL-22 produced by T helper cells are involved in allograft rejection, and therefore could account for the rejection of paternal HLA-C-expressing trophoblast. Th17 cells (producing IL-17 and IL-22) and Th22 cells (producing IL-22) exhibit plasticity and could produce IL-22 and IL-17 in association with Th2-type cytokines or with Th1-type cytokines. IL-17 and IL-22 producing Th cells are not harmful for the conceptus, if they also produce IL-4. Another important protective mechanism is connected with the expansion and action of regulatory T cells, which play a major role in the induction of tolerance both in pregnant women and in tumour-bearing patients. Clonally-expanded Treg cells increase at the feto-maternal interface and in tumour-infiltrating regions. While in cancer patients, clonally-expanded Treg cells are present in peripheral blood, they are scarce in pregnancy blood, suggesting that fetal antigen-specific tolerance is restricted to the foeto-maternal interface. The significance of Treg cells in maintaining a normal materno-foetal interaction is underlined by the fact that miscarriage is characterized by a decreased number of total effector Treg cells, and the number of clonally-expanded effector Treg cells is markedly reduced in preeclampsia. In this review we present an overview of the above mechanisms, attempt to show how they are connected, how they operate during normal gestation and how their failure might lead to pregnancy pathologies.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1497
Author(s):  
Anna Maria Gajda ◽  
Ewa Antonina Czyż ◽  
Agnieszka Klimkowicz-Pawlas

The physicochemical and microbial properties of soil under long-term monoculture of winter wheat were studied to assess the effects of two tillage systems of different intensities: reduced (RT) and conventional (CT). The research was carried out on an 18-year-old experimental field at Grabów (eastern Poland) between 2018 and 2020. The RT (ploughless) and the CT (mouldboard ploughing) systems with machine operating depths of up to 10 and 25 cm, respectively, were used. The analysed parameters were as follows: soil texture, pH, readily dispersible clay content (RDC), soil organic matter (SOM), carbon from particulate organic matter (POM-C), hot- and cold-water-extractable organic carbon (HWEC, CWEC) and nitrogen (HWEN, CWEN), soil basal respiration (SBR), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), nitrification potential (NP), dehydrogenases (DEH), and acid (ACP) and alkaline (ALP) phosphatases activities. Several single soil quality indices, including: metabolic (qCO2) and microbial (MicQ) quotients, enzymatic pH level indicator (EpHI), stratification ratio (SR), and metabolic potential index (MP) were calculated. The use of RT resulted in increased SOM and, therefore, in decreased RDC and increased values of soil stability, POM-C, HWEC, CWEC, HWEN, CWEN, MBC, and MBN in relation to CT. The MicQ, EpHI, SR, and MP well reflected the effects of RT and CT systems on soil and appeared to be useful in soil quality assessment. The results showed the beneficial effects on soil of the less intensive RT system in comparison with CT. Statistical analysis showed the significance of differences between tillage systems and interrelationships between the studied soil quality parameters.


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