convective heat transfer
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Gabriela Regina Rosa GALIASSI ◽  
Maribel Valverde RAMIREZ

Heat treatment is one of the most used methods to preserve food, such as orange juices, which are an excellent source of ascorbic acid. To avoid vitamin C degradation and reduce loss, fast heating is recommended. This work aimed to determine the vitamin C content using the iodometric method and the convective heat transfer coefficient using the method of dimensionless numbers and the experimental method. Time and temperature were controlled throughout the experiment. In pasteurization, the solution was heated to 80 °C, heating lasted 50 minutes and cooling for 42 minutes. The convective heat transfer coefficient was evaluated in two regions of the cylindrical container: near the wall and in the central region. The graphic profile of the curve follows the same trend of the literature. The convective heat transfer coefficient is higher in the region near the wall. As time passes and temperature decreases, the central region tends to equilibrium, and the coefficient becomes more constant. The vitamin C content remained constant before and after pasteurization, so it was observed that the pasteurization did not cause ascorbic acid degradation since the heating step was fast in the heat treatment. As a result of the study, it was noted that studying the thermal behavior in the cooling of orange juice is extremely important to ensure its quality. It is pertinent to mention that in order to avoid this degradation and reduce its loss, it is necessary that in thermal treatments, fast heating is carried out and that the juice has low exposure to air and heat at the time of its preparation.

Energy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 242 ◽  
pp. 122995
Mingrui Sun ◽  
Lunxiang Zhang ◽  
Chengzhi Hu ◽  
Jiafei Zhao ◽  
Dawei Tang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-39
Cigdem Susantez ◽  
Aldelio Bueno Caldeira

Understanding the heat transfer phenomenon during interior ballistics and consequently presenting a realistic model is very important to predict the temperature distribution inside the cannon barrel, which influences the gun wear and the cook-off. The objective of this work is to present a new detailed numerical model for the prediction of thermal behaviour of a cannon barrel by combining PRODAS interior ballistics simulation with COMSOL simulation. In this study, a numerical model has been proposed for the heating behaviour of a 120 mm smoothbore cannon barrel, taking into account the combustion equation of the JA-2 propellant. Temperature dependent thermophysical properties of product gases were used for the calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficient inside the barrel. Projectile position, velocity of the projectile, gas temperature inside the barrel, volume behind the projectile and mass fraction during interior ballistics have been obtained by PRODAS software and used in the numerical model performed by COMSOL multiphysics finite element modelling and simulation software. Temperature simulations show that maximum wall temperature inside the cannon barrel is observed after 3 ms from fire, when maximum value of the convective heat transfer coefficient inside the barrel is observed. The results reveal that the convective heat transfer coefficient of burned gases inside the gun has major effect than the burned gas temperature on the heat transfer phenomenon.

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