Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International
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Published By Sciencedomain International


Anitha Akilan ◽  
Josephine Anthony ◽  
Revathi Kasthuri

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Padikara Parpam against Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Pneumoniae using agar well diffusion method. To identify ESBL producing bacteria by phenotypic confirmatory test using disk diffusion method. Study Design: Analysis of Antibacterial activity of Padikara Parpam using agar well diffusion method. Place and Duration of Study: Central Research Laboratory, Meenakshi Academy of higher Education and Research, Chennai, between June 2021 and November 2021. Methodology: Clinical isolates of ESBL were isolated by subculture into MacConkey agar and was identified by phenotypic confirmatory test. Padikara parpam's antibacterial activity was evaluated using the Agar well diffusion method at different concentrations of 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, and 2 % drugs. 30 µg Cefotaxime and 30 µg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid disk were used as controls to standardize the antibacterial activity test and to identify the ESBL by phenotypic confirmatory test. Results: In this study, Padikara parpam at various doses of 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, and 2 %, revealed significant antibacterial efficacy against ESBL producing bacteria. Padikara parpam was more active against ESBL Escherichia coli than ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae. As a result, it may be recommended as an antibacterial agent against ESBL. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Siddha Herbo mineral formulations of padikara parpam hold phenomenal antimicrobial activity against ESBL producing bacteria. Based on our findings, the drug may be prescribed successfully for urinary tract infections, which is caused by ESBL producing bacteria.

J. Manju ◽  
Chandrasekaran Krithika

One of the global health issues is Oral cancer, which has an increased death rate. Awareness of oral cancer screening is important for oral health care professionals for early detection and improving the patients' survival rate. Attitude towards oral cancer awareness and knowledge of oral cancer screening are the key factors that impact oral cancer awareness success. Materials and Methods: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental practitioners and dental students towards screening for oral pre-cancer and cancer. This study included dental practitioners working in various academic institutions and private practitioners in Chennai. Participants were asked to fill in age, gender, designation, and experience. A structured questionnaire consisting of 10 questions, each having four options, was administered to the participants. The data collected was 100 responses analyzed by statistical package for the social science (spss inc., version 16 for, Chicago, IL, USA). Simple descriptive statistics were used to describe the distribution of data collected. T-test and ANOVA were employed to assess the statistically significant difference in the KAP scores between different groups. Results: The response rate for the present study was 100%. 37% of general dental practitioners reported that they routinely do a thorough oral examination for all the patients,52% agree that they are adequately trained to examine patients for oral pre-cancer and cancer screening,8% of them reported that they never do toluidine blue staining for patients with oral lesion. Majority(57) of them agree that they would recommend biopsy for suspected cases of oral cancer. Only 9% of the participants were aware of the time required for intraoral screening examination. 31% of them were aware of the risk of malignant transformation in a white lesion. 73% of the participants were aware of the occurrence of oral cancer in non - tobacco users was rare. 53% of agree that thorough intraoral examination for oral cancer will reduce oral cancer mortality and morbidity.

. Palwasha ◽  
Yaswant Rai ◽  
Maria Javaid ◽  
Nisar Ahmed Khokhar ◽  
Roohi Nigar

Background: Gestational is special and interesting period for every woman that covers the physiological hormonal changes and leads to the development of new healthy life. Changes in hormones during pregnancy may alter the physiological conditions that impose the bad impact of different body parts including gastric and oral health of the mother. Oral health plays an important role for maintaining normal and healthy life of human being and if any disease or disorder appeared within the oral cavity, it may leads to severity of disease and disturbed normal routine life. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the condition of oral health during gestational period. Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross sectional study was carried out for the period of six months at Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics ward, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences, Jamshoro and females with positive pregnancy were included in the study and total 146 females were selected, after the signature on informed consent form. Medical history was taken in order to ensure any major disease or medication affecting oral health. Results: After collection of proper data from all participants, the results were finalized, 19 females were belonging to age group of 18-21years, and 51 females belong to 26-29 years. 47 females had good OHI-S score, 59 had fair OHI-S score. 31 female had 1st trimester, 81 females had 2nd trimester and 34 had 3rd trimester. 19 females had normal PI index, 94 had simple gingivitis and 33 females had periodontitis. Conclusion: It was important to maintain good oral hygiene before and during pregnancy, so as to prevent the occurrence of periodontal disease and to avert the irreparable damage that may arise during the period of pregnancy.

