stress degradation
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Abstract A systematic DoE and Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) approach was utilized for the development and validation of a novel stability indicating high-performance thin–layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for Rivaroxaban (RBN) estimation in bulk and marketed formulation. A D-optimal design was used to screen the effect of solvents, volume of solvents, time from spotting to development and time for development to scanning. ANOVA results and Pareto chart revealed that toluene, methanol, water and saturation time had an impact on retention time. The critical method and material attributes were further screened by Box-Behnken design (BBD) to achieve optimal chromatographic condition. A stress degradation study was carried out and structure of major alkaline degradant was elaborated. According to the design space, a control strategy was used with toluene: methanol: water (6:2:2) and the saturation time was 15 min. A retention factor (RF) of 0.59 ± 0.05 was achieved for RBN using chromatographic plate precoated with silica gel at detection wavelength 282 nm with optimized conditions. The linear calibration curve was achieved in the concentration range of 200–1,200 ng/band with r 2 > 0.998 suggesting good coordination between analyte concentration and peak areas. The quadratic model was demonstrated as the best fit model and no interaction was noted between CMAs. The optimized HPTLC method was validated critically as stated in International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2 (R1) guideline and implemented successfully for stress degradation study of RBN. The developed HPTLC method obtained through AQbD application was potentially able to resolve all degradants of RBN achieved through forced degradation study. The obtained results demonstrate that a scientific AQbD approach implementation in HPTLC method development and stress degradation study drastically minimizes the number of trials in experiments, ultimately time and cost of analysis could be minimized.


Objective: This method is focused on developing a precisely simplified and more accurate Reverse Phase–High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of Dapagliflozin in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form as per guidelines of International Council for Harmonization (ICH). Methods: Evaluation and validation carried out using the RP-HPLC ZORBAX (C18) column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) with a mobile phase consisting of Phosphate Buffer: Acetonitrile: Methanol in a ratio of 55:40:05 (v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min with an injection volume of 10 μl. Results: Dapagliflozin was eluted at 2.12±0.05 min and detected at 225 nm. The regression equation y = 55762 x-29679 found to be linear with correlation coefficient r2 value of 0.9997. The developed RP-HPLC method was conveniently validated as per the ICH guidelines and found method was robust, sensitive, accurate, selective, specific, precise and linear. Conclusion: The proposed method was found to be accurate, precise, and robust for API and pharmaceutical dosage form as per experimentation analysis. The above developed method was found to be satisfied for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) and pharmaceutical formulation of Dapagliflozin to study its degradation products.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Anuradha Vejendla ◽  
Subrahmanyam Talari ◽  
G. Ramu ◽  
Ch Rajani

Abstract Background A receptive and easily comprehended technique was evolved for simultaneous assessment of Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe and its impurities characterized by UPLC–MS/MS. Results This technique involves chromatographic separation with a C18 column of water symmetry (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 µm). A mobile phase of 0.1% OPA (orthophosphoric acid) and acetonitrile in 50:50 v/v with 1 mL/min flow rate and ambient temperature was used. UV observation was taken at 230 nm. The recoveries, linearity, and quantification limits were found to be within the acceptable limit. Conclusions This technique was successfully tested with UPLC–MS to confirm the chemical structures of newly formed degradation products of Bempedoic acid and Ezetimibe and stress studies as per ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines.

A. S. Sutar ◽  
C. S. Magdum

Design of Experiment assisted stability indicating RP-HPLC wasdesigned, developed and optimized using response surface methodology for simultaneous determination of Montelukast sodium and Rupatadine fumarate. Separation was achieved using Acetonitrile: Phosphate buffer (75:25) v/v with pH adjusted to 4.0, flow rate of 1 ml/min with UV detection at 246 nm on RP-C18 column. Stress degradation studies were performed as per scientific guidelines. Method was validated in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results obtained in validation were found to be within specified limit. Montelukast was eluted at 3.99 min and Rupatadine was eluted at 13.25 min respectively. All stress degradation products are very well resolved from drug peak which indicate suitability indicating nature of the developed method. Design of Experiment technique can help in fast and economical optimization of mobile phase which in turn will save time for method development. The developed method is, accurate, sensitive which can be utilized as stability indicating method for identification of degradation products in routine analysis of the drug.

Vivek Dhiman ◽  
Saranjit Singh ◽  
Ankit Balhara ◽  
Bhoopendra Singh Kushwah ◽  
Laximan Velip ◽  

Sai Gnaneswari Aluri ◽  
Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna

Gefitinib is an anticancer drug used for the treatment of lung cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. A new stability indicating RP-HPLC method was proposed for the estimation of Gefitinib in pharmaceutical dosage forms (tablets). Shimadzu Model CBM-20A/20 Alite HPLC system with PDA detector and Agilent C18 column were used for the chromatographic study. Mobile phase mixture consisting of Tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate and Methanol in the ratio 50:50, v/v with a flow rate 0.8 mL/min was chosen for the chromatographic elution of Gefitinib (Detection wavelength 340 nm). The method was linear over the concentration range 0.1-80 mg/mL with linear regression equation, y = 70782x + 6171.6 (R² = 0.9999). The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.2931 mg/mL and 0.8947 mg/mL respectively. Stress degradation studies were performed by exposing Gefitinib to various stress conditions and the method was validated as per ICH guidelines.

2021 ◽  
Vol 58 (08) ◽  
pp. 75-78
B. S. Venkateswarlu ◽  
Prudhvi N. Sai ◽  

A simple, specific, accurate and stable reverse phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ticlopidine and its related impurities A and B in bulk drug and tablet dosage forms. The analysis has been performed on XTerra C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm; 5 µ id) and mobile phase containing of methanol and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer in the ratio of 80:20 (V/V). The detection was carried at 228 nm with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times were found to be 8.9, 5.98 and 4.62 min for ticlopidine, impurities A and B, respectively. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The method was validated for specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy and robustness. The linearity range of 50-200 µg/mL for ticlopidine and 0.5-2.0 µg/mL for impurity A and B. The recoveries of ticlopidine and impurities were found to be within the range of 98-102 and the % RSD in each spiked level was found to be less than 2. The stress degradation studies confirmed that the method was effectively separate the degradation products and impurities formed in the stress studies and hence the method was found to be stability indicating method. The method can effectively quantify the standard drug ticlopidine and its impurities A and B in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulations.

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