aspect ratios
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Ninghua Zhan ◽  
Rui Wu ◽  
Evangelos Tsotsas ◽  
Abdolreza Kharaghani

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 456
Zhigang Ren ◽  
Qi Li ◽  
Gaoyu Wang ◽  
Wei Wei ◽  
Mohammed A. A. M. Abbas

The application of round-ended rectangular concrete-filled steel tubes (RRCFSTs) in high-rise buildings or bridge structures is increasing, improving structural performance and meeting aesthetic requirements. Researching this novel steel–concrete composite helps to fully utilize the properties of the materials. In this study, 15 specimens were tested for analysis of the behaviors of RRCFSTs with different central angles under eccentric compression. Influences of central angles of round ends (θ), aspect ratios of rectangular parts (κ), steel strength and the eccentric ratio on failure modes, material utilization, confinement effect and eccentric bearing capacity are studied. Besides, the mechanism of confinement effects of steel tubes with different θ values was evaluated with the finite element method (FEM). The results show that local bulking usually occurs at the compression zone. When θ gradually changes from 0° to 180°, the local bulking position of straight steel plate changes from mid-length to both ends of the columns. Additionally, the interfacial stress between steel tube and concrete at round ends rises, but that at the corner, it decreases continuously, which results in an improved overall confinement effect and increased material utilization. In contrast, a larger κ leads to lower material efficiency because of the reduced overall confinement effect. The increases in both θ and κ enlarge the cross-sectional area and the eccentric ultimate bearing capacity, whereas θ has a better influence on the ductility than κ. A feasible simplified calculating approach for the eccentric ultimate bearing capacity of RRCFSTs is presented and validated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
A. Chiarini ◽  
M. Quadrio ◽  
F. Auteri

In the flow past elongated rectangular cylinders at moderate Reynolds numbers, vortices shedding from the leading- and trailing-edge corners are frequency locked by the impinging leading-edge vortex instability. The present work investigates how the chord-based Strouhal number varies with the aspect ratio of the cylinder at a Reynolds number (based on the cylinder thickness and the free-stream velocity) of $Re=400$ , i.e. when locking is strong. Several two-dimensional, nonlinear simulations are run for rectangular and D-shaped cylinders, with the aspect ratio ranging from $1$ to $11$ , and a global linear stability analysis of the flow is performed. The shedding frequency observed in the nonlinear simulations is predicted fairly well by the eigenfrequency of the leading eigenmode. The inspection of the structural sensitivity confirms the central role of the trailing-edge vortex shedding in the frequency locking, as already assumed by other authors. Surprisingly, however, the stepwise increase of the Strouhal number with the aspect ratio reported by several previous works is not fully reproduced. Indeed, with increasing aspect ratio, two distinct flow behaviours are observed, associated with two flow configurations where the interaction between the leading- and trailing-edge vortices is different. These two configurations are fully characterised, and the mechanism of selection of the flow configuration is discussed. Lastly, for aspect ratios close to the jump between two consecutive shedding modes, the Strouhal number is found to present hysteresis, implying the existence of multiple stable configurations. Continuing the lower shedding-mode branch by increasing the aspect ratio, we found that the periodic configuration loses stability via a Neimark–Sacker bifurcation leading to different Arnold tongues. This hysteresis can explain, at least partially, the significant scatter of existing experimental and numerical data.

Soroush Sepehri ◽  
Mahmoud Mosavi Mashhadi ◽  
Mir Masoud Seyyed Fakhrabadi

The effects of shear deformation on analysis of the wave propagation in periodic lattices are often assumed negligible. However, this assumption is not always true, especially for the lattices made of beams with smaller aspect ratios. Therefore, in the present paper, the effect of shear deformation on wave propagation in periodic lattices with different topologies is studied and their wave attenuation and directionality performances are compared. Current experimental limitations make the researchers focus more on the wave propagation in the direction perpendicular to the plane of periodicity in micro/nanoscale lattice materials while for their macro/mesoscale counterparts, in-plane modes can also be analyzed as well as the out-of-plane ones. Four well-known topologies of hexagonal, triangular, square, and Kagomé are considered in the current paper and their wave propagation is investigated both in the plane of periodicity and in the out-of-plane direction. The finite element method is used to formulate the governing equations and Bloch’s theorem is used to solve the dispersion relations. To investigate the effect of shear deformation, both the Timoshenko and Euler-Bernoulli beam theories are implemented. The results indicate that including shear deformation in wave propagation has a softening effect on the band diagrams of wave propagation and moves the dispersion branches to lower frequencies. It can also reveal some bandgaps that are not predicted without considering the shear deformation.

