cancer tissues
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 1053-1058
Shunfu Zhu ◽  
Neng Jiang ◽  
Jianjun Zhu

Objective: Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. Abnormal miR-375 level was related to thyroid cancer. Software predicted a relationship between miR-375 and YAP1. Our study investigated whether miR-375 regulates YAP1 expression and affects thyroid cancer cells. Methods: The tumor tissues and adjacent tissues of thyroid cancer patients were collected to measure miR-375 and YAP1 expression. The dual luciferase reporter experiment verified the regulation between miR-375 and YAP1. Thyroid cancer cell line B-CPAP and TPC-1 cells were divided into miR-NC group and miR-375 mimic group followed by analysis of cell proliferation by flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity, and cell clone formation ability by plate cloning assay. Results: Compared with adjacent cancer tissues, miR-375 in thyroid cancer tissues was decreased and YAP1 was increased. miR-375 targets YAP1. Compared with Nthy-ori 3-1 cells, miR-375 in B-CPAP and TPC-1 cells was significantly reduced and YAP1 was increased. Transfection with miR-375 mimic significantly inhibited cell proliferation, increase caspase-3 activity, and reduced the ability of cells to form clones. Conclusion: miR-375 can inhibit YAP1 expression, decrease the proliferation of thyroid cancer cells, induce cell apoptosis, and reduce clone formation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Haijuan Gu ◽  
Yuejiao Zhong ◽  
Jibin Liu ◽  
Qian Shen ◽  
Rong Wei ◽  

Gastric cancer is a deadly human malignancy and the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathophysiology are very complicated. Thus, further investigations are warranted to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms. With the development of high-throughput screening and bioinformatics, gene expression profiles with large scale have been performed in gastric cancer. In the present study, we mined The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and analyzed the gene expression profiles between gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric tissues. A series of differentially expressed lncRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs between gastric cancer tissues and normal gastric tissues were identified. Based on the differentially expressed genes, we constructed miRNA-mRNA network, lncRNA-mRNA network and transcriptional factors-mRNA-miRNA-lncRNA network. Furthermore, the Kaplan survival analysis showed that high expression levels of EVX1, GBX2, GCM1, HOXC8, HOXC9, HOXC10, HOXC11, HOXC12 and HOXC13 were all significantly correlated with shorter overall survival of the patients with gastric cancer. On the other hand, low expression level of HOXA13 was associated with shorter overall survival of patients with gastric cancer. Among these hub genes, we performed the in vitro functional studies of HOXC8 in the gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of HOXC8 and overexpression of miR-4256 both significantly repressed the gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration, and miR-4256 repressed the expression of HOXC8 via targeting its 3’ untranslated region in gastric cancer cells. Collectively, our results revealed that a complex interaction networks of differentially expressed genes in gastric cancer, and further functional studies indicated that miR-4256/HOXC8 may be an important axis in regulating gastric cancer progression.

2022 ◽  
Ruixia Bai ◽  
Wanying Song ◽  
Yan Cui ◽  
Haining Gao ◽  
Yuxing Zhao ◽  

Abstract ObjectiveTo explore the autophagy effect of ghrelin on the ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3. And the lncRNA which regulate the ghrelin effect SK-OV-3 autophagy was showed.Methodsthe expression of ghrelin in the ovarian cancer tissues was analyzed according GEPIA database and HPA database. The CCK-8 was used to detect the the optimal concentration of ghrelin effect on the SK-OV-3. The influence on the SK-OV-3 cell autophagy by ghrelin was showed by detecting the expression of Beclin-1, LC3Ⅰand LC3Ⅱusing western blot. Linc00598 selected as the effecting the SK-OV-3 cells autophagy by ghrelin using RNA-Seq. And the Linc00598 which was silenced or overexressed promote the SK-OV-3 cells autophagy treated by ghrelin though western blot.ResultsGhrelin was expressed low in the ovarian cancer tissues. Ghrelin concentratio of 600 ng/ml was the optimal concentration o and 24 h was the optimal time. Ghrelin can promote the SK-OV-3 cell autophagy. Ghrelin mainly through linc00598 to promote the SK-OV-3 cells autophagy. When the linc00598 silenced, ghrelin promote SK-OV-3 cells autophagy was inhibited. And When the linc00598 overexpressed, ghrelin promote SK-OV-3 cells autophagy was inhanced.ConclusionsGhrelin promote SK-OV-3 cells autophagy. Additionally, we proved that ghrelin regulated the progression of SK-OV-3 cells autophagy by linc00598/ Beclin1 axis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 789
Chiho Miyamaru ◽  
Mao Koide ◽  
Nana Kato ◽  
Shogo Matsubara ◽  
Masahiro Higuchi

