Treatment Target
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2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (5) ◽  
pp. 3-10
Luke Winn

This study is concerned with vocabulary acquisition from reading ‘authentic’ English storybooks to very young Japanese children in an immersion EFL setting. 26 children took part in a quasi-experimental study which examined two reading techniques. A multiple readings condition offered three verbatim readings of three different storybooks (nine readings in total), whereas the second condition added brief L2 explanations of target words within a single reading of each book (three readings in total). Prior vocabulary in L2 (English) was also measured to evaluate its effect on word learning. A post-treatment target word vocabulary test was conducted to assess for acquisition. The results of the study show that neither reading condition resulted in significant effects with regard to word learning. The effect of prior vocabulary (both L1 and L2), however, was significant, and implications for educators working with children in this age group are discussed. 本研究は、イマージョン型のEFL環境における、「本物の」英語の童話を使った読み聞かせによる日本人児童の語彙習得に関するものである。26人の児童が実験に参加し、2つの異なるリーディング手法について調査した。一つのグループには、3つの異なる童話を3回ずつ逐語的に繰り返し読み聞かせ(合計9回)、もう一つのグループには、各童話の対象となる単語の簡潔な説明をL2 (英語)で行った上で一回ずつ読み聞かせた(合計3回)。さらに、L2(英語)の事前語彙知識を測定し、単語学習効果を検証した。どれくらい習得したか評価するために対象となる単語の事後テストを行った。本研究の結果は、どちらのリーディング手法も単語学習には有意な効果をもたらさなかったことを示している。しかしながら、事前語彙知識(L1とL2の両方)の

2021 ◽  
Shuang Yu ◽  
Peng Dou ◽  
Yue Yin ◽  
Peijing Wang ◽  
Hao Wang ◽  

Abstract A constructed wetland (CW) coupled microbial fuel cell (MFC) system that treats wastewater and generates electricity was constructed. The total phosphorus in the simulated domestic sewage was used as the treatment target, and the optimal phosphorus removal effect and electricity generation were determined by comparing the changes in substrates, hydraulic retention times, and microorganisms. The mechanism underlying phosphorus removal was also analyzed. The experimental results showed that the best removal efficiencies of the two CW-MFC systems that used magnesia and garnet as substrates were 80.3% and 92.4%, respectively. Phosphorus removal by the garnet matrix mainly depends on a complex adsorption process whereas the magnesia system relies on ion exchange reactions. The CW-MFC system can also generate electricity. The highest output voltage and stable voltage of the garnet system were both higher than those of the magnesia system. The maximum stable voltage of the garnet device was 500 mV, while that of the magnesia device was 290 mV. The microorganisms in the soil and in the electrode within the wetland sediments also substantially changed, indicating that microorganisms positively respond to the removal of organic matter and power generation. Combining the advantages of constructed wetlands and microbial fuel cells also improves phosphorus removal in the coupled system. Therefore, when studying a CW-MFC system, the selection of electrode materials, matrix, and system structure should be taken into account in order to find a method that will improve the power generation capacity of the system and remove phosphorus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (04) ◽  
pp. 287-300
Lauren Bullard ◽  
Leonard Abbeduto

AbstractThis review highlights the ways in which telehealth procedures can be implemented to help bridge the research-to-practice gap in supporting developmental outcomes for youth with fragile X syndrome (FXS). We review how the literature to date has informed potential treatment targets in the areas of speech and language development with a focus on understanding and supporting the dyadic relationship between the child and their biological mother, who is also impacted biologically. Notably, parental responsivity is an area that is strongly related to child language outcomes, both early and into adolescence, and thus, it is an important treatment target for subsequent interventions. To date, several parent-implemented interventions have been done in FXS across a broad age range (2–17-year-olds) all showing support not only that parents are successful in learning responsive strategies but also that there are subsequent impacts to child language development. Moreover, these interventions were successfully implemented at a distance through telehealth procedures including video teleconferencing and shared recordings of parent–child interactions. This review also addresses potential moderators of treatment gains. Implications for scaling such interventions in the future as well as best practices for incorporating telehealth procedures into future research and intervention programs are also discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Longxian Lv ◽  
Huiyong Jiang ◽  
Xiaoxiao Chen ◽  
Qiangqiang Wang ◽  
Kaicen Wang ◽  

