Background and Purpose: Efforts in bringing about changes to fishers' lives are often met with obstacles due to their lack of participation in empowerment programmes as well as their excessive reliance on external assistance. However, such situations are said to be the results of their level of education and work experience. This paper also examines the relationship between work experience with empowerment and formal education as a control variable to the relationship. Therefore, this paper aims to observe the reality of empowerment among fishing communities from the lens of participation and self-reliance among fishers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Concurrently, this study also reviews the theme mentioned above from the lens of formal education and work experience and their impacts on the fishing community empowerment.
Methodology: This study used a survey design and involved 220 coastal fishers, who were identified through multi-stage sampling. Data were gathered using a questionnaire, and data analysis was done through descriptive statistics and the Analysis of Variance Test (ANCOVA).
Findings: The empowerment of the fishing community in this study is not influenced by the number of years they have spent as fishers. On the other hand, their level of education plays a pertinent influence on their empowerment. Such a finding clearly shows that experience is not only a major factor in increasing the empowerment of the fishing community.
Contributions: This study contributes to our understanding that it is undeniably true that formal and informal education play an integral role in empowering the fishing community, where through education, fishers are more participative in their community and exhibit autonomy towards their work.
Keywords: Fishers, empowerment, formal education, experience, community development
Cite as: Tuan Sembok, T. M. Z., & Wan Ismail, W. A. A. Z. (2022). Formal education, work experience and empowerment of the fishing community in Terengganu, Malaysia. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 366-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp366-389
Background and Purpose: Commensality is an act of eating together among migrant communities as a means of passing down the culture and ethnic identity. There is very limited discussion on commensality that pays attention to food sharing and eating that extends beyond the traditional forms of social relationships, identity, and space among the Malay community abroad. Thus, this article aims to explore the connections of social relationships through food, space and identity amongst female Malay students in the United Kingdom.
Methodology: This research is based on one-year ethnographic fieldwork amongst female Malaysian Muslim students in Manchester and Cardiff. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with both undergraduate and postgraduate students from sciences and social sciences courses. Besides, in-depth interviews, participant observation, conversation and fieldnotes methods were deployed as supplementary for data collection.
Findings: This paper argues that cooking and eating together in a private space is a way for them to maintain social relationships and overcome stress in their studies, and fulfil their desire to create harmony and trust at home. Besides, places such as the kitchen, play an essential space in building the Malay identity and social relationships between female Malay students’ communities in the host country.
Contributions: This study has contributed to an understanding of the meaning of friendship, identity, space, and the discussion on the anthropology of food from international students’ perspectives and migration studies.
Keywords: Food and identity, commensality, Malay students, friendship, international students.
Cite as: Ibnu, I. N. (2022). The taste of home: The construction of social relationships through commensality amongst female Malay students in the United Kingdom. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 316-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp316-334
Background and Purpose: Education at higher institutions prepares graduates for the real world. To develop and maintain quality, the focus must not only be on what institutions can offer but also on the learning needs and styles of learners. Despite many studies on engineering learners’ learning styles, limited research has been conducted to compare the learning styles of Engineering and Engineering Education learners. This study was conducted to ascertain the learning style preferences of first-year undergraduates from both groups in a science and technology-driven university in Malaysia.
Methodology: This descriptive study consisted of 40 Engineering and 40 Engineering Education learners who attended an English language course at the university. Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire was adopted as the survey instrument. The data were analysed using self-scoring sheet and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.
Findings: While both groups chose Kinaesthetic as a major learning style preference, the Engineering Education learners also chose Group, Tactile, and Auditory learning styles as their other major preferences. Both groups chose Visual and Individual as their minor preferences.
Contributions: The findings extend research demonstrating the significant role of specific disciplines in Engineering to determine the learning style preferences of learners. The findings also provide useful insights that suggest implications for practice and policy.
Keywords: Engineering, engineering education, English language, learning styles, teaching and learning.
Cite as: Ismail, N. N. A., Abdullah, T., & Abdul Raof, A. H. (2022). Insights into learning styles preference of engineering undergraduates: Implications for teaching and learning. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1) 390-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp390-409
Background and Purpose: Pinyin is required in learning Mandarin. The challenge of Romanised Pinyin is that learners must decipher the meaning of words based on the change of tone. Communication research is often conducted without accounting for the effects of the change of tone in learning a language. With the aim of avoiding miscommunication while strengthening awareness, Campus Buddies Programme was employed to provide tone practice for learners and consequently explores the effectiveness of the intervention.