We fabricated CaCO3-coated vesicles as drug carriers that release their cargo under a weakly acidic condition. We designed and synthesized a peptide lipid containing the Val-His-Val-Glu-Val-Ser sequence as the hydrophilic part, and with two palmitoyl groups at the N-terminal as the anchor groups of the lipid bilayer membrane. Vesicles embedded with the peptide lipids were prepared. The CaCO3 coating of the vesicle surface was performed by the mineralization induced by the embedded peptide lipid. The peptide lipid produced the mineral source, CO32−, for CaCO3 mineralization through the hydrolysis of urea. We investigated the structure of the obtained CaCO3-coated vesicles using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The vesicles retained the spherical shapes, even in vacuo. Furthermore, the vesicles had inner spaces that acted as the drug cargo, as observed by the TEM tomographic analysis. The thickness of the CaCO3 shell was estimated as ca. 20 nm. CaCO3-coated vesicles containing hydrophobic or hydrophilic drugs were prepared, and the drug release properties were examined under various pH conditions. The mineralized CaCO3 shell of the vesicle surface was dissolved under a weakly acidic condition, pH 6.0, such as in the neighborhood of cancer tissues. The degradation of the CaCO3 shell induced an effective release of the drugs. Such behavior suggests potential of the CaCO3-coated vesicles as carriers for cancer therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 69-77
E. M. Frantsiyants ◽  
T. I. Moiseenko ◽  
D. Yu. Yakubova ◽  
N. D. Cheryarina ◽  
A. P. Menshenina ◽  

Introduction. Recently, the he-4 protein has received great attention due to its diagnostic and prognostic abilities in epithelial ovarian cancer. In addition to its diagnostic value, this protein is involved in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Another significant pathogenetic factor is the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) which plays a key role in neoangiogenesis. The purpose of the study focused on the analysis of he-4 and vegf-a levels in tissues of ovarian cancer, in healthy contralateral ovaries and in common metastatic tumors in the omentum and peritoneum to determine the place and role of these tumor markers at the stages of carcinogenesis. Material and methods. The study was performed using the abovementioned tissues of 93 patients with t2-3nхm0-1 ovarian cancer. 51 patients underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy. 42 patients received initial neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant cytostatic therapy. Tissue samples from 17 patients with benign diseases were used as the control for determining the reference values for he-4 and vegf-a. A comparison was made between groups of patients with and without neoadjuvant therapy, as well as in groups of patients depending on the effectiveness of cytostatic treatment. Results. The levels of he-4 in primary and metastatic tissues affected and not affected by cancer were initially elevated in patients with ovarian cancer. The chemotherapy effectiveness directly correlated with the level of he-4 reduction, which did not change or increased in tumors resistant to medical treatment. The level of vegf-a significantly differed in cancer and non-cancer tissues, which indicated its significant pathogenetic effect not “before”, but at the stages of morphological malignization. The dynamics of vegf-a decrease in this study did not depend on the chemotherapy effect. Conclusion. The he-4 marker is a pathognomonic factor in the development of ovarian cancer, preceding morphological signs of malignancy and reflecting the effectiveness of chemotherapy, while vegf-a is most likely a consequence of the cancer development.