The role of host-microbiota interactions in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) has received increased attention. However, the impact of PBC on the oral microbiota and contribution of the oral microbiota to PBC are unclear. In this study, thirty-nine PBC patients without other diseases and 37 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled and tested for liver functions and haematological variables. Saliva specimens were collected before and after brushing, microbiota was determined using 16S rDNA sequencing, metabolomics was profiled using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS), 80 cytokines were assayed using biochips, and inflammation inducibility was evaluated using OKF6 keratinocytes and THP-1 macrophages. Finally, the effect of ultrasonic scaling on PBC was estimated. Compared with HCs, PBC saliva had enriched taxa such as Bacteroidetes, Campylobacter, Prevotella and Veillonella and depleted taxa such as Enterococcaceae, Granulicatella, Rothia and Streptococcus. PBC saliva also had enriched sCD163, enriched metabolites such as 2-aminomalonic acid and 1-dodecanol, and depleted metabolites such as dodecanoic acid and propylene glycol. sCD163, 4-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid and 2-aminomalonic acid were significantly correlated with salivary cytokines, bacteria and metabolites. Salivary Veillonellaceae members, 2-aminomalonic acid, and sCD163 were positively correlated with liver function indicators such as serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). PBC salivary microbes induced more soluble interleukin (IL)-6 receptor α (sIL-6Rα), sIL-6Rβ and tumour necrosis factor ligand superfamily (TNFSF)13B from OKF6 keratinocytes, and PBC salivary supernatant induced more IL-6, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)13, C-X-C motif chemokine (CXC)L1 and CXCL16 from THP-1 macrophages. Toothbrushing significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α and harmful metabolites such as cadaverine and putrescine in PBC but not HC saliva after P‐value correction. The levels of ALP and bilirubin in PBC serum were decreased after ultrasonic scaling. Together, PBC patients show significant alterations in their salivary microbiota, likely representing one cause and treatment target of oral inflammation and worsening liver functions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Fanyan Meng ◽  
Ningna Du ◽  
Daoming Xu ◽  
Li Kuai ◽  
Lanying Liu ◽  

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune disease that mainly affects the spinal joints, sacroiliac joints, and adjacent soft tissues. We conducted bioinformatics analysis to explore the molecular mechanism related to AS pathogenesis and uncover novel potential molecular targets for the treatment of AS. The profiles of GSE25101, containing gene expression data extracted from the blood of 16 AS patients and 16 matched controls, were acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The background correction and standardization were carried out utilizing the transcript per million (TPM) method. After analysis of AS patients and the normal groups, we identified 199 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with upregulation and 121 DEGs with downregulation by the limma R package. The results of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) biological process enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs with upregulation were mainly associated with spliceosome, ribosome, RNA-catabolic process, electron transport chain, etc. And the DEGs with downregulation primarily participated in T cell-associated pathways and processes. After analysis of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, our data revealed that the hub genes, comprising MRPL13, MRPL22, LSM3, COX7A2, COX7C, EP300, PTPRC, and CD4, could be the treatment targets in AS. Our data furnish new hints to uncover the features of AS and explore more promising treatment targets towards AS.

2021 ◽  
Xinqi Zhou ◽  
Ting Xu ◽  
Yixu Zeng ◽  
Ran Zhang ◽  
Ziyu Qi ◽  

Social deficits and dysregulations in dopaminergic midbrain-striato-frontal circuits represent transdiagnostic symptoms across psychiatric disorders. Animal models suggest that modulating interactions between the dopamine and renin-angiotensin system with the angiotensin receptor antagonist Losartan (LT) can modulate learning and reward-related processes. We have therefore determined the behavioral and neural effects of LT on social reward and punishment processing in humans. A pre-registered randomized double-blind placebo-controlled between-subject pharmacological design was combined with a social incentive delay fMRI paradigm during which subjects could avoid social punishment or gain social reward. Healthy volunteers received a single-dose of LT (50mg, n=43) or placebo (n=44). Reaction times and emotional ratings served as behavioral outcomes, on the neural level activation, connectivity and social feedback prediction errors were modelled. Relative to placebo, LT switched reaction times and arousal away from prioritizing punishment towards social reward. On the neural level the LT-enhanced motivational salience of social rewards was accompanied by stronger ventral striatum-prefrontal connectivity during reward anticipation and attenuated activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and associated connectivity with the bilateral insula in response to punishment during the outcome phase. Computational modelling further revealed an LT-enhanced social reward prediction error signal in VTA and dorsal striatum. LT shifted motivational and emotional salience away from social punishment towards social reward via modulating distinct core nodes of the midbrain-striato-frontal circuits. The findings document a modulatory role of the renin-angiotensin system in these circuits and associated social processes, suggesting a promising treatment target to alleviate social dysregulations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Yiwei Dong ◽  
Qianqian Cai ◽  
Lisheng Fu ◽  
Haojie Liu ◽  
Mingzhe Ma ◽  