Methodology: This quantitative classroom-based research gathered information through the administration of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to 32 Mandarin Level 1 learners identified through purposive sampling. The students studied five topics from the syllabus. A total of 10 native speakers who scored A in Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) mentored the learners during the programme. The participants were instructed to answer both pre- and post-tests. Part A consists of demographic details, whereas Part B focuses on the effectiveness of questions and Part C consists of 30 questions of content learned by the respondents. The data were then analysed using SPSS 26 software.
Findings: The respondents demonstrated a positive response towards the programme and suggested further improvement ideas such as prolonging the training session and adding more topics and oral activities. The results implicated the programme as a motivator for oral fluency. Many non-native speakers can benefit from conversation with Mandarin native speakers because it is a strong indicator and sound oral mastery strategy.
Contributions: This research provides insights into the effectiveness of the current programme in motivating students’ oral learning. The outcome is essential in determining the Mandarin conversation strategy. More studies adopting different variables are proposed to explore correlations from different perspectives in order to improve students’ oral learning.
Keywords: Tonal pronunciation, native speakers, non-native speakers, foreign language instruction, Mandarin conversation.
Cite as: Chua, N. A., Soon, G. Y., Ibrahim, M. Y., Che Noh, C. H., Mansor, N. R., Embong Eusoff, A. M., Abdul Rashid, R., & Shen, M. (2022). The Mandarin oral mastery programme as perceived by non-native learners. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp1-23
Background and Purpose: The absence of psychogeographical awareness is a critical factor contributing to the lackadaisical attitudes towards the place and its environment. As a result, it enables an individual to fully experience a location, both physically and intellectually, while also gaining a feeling of self-discovery and self-realisation.
Methodology: The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of a group of individuals who participated in a field observation. 40 participants from a Malaysian university's foundation level were brought to Malacca to experience the environment's geographical scenery at their own leisure. The survey data was then manually transcribed and analysed in accordance with the study's aim.
Findings: Interactions with individuals and observation of features in the countryside and urban surroundings enabled participants to go on a psychogeographical journey that influenced their way of thinking and behaving. All participants felt that the journey had influenced their experiences and perspectives on their thinking and behaviour, highlighting the critical role of this notion in establishing the connection between place and self.
Contributions: The findings of this study provide a solid foundation for future research in the field of psychogeography. The data may be used as a baseline for future studies to determine whether a comparable impact exists in other locations, with or without significant features like those found in Malacca.
Keywords: Psychogeography, place attachment, place meaning, self-discovery, Malacca.
Cite as: Khaidzir, M. F. S., Hashim, R. S., & Md. Yusof, N. (2022). Psychogeographical experience between the self and the place. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 243-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp243-263
Background and Purpose: Under the criminal justice system, the burden lies on the prosecution to prove the guilt of the accused. It is worth noting that a criminal trial is not one-sided; it also allows the accused to raise his defence to prove his innocence. The research aims to analyse the right of the accused to raise a defence and when the defence should be raised in a criminal trial process in Malaysia.
Methodology: This research adopts a legal research approach involving a detailed analysis of the relevant legal provisions, case law and scholarly writing related to this area.
Findings: The research found that the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC) (Act 593) is silent as to when the defence should be raised. That being said, with reference to the Supreme Court’s case of Lin Lian Chen v. Public Prosecutor  1 CLJ 285 (Rep), the accused should introduce his defence at the earliest stage as possible. Failing this may give rise to the presumption that the defence raised was a mere invention. Although the principle has been regarded as a law in raising defence, there are still cases where the accused did not present the defence at an earlier stage.
Contributions: This research contributes to the corpus of legal knowledge of criminal defence, particularly on raising criminal defence in a criminal trial with the aim of providing better protection for the accused in the criminal justice system.
Keywords: Criminal justice system, criminally liable, defence, right of the accused, & criminal trial.
Cite as: Mohammed Na’aim, M. S., Rajamanickam, R., & Nordin, R. (2022). The right of an accused to defence under the criminal justice system in Malaysia. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 43-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp43-58
Background and Purpose: Teaching at indigenous schools located in rural and outskirt areas is no small feat. Therefore, the teachers at these schools require a consistent and supportive school climate to enhance teacher well-being. As such, this study examines the relationship between the dimensions of school climate and well-being of teachers. It also discusses the application of five dimensions of school climate, namely collaboration, student relations, school resources, decision-making, and instructional innovation.
Methodology: Data for this quantitative study was gathered via a set of questionnaires. A total of 291 teachers from indigenous schools along the east coast states of Peninsular Malaysia, which are Kelantan, Terengganu, and Pahang participated in this study. A descriptive analysis of the findings was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), while an inferential analysis was conducted using PLS-SEM.
Findings: The empirical results show a significantly positive correlation between the five previously mentioned dimensions of school climate and teacher well-being.