2022 ◽  
Xun Zhu ◽  
Xiaorong Liu ◽  
Yehui Zhou ◽  
Chenglin Qin

Abstract Background Worldwide, Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females. Endocrine therapy can effectively treat 85% of breast cancer patients, but 15% of patients could only be treated with chemotherapy and surgery, and the prognosis is much worse. Immunotherapy is the novel treatment for breast cancer that PD-1 and CTLA-4 antibodies have shown evidence of immune modulation in breast cancer drug trials. Methods and Result In this study, we report that TNFRSF9 regulates the cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis of breast cancer cells through regulating the phosphorylation of p38, thus further regulate the expression of PAX6. In both breast cancer tissues and cell lines, the levels of TNFRSF9 are significantly decreased, and breast cancer cell development will be promoted with knockdown of TNFRSF9. Moreover, we identify that downregulation of TNFRSF9 can upregulate the phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) and PAX6. We further elucidate that p-p38 is essential for PAX6 expression that p38 phosphorylation inhibitor can reverse the upregulation of PAX6 and suppress cell proliferation, invasion, and promote apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Conclusions In summary, this study proposed a novel TNFRSF9/p38/PAX6 axis that contributes to tumor suppression, which suggests a potential immunotherapy target for breast cancer.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261464
Ivan Vannini ◽  
Manuela Ferracin ◽  
Francesco Fabbri ◽  
Muller Fabbri

The expression of non–coding RNAs (ncRNAs) is dysregulated in human cancers. The transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) express long ncRNAs involved in human carcinogenesis. T-UCRs are non-coding genomic sequence that are 100% conserved across humans, rats and mice. Conservation of genomic sequences across species intrinsically implies an essential functional role and so we considered the expression of T-UCRs in lung cancer. Using a custom microarray we analyzed the global expression of T-UCRs. Among these T-UCRs, the greatest variation was observed for antisense ultraconserved element 83 (uc.83-), which was upregulated in human lung cancer tissues compared with adjacent non cancerous tissues. Even though uc.83- is located within the long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1876 (LINC01876) gene, we found that the transcribed uc.83- is expressed independently of LINC01876 and was cloned as a 1143-bp RNA gene. In this study, functional analysis confirmed important effects of uc.83- on genes involved in cell growth of human cells. siRNA against uc.83- decreased the growth of lung cancer cells while the upregulation through a vector overexpressing the uc.83- RNA increased cell proliferation. We also show the oncogenic function of uc.83- is mediated by the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK 1/2, two important biomarkers of lung cancer cell proliferation. Based on our findings, inhibition against uc.83- could be a future therapeutic treatment for NSCLC to achieve simultaneous blockade of pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Mattia Marinucci ◽  
Caner Ercan ◽  
Stephanie Taha-Mehlitz ◽  
Lana Fourie ◽  
Federica Panebianco ◽  

The use of patient-derived organoids (PDO) as a valuable alternative to in vivo models significantly increased over the last years in cancer research. The ability of PDOs to genetically resemble tumor heterogeneity makes them a powerful tool for personalized drug screening. Despite the extensive optimization of protocols for the generation of PDOs from colorectal tissue, there is still a lack of standardization of tissue handling prior to processing, leading to microbial contamination of the organoid culture. Here, using a cohort of 16 patients diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma (CRC), we aimed to test the efficacy of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), penicillin/streptomycin (P/S), and Primocin, alone or in combination, in preventing organoid cultures contamination when used in washing steps prior to tissue processing. Each CRC tissue was divided into 5 tissue pieces, and treated with each different washing solution, or none. After the washing steps, all samples were processed for organoid generation following the same standard protocol. We detected contamination in 62.5% of the non-washed samples, while the use of PBS or P/S-containing PBS reduced the contamination rate to 50% and 25%, respectively. Notably, none of the organoid cultures washed with PBS/Primocin-containing solution were contaminated. Interestingly, addition of P/S to the washing solution reduced the percentage of living cells compared to Primocin. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, prior to tissue processing, adding Primocin to the tissue washing solution is able to eliminate the risk of microbial contamination in PDO cultures, and that the use of P/S negatively impacts organoids growth. We believe that our easy-to-apply protocol might help increase the success rate of organoid generation from CRC patients.

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