BackgroundSince 2011 Italy has faced an extraordinary increase in migrants arrivals, mainly from the Mediterranean route, one of the world’s most dangerous journeys. The purpose of the present article is to provide a comprehensive picture of the migrants' health status in the centre "T.Fenoglio", Settimo Torinese (Turin, Italy).MethodsA retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using data collected from June 2016 to May 2018 on adult migrants (>18 years) from Africa, East and Middle East. Data was collected through the migrants' medical records. Descriptive statistics were performed on socio-demographic variables. The diagnosed diseases were anonymously registered and classified according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2).Conditional Inference Trees were used to perform a descriptive analysis of the sample and to detect the covariates with the strongest association with the outcome variables Disease on Arrival and ICPC-2 for diseases on arrival.ResultsAnalyzed observations were 9857. 81.8% were men, median age was 23 (Interquartile range= 20.0-27.4). 70.3% of the sample came from Sub-Saharan Africa. 2365 individuals (24%) arrived at the center with at least one disease. On arrival, skin (27.71%), respiratory (14.46%), digestive (14.73%) and generic diseases (20.88%) were the most frequent. During the stay respiratory diseases were the most common (25.70%). The highest probability of arriving with a disease occurred in 2018 and in the period September-November 2016, in particular for people from the Horn of Africa. During this period and also in the first half of 2017, skin diseases were the most reported. In quarters with lower prevalence of diseases on arrival the most common disease code was generic for both men and women.ConclusionsHorn of Africa was the most troubled area with severe conditions frequently reported regarding skin diseases, in particular scabies. 2018 was the most critical year, especially for migrants from Horn of Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa. A better understanding of the health status of asylum seekers is an important factor to determine a more efficient reception and integration process and the better allocation of economic resources in the context of migrants' health care.
In the article the authors consider elite dimension of the conflict in Tigray. Conducting the analysis of intra-elite processes allows both to find out the roots and to estimate the consequences of the most fast-moving conflict in the Horn of Africa. The research consists of five conceptual parts, which are preluded by a short description of the run of events. In the first part the conflict potential which takes its roots in 1994-2018 is explained. It starts with the basic notion that ethnic lines predetermine formation of elites in Ethiopia. Then the study shows that one of the main causes for the dispute which has severely divided political elites was the hegemony of the TPLF in government institutions. The second part refers to the transit of power. Here the point under consideration is redistribution of resources and particular strategies adopted by polarized elites. The analysis demonstrates that Abiy Ahmed and his allies did their best to deprive the TPLF leaders of power and economic resources. The TPLF resorted to ethnic mobilization while their rivals tried to break the unity of Tigrayans through stressing the existence of a class conflict. The third and the fourth chapters focus on the investigation of federal elites’ and «tigrayan clan’s» current positions respectively. In conclusion, the authors structure their findings and estimate the perspectives of inter-elites consensus. The research provides three important conclusions. Firstly, the roots of the conflict led to the formation of «action-response» cycles which was the basis for a rapid development and escalation. Secondly, the ongoing war even consolidates ruling elites in their fear of the TPLF. Finally, de-escalation and negotiations may become possible amid internal disputes in the Prosperity Party.
Fisheries conflict is an underappreciated threat to the stability and health of communities. Declining fish populations, rising demand for seafood, and efforts to reduce illegal fishing are increasing the risk that conflict over fisheries resources will undermine stability and peace. Here, we investigate the frequency, causes, and consequences of fisheries conflict in six countries around the Horn of Africa and East Africa (Tanzania, Kenya, Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen) between 1990 and 2017. Fisheries conflict events were cataloged from news reports, and events were characterized by the date, location, actors, consequences, and drivers of the conflict. We found the rate of fisheries conflict is gradually increasing in the region, with spikes in conflict driven by the arrival of foreign fishing boats or international naval vessels. Conflict was caused primarily by illegal fishing, foreign fishing, weak governance, limits on access to fishing grounds, and criminal activities including piracy. Two-thirds of all conflict events occurred in Kenyan and Somali waters, with areas of high conflict intensity in the Lake Victoria region, near the Somali coastline, and in the southern Red Sea. During this period, 684 fisheries conflict events in the region resulted in over 400 fatalities, nearly 500 injuries, and over 4,000 arrests.
Basic rainfall characteristics and drought over the Horn of Africa (HoA) is investigated, from 1901 to 2010. Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to study drought variability, mainly focusing on 3-month SPI. The dominant mode of variability of seasonal rainfall was analyzed by performing Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis. Gridded data is sourced from Climate Research Unit (CRU), spanning from 1901 to 2010. The HoA experiences predominantly bimodal rainfall distribution in time; March to May (MAM) and October to December (OND). The spatial component of the first eigenvector (EOF1) shows that the MAM and OND seasonal rainfalls are dominated by negative and positive loadings, respectively. The EOF1 explain 34.5% and 58.9% variance of MAM and OND seasonal rainfall, respectively. The EOF2, 3 and 4 are predominantly positive, explaining less than 25% in total of the seasonal rainfall variance in the two seasons. The last two decades experienced the highest negative anomaly, with OND seasonal rainfall showing higher anomalies as compared to MAM season. The OND season recorded 9% more drought events as compared to MAM season. The frequency of occurrence of moderate, severe and extreme dryness was almost the same in the two seasons. These results give a good basis for regional model validation, as well as mapping out drought hotspots and projections studies in the HoA.