2022 ◽  
Charles Nelson Helms ◽  
Stephen Joseph Munchak ◽  
Ali Tokay ◽  
Claire Pettersen

Abstract. Measurements of snowflake particle size and shape are important for studying the snow microphysics. While a number of instruments exist that are designed to measure these important parameters, this study focuses on the measurement techniques of three digital video disdrometers: the Precipitation Imaging Package (PIP), the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) and the Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD). To gain a better understanding of the relative strengths and weaknesses of these instruments and to provide a foundation upon which comparisons can be made between studies using data from different instruments, we perform a comparative analysis of the measurement algorithms employed by each of the three instruments by applying the algorithms to snowflake images captured by PIP during the ICEP-POP 2018 field campaign. Our analysis primarily focuses on the measurements of area, equivalent diameter, and aspect ratio. Our findings indicate that area and equi-area diameter measurements using the 2DVD camera setup should be the most accurate, followed by MASC, which is slightly more accurate than PIP. In terms of the precision of the area and equi-area diameter measurements, however, MASC is considerably more precise than PIP or 2DVD, which provide similar precision once the effects of the PIP image compression algorithm are taken into account. Both PIP and MASC use shape-fitting algorithms to measure aspect ratio. While our analysis of the MASC aspect ratio suggests the measurements are reliable, our findings indicate that both the ellipse and rectangle aspect ratios produced by PIP under-performed considerably due to the shortcomings of the PIP shape-fitting techniques. That said, we also demonstrate that reliable measurements of aspect ratio can be retrieved from PIP by reprocessing the PIP images using either the MASC shape-fitting technique or a tensor-based ellipse-fitting technique. Because of differences in instrument design, 2DVD produces measurements of particle horizontal and vertical extent rather than length and width. Furthermore, the 2DVD measurements of particle horizontal extent can be contaminated by horizontal particle motion. Our findings indicate that, although the correction technique used to remove the horizontal motion contamination performs remarkably well with snowflakes despite being designed for use with rain drops, the 2DVD measurements of particle horizontal extent are potentially unreliable.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 354
Haoyi Ma ◽  
Scott T. Acton ◽  
Zongli Lin

Accurate and robust scale estimation in visual object tracking is a challenging task. To obtain a scale estimation of the target object, most methods rely either on a multi-scale searching scheme or on refining a set of predefined anchor boxes. These methods require heuristically selected parameters, such as scale factors of the multi-scale searching scheme, or sizes and aspect ratios of the predefined candidate anchor boxes. On the contrary, a centerness-aware anchor-free tracker (CAT) is designed in this work. First, the location and scale of the target object are predicted in an anchor-free fashion by decomposing tracking into parallel classification and regression problems. The proposed anchor-free design obviates the need for hyperparameters related to the anchor boxes, making CAT more generic and flexible. Second, the proposed centerness-aware classification branch can identify the foreground from the background while predicting the normalized distance from the location within the foreground to the target center, i.e., the centerness. The proposed centerness-aware classification branch improves the tracking accuracy and robustness significantly by suppressing low-quality state estimates. The experiments show that our centerness-aware anchor-free tracker, with its appealing features, achieves salient performance in a wide variety of tracking scenarios.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 171
Xiulan Yang ◽  
Minzhao Gu ◽  
Qunmei Wei ◽  
Yang Zhang ◽  
Sihan Wu ◽  

Photo-embossing has been developed as a convenient and economical method for creating complex surface relief structures in polymer films. The pursuit for large aspect ratios of the photo-embossed structures has never stopped. Here, we demonstrate a simple strategy to obtain improved aspect ratios by adding a quick solvent developing step into the photo-embossing process. A good solvent for the monomer is used to remove unreacted monomers from the unexposed region, resulting in deepened valleys of the surface reliefs. In a polymer film as thin as 2.5 µm, the height of the surface reliefs can be increased by a factor of three to around 1.0 µm. This strategy is also shown to be compatible with other methods used to improve the aspect ratios of the photo-embossed structures. Lastly, we employ these surface relief structures in the fabrication of liquid crystal (LC) devices and investigate their performances for visible light regulation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document