degradation study
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2022 ◽  
Manar M. Elhassan ◽  
Amr M. Mahmoud ◽  
Maha A. Hegazy ◽  
Shereen Mowaka

Abstract A systematic DoE and Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) approach was utilized for the development and validation of a novel stability indicating high-performance thin–layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for Rivaroxaban (RBN) estimation in bulk and marketed formulation. A D-optimal design was used to screen the effect of solvents, volume of solvents, time from spotting to development and time for development to scanning. ANOVA results and Pareto chart revealed that toluene, methanol, water and saturation time had an impact on retention time. The critical method and material attributes were further screened by Box-Behnken design (BBD) to achieve optimal chromatographic condition. A stress degradation study was carried out and structure of major alkaline degradant was elaborated. According to the design space, a control strategy was used with toluene: methanol: water (6:2:2) and the saturation time was 15 min. A retention factor (RF) of 0.59 ± 0.05 was achieved for RBN using chromatographic plate precoated with silica gel at detection wavelength 282 nm with optimized conditions. The linear calibration curve was achieved in the concentration range of 200–1,200 ng/band with r 2 > 0.998 suggesting good coordination between analyte concentration and peak areas. The quadratic model was demonstrated as the best fit model and no interaction was noted between CMAs. The optimized HPTLC method was validated critically as stated in International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2 (R1) guideline and implemented successfully for stress degradation study of RBN. The developed HPTLC method obtained through AQbD application was potentially able to resolve all degradants of RBN achieved through forced degradation study. The obtained results demonstrate that a scientific AQbD approach implementation in HPTLC method development and stress degradation study drastically minimizes the number of trials in experiments, ultimately time and cost of analysis could be minimized.

2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (4) ◽  
pp. 57-68
V.G. Kamani ◽  
M. Sujatha ◽  
G.B. Daddala ◽  

This study reports for the first time about a stability indicating RP-HPLC method for analysis of darolutamide and its impurities 1, 2, and 3 in bulk and formulations. The separation was achieved on Phenomenex column with Luna C18 (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) as stationary phase, and 50 mM ammonium acetate: methanol solution 15:80 (v/v) at pH 5.2 as mobile phase at 1.0 mL/min flow rate. UV detection was carried at wavelength of 239 nm. In these conditions the retention time of darolutamide and its impurities 1, 2, and 3 was 7.05, 8.90, 4.63 and 5.95 min, respectively. The method was validated for system suitability, range of analysis, precision, specificity, stability, and robustness. Forced degradation study was done through exposure of the analyte to five different stress conditions and the % degradation was small in all degradation condition. The proposed method can separate and estimate the drug and its impurities in pharmaceutical formulations. Hence, the developed method was suitable for the quantification of darolutamide and can separate and analyse impurities 1, 2, and 3

Chandni Chandarana ◽  
Pankaj Kapupara ◽  
Parixit Prajapati

Aims: To study force degradation of aspirin and omeprazole simultaneously by RP-HPLC method Study design: RP-HPLC method was used to measure % degradation. Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at center of excellence, G.I.D.C., vapi-396195, Gujarat, India between June 2019 to march 2020. Methodology: A force degradation study of aspirin and omeprazole was carried out simultaneously. The drugs were subjected to various degradation conditions like hydrolysis by acid and base, Oxidative degradation, and thermal degradation study. Results: For acidic condition, the degradation was found to be 32.63 % for aspirin and 61.64 % for omeprazole. For basic condition, the degradation was found to be 10.17 % for aspirin and 4.29 % for omeprazole. By oxidative hydrolysis, the aspirin was degraded by 15.48 % and omeprazole was degraded by 26.38 %. By thermal degradation, 0.37 % degradation was observed for aspirin and 4.32 % degradation for omeprazole. Conclusion: In this proposed method the retention time for drug is less than 8 min, which is less then available method. For omeprazole, strong degradation was observed in acidic conditions and mild in basic hydrolysis conditions. For aspirin, more degradation was observed in basic conditions than acidic hydrolysis. Both drugs were degraded in oxidative conditions using 3% H2O2. Omeprazole degraded more than aspirin by dry heat degradation. The method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of both Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

Ali Bahadur ◽  
Shahid Iqbal ◽  
Hashem O. Alsaab ◽  
Nasser S. Awwad ◽  
Hala A. Ibrahium

Optik ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 168452
F. Kabir ◽  
M.M.H. Bhuiyan ◽  
M.R. Hossain ◽  
M.S. Manir ◽  
M.S. Rahaman ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 88 (6) ◽  
pp. 982-992
N. Rajendraprasad

Three simple, economic, selective and accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed for determination of enrofloxacin (EFX) in pharmaceuticals. Method A is based on the measurement of absorbance of EFX in 0.1M HOAc at 315 nm. The ketoxime formation reaction has been employed in method B, in which the absorbance measurement of EFX oxime product at 275 nm is described. The third method (Method C) is indirect one and is based on the oxidation of EFX by cerium(IV), reaction of unreacted cerium(IV) with p-toludine (p-TD) and measurement of coloured solution at 540 nm. The Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration ranges of 1.2–24, 1–8, and 1–20 μg/mL EFX in methods A, B, and C, respectively, with the corresponding molar extinction coefficients of 1.52×104, 3.86×104, and 6.6×103 L/mol/cm. The regression coefficients of calibration lines are 0.9996, 0.9913, and –0.9965, in methods A, B, and C, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) have also been reported for each method. The methods have been validated to check accuracy, precision, robustness and ruggedness. The application of the methods proposed to determine EFX in tablets has been described and the results have been compared with a standard method. The results of validation and application have been found to be with excellent agreement. The standard addition procedure has been adopted in recovery experiments to further ascertain the accuracy of the methods and the results of the experiments are well satisfied. The stability indicating ability of Method A has been studied by subjecting EFX to acid and alkaline hydrolysis, oxidative, thermal and UV degradation followed by measurement of absorbance of resultant EFX solutions at 315 nm. The results of degradation study indicated unsusceptible nature of EFX to any of the stress conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 12849
Vasile Staicu ◽  
Cristina Luntraru ◽  
Ioan Calinescu ◽  
Ciprian Gabriel Chisega-Negrila ◽  
Mircea Vinatoru ◽  

In this study, we present a strategy for valorizing lignocellulosic wastes (licorice root and willow bark) that result from industrial extraction of active principles using water as green solvent and aqueous NaOH solution. The wastes were submitted to severe ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) treatments. The aim of these treatments was to extract the remaining active principles (using water as a solvent) or to prepare them for cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis to hexoses (performed in an NaOH aqueous solution). The content of glycyrrhizic acid and salicin derivatives in licorice root and willow bark wastes, respectively, were determined. The best results for licorice root were achieved by applying the US treatment for 5 min at 25 °C (26.6 mg glycyrrhizic acid/gDM); while, for willow bark, the best results were achieved by applying the MW treatment for 30 min at 120 °C (19.48 mg salicin/gDM). A degradation study of the targeted compounds was also performed and showed good stability of glycyrrhizic acid and salicin derivatives under US and MW treatments. The soluble lignin concentration prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as the saccharide concentration of the hydrolyzed solution, were determined. As compared with the MW treatment, the US treatment resulted in saccharides concentrations that were 5% and 160% higher for licorice root and willow bark, respectively.

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