Razaz Mohammed Wali ◽  
Abdulaziz Saeed Baghlaf ◽  
Abdulaziz Abdullah Almehmadi ◽  
Mohanad Gharmallah Alzahrani ◽  
Obada Tarik Fathi ◽  

Aims: To estimate the burden and risk factor of Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) in preschool children attending well-baby clinics in primary health care centers of the National Guard in Jeddah. Study Design: Cross Sectional study design Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the primary health care centers of the National Guard Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which are the specialized polyclinic namely Iskan clinic district and Bahra Clinic. The study was started on 26 September, 2018 to January 2020. Methodology: A cross-sectional study included all preschool children aged 2-5 years attending well-baby clinics. Data were collected by distributing a self-developed and validated questionnaire to parents or guardians in waiting areas outside the well-baby clinics. Results: A total of 286 participants met the inclusion criteria. Anemia was found in 9.8% children. The prevalence of IDA among the participants was only 6.3%, but it was the most common compared to other types of anemia. The only findings that were found statistically significant with anemia were family history (P = 0.001) and use of supplement (P = 0.000). Conclusion: IDA is still the most prevalent type of anemia; however, it was found in only 6.3% participants. The only statistically significant factors associated with anemia were positive family history and supplement intake.

Zohra Bhatti ◽  
Amer Hayat Khan ◽  
Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman ◽  
Madeeha Laghari ◽  
Irfhan Ali Bin Hyder Ali

Background: A clear understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of tuberculosis (TB) patients is important to encourage patients' contribution to TB prevention and control. Appropriate knowledge, positive attitude, preventing transmission and early diagnosis of TB are key factors in improving patient outcomes. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practices about TB and determine related influencing factors among TB patients. Methodology:  A cross-sectional prospective study by using a validated structured tool was conducted among TB patients more than 18 years of age. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize socio-demographic characteristics and TB knowledge, attitude, and practices level. To compare scores of each domain with various demographic factors, the Kruskal Wallis H test was applied. Results: Total participants in the study were 337. Of these, 231(68.5%) were male and 106(31.5%) were females with a mean age of 46.5±17.1 years. A significant difference was observed between males and females TB knowledge and practices concerning age. Patients with ³ 12 years of educational background profoundly have better knowledge. Conclusion: Overall, TB patients have shown encouraging results of the study, but poor attitudes and practicing behaviors are observed among TB patients. More extensive strategies should be developed to enhance the campaign of awareness programs among TB patients to improve preventing behavior towards disease. 

J. Vijay ◽  
N. Anuradha ◽  
Viknesh Prabhu ◽  
Patel Harshvardhan Anilbhai

Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic infection caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori.Asymptomatic microfilaria, acute lymphatic filariasis, chronic lymphatic filariasis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia are the different presentations of lymphatic filariasis. Systemic manifestation can involve joint, kidney, heart and nerve. This article is a case report of lymphatic filariasis with a rare presentation of anasarca and nephritic syndrome.

Biswas Nitin ◽  
Jajoo Suhas ◽  
Jaiswal Reena ◽  
S. R. Kapse

The most common diagnosis for any anorectal complaint particularly of rectal bleeding in adults is haemorrhoidal disease. Regardless of grading conservative treatment is used primarily in symptomatic haemorrhoids. In Ayurveda, Sthanik Chikitsa (Local application) in the management of Arsha (Hemorrhoids) includes pralepa/pratisaran (Paste application). Instead of applying the lepa in the clinics by the clinician/proctologist, those formulations could be developed into Gudavarti (traditional suppository) & used in the management of Raktarsha (bleeding piles) for better compliance. Hence, development of ‘Durvadi Gudavarti’ using the indigenous medicinal herbs mentioned in Charaka Sanhita (Classical Ayurveda text) for pratisaran/pralepa in Raktarsha & its efficacy will be evaluated. Objectives: To study & compare the efficacy in patient treated with standard- Hydrocortisone suppository group & interventional- Durvadi Gudavarti group in the management of Raktarsha (Bleeding piles). Methodology: 130 patients of 2nd grade hemorrhoids will be selected and will be allocated into two equal groups by computer randomization. Experimental group will be treated with Durvadi Gudavarti & control group with Hydrocortisone based suppository for 2 weeks. Following Symptoms- PR Bleeding, Anal Pain, Prolapse of Pile mass/Lump, Anal pruritus, Mucous discharge & Constipation will be assessed subjectively and Size/ (Volume in cubic millimeter) of pile mass will be the objective parameter for study. Clinical evaluation will be done at Baseline and 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th day after treatment onset. Proportion of patients that would respond clinically on 10th day will be the main end point, determined via disappearance of the clinical symptoms & more than or equal to 50 % reduction in the initial size of pile mass/lump. Time to response & need for any oral/ parenteral medication for pain, bleeding and constipation would be the secondary variables. Side effects (type, duration & severity) will be registered carefully. Expected Results: Durvadi Gudavarti contains indigenous herbs having anti-inflammatory, analgesic, haemostatic, wound healing, astringent, & laxative properties. Hence, it is expected to be as efficacious as Hydrocortisone suppository with lesser side effect in the management of Raktarsha. Results will be assessed on the basis of clinical assessment criteria using proper statistical values and tools. Changes will be observed in objective outcomes. Conclusion: Durvadi Gudavarti will be efficacious in the management of Raktarsha.

