case law
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2109 ◽  
pp. 5-17
Szymon Bondaruk

The article closely analyses the very first wrongful conception action brought before the Polish Supreme Court in 2003. The court recognized the case as a precedent. When justifying its verdict it largely referred to the foreign case law and doctrine. The judgment clearly distinguished between the sheer fact of a baby being born as a generally positive event and the possible liability of a medical professional in wrongful conception cases, which allows for such cases to be heard before Polish courts. The judgment also established the scope of possible compensation as all expenses related to the pregnancy and birth and the loss of income stemming from them. Furthermore, the court established the right to seek moral compensation as a part of wrongful conception action claims. The judgment served as a trailblazer for future wrongful conception and wrongful birth verdicts.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-58
Mohd Safri Mohammed Na’aim ◽  
Ramalinggam Rajamanickam ◽  
Rohaida Nordin

Background and Purpose: Under the criminal justice system, the burden lies on the prosecution to prove the guilt of the accused. It is worth noting that a criminal trial is not one-sided; it also allows the accused to raise his defence to prove his innocence. The research aims to analyse the right of the accused to raise a defence and when the defence should be raised in a criminal trial process in Malaysia.   Methodology: This research adopts a legal research approach involving a detailed analysis of the relevant legal provisions, case law and scholarly writing related to this area.   Findings: The research found that the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC) (Act 593) is silent as to when the defence should be raised. That being said, with reference to the Supreme Court’s case of Lin Lian Chen v. Public Prosecutor [1992] 1 CLJ 285 (Rep), the accused should introduce his defence at the earliest stage as possible. Failing this may give rise to the presumption that the defence raised was a mere invention. Although the principle has been regarded as a law in raising defence, there are still cases where the accused did not present the defence at an earlier stage.   Contributions: This research contributes to the corpus of legal knowledge of criminal defence, particularly on raising criminal defence in a criminal trial with the aim of providing better protection for the accused in the criminal justice system. Keywords: Criminal justice system, criminally liable, defence, right of the accused, & criminal trial.   Cite as: Mohammed Na’aim, M. S., Rajamanickam, R., & Nordin, R. (2022). The right of an accused to defence under the criminal justice system in Malaysia. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 43-58.

2022 ◽  
Gabriela Nemţoi ◽  

Private life it is essential is a right, along with other rights, shapes the human being, giving it value and identity. In this consensus, the legislator through the Romanian civil code sought to impose a series of deeds aimed at infringing on private life. Thus, the listed facts can be considered as violations of private life only subject to the presented of Civil Code (Romanian Civil Code, 2009). This means that the facts indicated in art. 74 of Civil Code they cannot be qualified under any circumstances as violations of private life, but only if they are not among the violations allowed by the international conventions and pacts ratified by Romania. More specifically, those acts do not attract civil liability (payment of compensation, etc.) if they have infringed the particular life allowed under the Convention and the jurisprudence of the ECHR. The private life must be protected and guaranteed by establishing and identifying actions that are prejudicial. The article is a study that in of regulations standards demonstrate violations of the right to life. Comparative development of ECHR case law pointed out that although there is a solid legislative framework, the right to life can be violated.

Tomás García-Micó

According to statistics, Amazon is one of the most-used online marketplaces worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing lockdowns to reduce the spread of the virus have shown how critical online marketplaces are to enable e-commerce and keep commercial transactions alive, especially in such times when regular commerce is disrupted. However, when we buy online, we have no chance of examining whether the product works or whether it is defective. If something goes wrong when we buy a product from a third-party seller through Amazon, as consumers, we then face the challenge of trying to file a claim for the damages that might have arisen due to the defectiveness of the product. This article explores Amazon’s position in this scenario, with reference to the case law from both US and EU courts and regulations, not solely from the point of view of Product Liability Law, but also according to the E-Commerce Directive liability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (33) ◽  
pp. 103
Elena Evgenyevna Guliaeva

Objective:The author seeks to understand the content and legal guarantees of the right to sustainable, healthy and favorable environment in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. The researcher seeks to list the case law of the ECtHR corresponding to environmental issues in order to define concrete aspects related to responsibility of the States for the climate change and global warming. The author analyzes new legal trends on the protection of the rights of individuals and groups to complain for violations of their rights to a healthy and favorable environment in the light of the European Convention on Human Rights. The article is focused on positive state obligations on a healthy and sustainable environment under the Convention provisions, Russian experience in eco-cases, admissibility criteria for complaints to the European Court of Human Rights in “environmental cases”. The writer gives an overview of the ECtHR’s legal positions on the right to a healthy and favorable (i.e. prosperous, clean, safe, quiet, calm, quality) environment by type of its pollution. The author considers the importance of facilitating the right to healthy environment according to the UN Sustainable Development Goals.Methodology: The research uses general scientific and special cognitive techniques wherein legal analysis and synthesis, systemic, formal-legal, comparative-legal, historical-legal and dialectical methods are applied. The author applied a case study method to select the most recent and pilot cases of the ECtHR practice.Results: The author founds out that despite the fact of a non-exhaustive list of the legal positions of the ECtHR concerning the environment effect on human life and health, there is a certain trend in Council of Europe towards an extended interpretation of the human right to healthy ecological situation responding to new challenges to the realization that right, such as, the decarbonization of industrial processes, right to light, right to fresh air, clean water and clean atmosphere, etc. The study concludes with an idea that right to sustainable, healthy and favorable right is a collective right. From the practical perspective, potentially group of individuals should complain to the international judicial institutions to the violation of this right. The importance of the protection of that right is increasing within the technological progress. The right to healthy environment imposes to the European States a legal obligation to ensure right to life, prohibition of torture, right to privacy, right to a fair trial, right to an effective remedy and prohibition of discrimination. The researcher also point out that cases of environmental rights violations are complicated in terms of preparing a complaint and processing by the ECtHR. Due to this fact, it is hard to do so with regard to the causal link between the acts (omission) of state agencies, the violation of environmental rights and the consequences that occurred. It is not clear from the text of the Convention which article directly should be applied.Contributions: Following a review of the content, the author raised possible problems, strategies, suggestions and guidelines for the protection of the right to sustainable and healthy environment. The author concluded that near future new categories of legal cases related to the state responsibility for global warming and climate change will appear in international and national judicial system. The author encourages the complement to the international legal regulation of the protection of the right to healthy, sustainable and favorable ecology on universal and regional level.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 28
Suhaila Abdullah ◽  
Sareen Kaur Bhar

Background: A text of different genre might pose a different problem to students and different genre requires different approach in understanding and comprehending it. Developing the expertise in reading legal texts at an early stage of learning will be very beneficial to the students of law.  This study examines the level of pre-university/foundation in law students’ awareness for the case law genre, and the aim of this study is to investigate the extent of awareness of the case law genre among the foundation in law students.  Methods: Five students who were pursuing their study in the foundation/pre-university level were selected as the subjects in this study.  Qualitative data were obtained through the think-aloud procedure and questionnaire which was administered after the think-aloud procedure. The transcription of each student’s verbal reports was scrutinised for evidence of genre awareness while the answers given in the questionnaire were used to support the findings of the study.  Genre analysis of 4-Move structure was used to identify the students’ level of awareness. Results: The findings indicate that the students were aware of the case law genre. However, they displayed a mixed-level of awareness. Conclusion: It is hoped that this study can provide some insights into the reading behaviour of law students especially when reading case law. Knowing and understanding the case law structure is integral for law students, and analysing students understanding of reading case law can help both the students and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) educators.

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