LIHC (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) mostly occurs in patients with chronic liver disease. It is primarily induced by a vicious cycle of liver injury, inflammation, and regeneration that usually last for decades. The G protein nucleolar 2 (GNL2), as a protein-encoding gene, is also known as NGP1, Nog2, Nug2, Ngp-1, and HUMAUANTIG. Few reports are shown towards the specific biological function of GNL2. Meanwhile, it is still unclear whether it is related to the pathogenesis of carcinoma up to date. Here, our study attempts to validate the role and function of GNL2 in LIHC via multiple databases and functional assays. After analysis of gene expression profile from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, GNL2 was largely heightened in LIHC, and its overexpression displayed a close relationship with different stages and poor prognosis of carcinoma. After enrichment analysis, the data revealed that the genes coexpressed with GNL2 probably participated in ribosome biosynthesis which was essential for unrestricted growth of carcinoma. Cell functional assays presented that GNL2 knockdown by siRNA in LIHC cells MHCC97-H and SMCC-7721 greatly reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion ability. All in all, these findings capitulated that GNL2 could be a promising treatment target and prognosis biomarker for LIHC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Feng Jiang ◽  
Xiao-Lin Miao ◽  
Xiao-Tian Zhang ◽  
Feng Yan ◽  
Yan Mao ◽  

Osteosarcoma is a quickly developing, malignant cancer of the bone, which is associated with a bad prognosis. In osteosarcoma, hypoxia promotes the malignant phenotype, which results in a cascade of immunosuppressive processes, poor prognosis, and a high risk of metastasis. Nonetheless, additional methodologies for the study of hyperoxia in the tumor microenvironment also need more analysis. We obtained 88 children patients with osteosarcoma from the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatment (TARGET) database and 53 children patients with RNA sequence and clinicopathological data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We developed a four-gene signature related to hypoxia to reflect the immune microenvironment in osteosarcoma that predicts survival. A high-risk score indicated a poor prognosis and immunosuppressive microenvironment. The presence of the four-gene signature related to hypoxia was correlated with clinical and molecular features and was an important prognostic predictor for pediatric osteosarcoma patients. In summary, we established and validated a four-gene signature related to hypoxia to forecast recovery and presented an independent prognostic predictor representing overall immune response strength within the osteosarcoma microenvironment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 59 (3) ◽  
pp. 269-274
V. V. Rybakova ◽  
A. S. Avdeeva ◽  
D. A. Dibrov ◽  
E. L. Nasonov

Aim – to analyze long-term results of intensive treatment initiated at rheumatoid arthritis (RA) onset in real clinical practice.Material and methods. 93 RA patients were included. Subcutaneous MTX was initiated at 10–15 mg per week with further dose escalation up to 20–30 mg per week. If MTX monotherapy did not allow to achieve treatment target of remission or low disease activity, biologics were added.Results. Against the background of observation, there was a significant decrease in the activity of diseases and the level of acute phase indicators, after 12 months of treatment, the values of the DAS28-ESR indices were 2.76 [2; 3.7], SDAI – 5.34 [1.8; 9.7], CDAI – 5 [1.5; 9.5], corresponded to low disease activity; remission was achieved in 48.6%, low activity – in 17.5%, moderate activity remained in 31%, high activity – in 2.7% of patients. After 6 years the median age of patients was 58 [49; 66] years, the disease duration – 84 [79; 89] months, the low disease activity was documented in 21.3%, and remission – in 7.8% of patients. After 6 years, the value of the activity indices was: DAS28 – 4 [3.4; 4.59], SDAI – 15.06 [9.32; 21], CDAI – 15 [9; 21]; remission – in 7.7%, low disease activity – in 21.1%, moderate activity – in 60%, high activity – in 11.1% of patients.Conclusion. Intensive therapy initiated at RA onset demonstrates high effectiveness, allowing to achieve remission/low disease activity in about 30% of patients. Adherence to this strategy allowed to discontinue biologics in and synthetic DMARDs after achieving treatment target.

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