Poorvi Jain ◽  
Surekha Godbole ◽  
Seema Sathe Kambala ◽  
Chetan Mahatme

Background: Ability of a person to express a wide range of emotions with the movement of teeth and lips is called as a smile. Dentogenic concept considers gender, personality, age in harmonizing shapes of teeth with the face. Personality is unique for an individual. Unveiling personality traits, desires of the individual, translating them into natural tooth shapes to maintain the psychodentofacial harmony poses a major challenge to the clinician in designing a smile. Visagism is a novel concept that helps the dentists in providing restorations that involve esthetics psychological and social features of the created image, which influences the individual’s emotions. It involves the customization of an image. Aim and Objectives: To assess the co-relation between the smile esthetics and mental temperaments or personalities through the application of the concept of visagism. Methodology: A Digital camera (DSLR) for capturing the photographs and smile designing software will be used. Each subject will be instructed to occlude the teeth while capturing photographs. A validated questionnaire study will be conducted that will help to discover temperament of the subject. The answers will be evaluated and maximum score of the responses out of the list will be dominant temperament in that individual. Expected Outcome: Co-relation between this study might help clinicians to accurately assess the correlation between the temperament and the smile esthetics and eventually develop proper customisation of a smile with respect to the personality of the patient. Conclusion: If computer-assisted smile design and application of visagism concept would be accurate and reproducible, this might help and improve the planning of smile designing, the oral rehabilitations.

Nishi Malviya ◽  
Nilima Thosar ◽  
Nilesh Rathi ◽  
Monika Khubchandani ◽  
V. G. Meshram

Background: Malocclusion is one of the most susceptible causes of the development of periodontal diseases and dental caries in young individuals undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. It provides a surface area for the accumulation of food particles, which further leads to plaque formation. Various mechanical and chemical aids are used regularly to decrease the microbial load and accumulation of plaque. Chemical adjuncts such as chlorhexidine mouthwash are widely used as antimicrobial agents that have significant efficacy against oral Streptococci and Actinomyces species. Herbal agents have replaced conventional medications due to the development of antibiotic resistance. Among herbal medicaments, Triphala is the well-known drug formulation that can be used as an adjuvant for commercially available chemical aid. Chlorhexidine mouth wash requires the assistance of the caregivers. Therefore, there is a need for a newer modality to maintain oral hygiene in patients undertaking orthodontic corrections. Objectives: 1. To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Triphala oral spray on Streptococcus mutants levels in children undergoing orthodontic treatment. 2. To evaluate the efficacy of Triphala oral spray in reducing dental plaque in children undergoing orthodontic treatment. 3. To evaluate the efficacy of Triphala oral spray reducing gingivitis in children undergoing orthodontic treatment. Methodology: A randomized control trial will be done among – participants with the age group of 10 to 15 years of age. A total of 25 children were included in the study. The participants will be told to use the spray two times a day for one week. After 7 days, plaque index and the gingival index will be re-recorded, and plaque samples will be collected for post-intervention microbial analysis. Results: Triphala-based oral spray will effectively reduce plaque score, reduce gingival inflammation, and show inhibitory effects on microbial count. Conclusion: Triphala oral spray can be used as an adjuvant by the orthodontic patients for reduction of the microbial load. It also provides better acceptability by the children as it does not require any assistance of the caregivers.

L. Sai Charan ◽  
Palati Sinduja ◽  
R. Priyadarshini

Background: Bleeding gingiva is caused primarily due to the accumulation of plaque and calculus which eventually leads to gingivitis or periodontitis. Other causes of bleeding gingiva can be due to improper flossing, over brushing of the teeth and gingiva, hormonal changes due to pregnancy, ill-fitting dentures and any other dental appliances impinging the gingiva. The bleeding gingiva can also indicate serious health problems like leukemia, scurvy, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, vitamin k deficiency and any bleeding disorder. Persistent gingival bleeding is a sign of serious medical problems like leukemia and platelet disorders. Leukemia is a group of cancer where there is an increased number of immature or abnormal white blood cells. In this study, the WBC and their differential count is analyzed in patients with bleeding gingiva to check the possibilities for the patient to get cancer. Aim: To measure and observe the WBC count and its differentials by testing the blood from patients with bleeding gingiva. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the clinical pathology lab at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai. 100 subjects were subjected to the study. Subjects with chief complaint of bleeding gingiva, without systemic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and patients with the age of above 10 were included in the study. Results and Conclusion: This study was conducted to analyze the WBC count and differential count among the patients with bleeding gingiva. No significant correlation was found between bleeding gingiva and white blood cells & their differential count in this study.

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