Contributions: The findings of this study affirm the relative importance of school climate and its impact on teacher well-being. This study is significant for the Ministry of Education, indigenous school administrators, teachers, as well as policymakers in developing suitable strategies to improve the school climate and teacher well-being in Malaysian indigenous schools.
Keywords: Teacher well-being, collaboration, student relations, school resources, decision-making, instructional innovation.
Cite as: Kamarudin, N. A., Ahmad, A., Abdul Halim, A. S., Abdullah, R., & Kamalrulzaman, N. I. (2022). The correlation between school climate dimensions and teacher well-being in Malaysian indigenous schools. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 292-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp292-315
The main objective of this article is to describe the logical reasons why a Centralized Shariah Governance Framework (CSGF) provided by the Central Bank of Bangladesh (Bangladesh Bank) is essential for the country’s Islamic banks. In doing so, it identifies the major regulatory challenges (self-developed and disparate use of Shariah Governance (SG) practices) faced by Islamic banks in Bangladesh. It considers an analytical approach to explore the significance of a CSGF for Islamic banks in Bangladesh and examines the current diversified procedures of SG practices. This article reveals that the self-developed SG practices of Islamic banks in Bangladesh have created confusion and pessimism among the practitioners, bankers and even to the general people and regulators which is negatively affecting the overall image of Islamic banks. Such incongruent governance practices have led to inconsistencies in SG structures, implementation procedures, monitoring activities. In addition, this article reveals that these deficiencies usually exist due to weak monitoring systems of the Central Bank, ineffective functioning of individual Shariah Supervisory Boards (SSB) and the absence of comprehensive SGF. The article argues that the Central Bank of Bangladesh should initiate to reform its Islamic banking industry by introducing a CSGF aimed to identify the roles, responsibilities, powers, and functions of SSB; thereby improving governance, accountability, and overall Shariah compliance quality. This article is hoped to be beneficial for the regulators and practitioners to consider revising current practices.
Keywords: Centralization, Bangladesh Bank, Islamic banks, Shariah governance framework.
Cite as: Alam, M. K., & Thakur, O. A. (2022). Why does Bangladesh require a centralized Shariah governance framework for Islamic banks? Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 24-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp24-42
Background and purposes: Alternative tourism activities are becoming more important for the future of Northern Cyprus. In this context, faith tourism, which has gained popularity in recent years, has special importance for Northern Cyprus, a country with essential structures of different religions. In this paper, the importance of faith tourism, which supposedly contributes to the tourism of Northern Cyprus, is revealed through the public's perspectives.
Methodology: Data was collected through the questionnaire distributed to 60 respondents. The questionnaire consists of two sections; the first section includes two questions on the socio-demographic characteristics and the second section consists of 10 multiple choice questions to determine the opinions and expectations of people living in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on faith tourism.
Findings: It is found that the Muslim people living in Northern Cyprus have a positive view towards faith tourism, and they have general information about the sites. In addition, they are tolerant of this form of tourism.
Contribution: This study is significant in terms of showing the potential of faith tourism in the Northern Cyprus. In this article, a number of suggestions have been presented on how this type of tourism can be developed, especially by taking the opinions and expectations of the people.
Keywords: Tourism, faith tourism, Northern Cyprus, island, religion, Islam.
Cite as: Gökbulut, B., & Yeniasır, M. (2022). Views and expectations of Muslims living in northern Cyprus regarding faith tourism. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 59-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp59-78
Background and Purpose: The Integrated Reporting framework as emphasised by The International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) in 2013 (revised 2021), was accepted as one of the mechanisms nationwide to enhance public accountability. However, far fewer studies examined the intersection of the Integrated Reporting (IR) framework and the public sector. Addressing the gap, reviews of the literature were presented synthesising the adoption of the IR framework across public administration.
Methodology: By drawing upon SCOPUS, Science Direct and Mendeley databases were employed to generate academic literature beginning in 2011 through 2020. Following the inclusion and exclusion processes, 23 articles were selected and analysed by using ATLAS.ti 8.
Findings: The findings of the review were discussed qualitatively and quantitatively. Particular discerning were the qualitative findings; the findings outlined insights into key developments on the IR framework across the following groups, namely, ‘Fundamental Concepts’, ‘Guiding Principles’, and ‘Content Elements’. Key aspects of challenges concerning the adoption of existing frameworks in public administration were discussed.
Contributions: Future research might better consider developing a more appropriate IR framework for public administration, a framework that integrates policy and practice. By focusing on the academic literature emphasising the IR framework, academics, regulators, and reporting organisations could formulate appropriate strategies for public administration.
Keywords: Framework, integrated reporting, public sector, thematic review.
Cite as: Othman, M., Basnan, N., Ahmad, A., & Md Salleh, M. F. (2022). The integrated reporting framework across public administration: A thematic review. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 410-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp410-440