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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Beata Gavurova ◽  
Boris Popesko ◽  
Viera Ivankova ◽  
Martin Rigelsky

In the ongoing situation, when the world is dominated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the development of self-care programs appears to be insufficient, while their role in mental health may be crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between self-care activities and depression in the general Slovak population, but also in its individual gender and age categories. This was achieved by validating the self-care screening instrument, assessing differences, and evaluating the associations using quantile regression analysis. The final research sample consisted of 806 participants [males: 314 (39%), females: 492 (61%)] and data were collected through an online questionnaire from February 12, 2021 to February 23, 2021. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression (α = 0.89) and Self-Care Activities Screening Scale (SASS-14) [health consciousness (HC) (α = 0.82), nutrition and physical activity (NPA) (α = 0.75), sleep quality (SLP) (α = 0.82), and interpersonal and intrapersonal coping strategies (IICS) (α = 0.58)] were used as screening measures. Mild depressive symptoms were found in 229 participants (28.41%), moderate depressive symptoms in 154 participants (19.11%), moderately severe depressive symptoms in 60 participants (7.44%) and severe depressive symptoms in 43 participants (5.33%). The main findings revealed the fact that individual self-care activities were associated with depression. This supported the idea that well-practiced self-care activities should be an immediate part of an individual's life in order to reduce depressive symptoms. Sleep quality played an important role, while HC indicated the need for increased attention. Other dimensions of self-care also showed significant results that should not be overlooked. In terms of depression, females and younger individuals need targeted interventions. The supportive educational intervention developed based on the self-care theory can help manage and maintain mental health during a stressful period, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Health policy leaders should focus on health-promoting preventive self-care interventions, as the demand for them increases even more during the pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-11
Harshindar Kaur ◽  
Sukhmani Kaur ◽  
Tejvir Singh Shimar ◽  
Devina Singh

Background: Aim: To assess cases of depression in children. Methods:Eighty- nine children age ranged 6-15 years of either gender were included. The level of depression among children was determined with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).Results:Age group 6-10 years had 24, 10-12 years had 30 and 12-15 years had 35 children. Boys were 55 and girls were 34. Residence was urban in 39 and rural in 50. Family type was joint in 52 and nuclear in 37. A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05). 35% not at all felt little interest or pleasure in doing things, 52% not at all felt down depressed, 46% not at all felt trouble falling or staying asleep, 34% not at all felt tired, 60% not at all felt bad about yourself, 68% not at all felt trouble concentrating on things, 70% not at all felt moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed, 82% not at all felt thoughts that you would be better off dead or of hurting yourself in the some way. Level of depression was not at all in 12%, minimal in 35%, mild in 42%, moderate in 10% and severe in 1%. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).Conclusions:Most of the children had mild and minimal depression. Most of the children had feeling tired.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Shuliweeh Alenezi ◽  
Ahmad Almadani ◽  
Maram Al Tuwariqi ◽  
Fahad Alzahrani ◽  
Meshari Alshabri ◽  

Burnout in healthcare workers (HCWs) is defined as a state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion that results from unmanaged, excessive, and long-term workplace stressors. This study aims to assess the prevalence of burnout and the levels of anxiety and depression among HCWs who primarily work with children who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted utilizing the Arabic version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Areas of Worklife Survey (AWS), Patient Health Questionnaire for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7), and Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression (PHQ-9). Among the 381 participants working in autism centers, the majority were young Saudi females (326) working full-time as specialists in the private sector with less than five years of experience. The HCWs’ overall mean scores on the three Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) subscales: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA) were 62%, 23.7%, and 76.5%, respectively. A total of 51.4% of HCWs reported moderate to high anxiety levels on GAD-7, and 47.8% showed moderate to very high levels of depression on PHQ-9. The mean perceived EE converged significantly but negatively on their overall mean perceived satisfaction with AWS (p-value < 0.001), demonstrating that greater emotional fatigue predicts less satisfaction with their work. The PA scores correlated significantly and positively with their overall mean satisfaction with their AWS score (p-value < 0.001). Considering sociodemographic variables, HCWs aged between 20–29 years have significantly lower mean PA scores than HCWs aged thirty and older (p = 0.007). Also, male HCWs perceived significantly higher work-related DP than females. More research is required to determine the nature of variables that contribute to burnout, depression, and anxiety in HCWs helping children with ASD.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 423
Raphaela Graessle ◽  
Carmen Stromberger ◽  
Max Heiland ◽  
Christian Doll ◽  
Veit M. Hofmann ◽  

Finding a cure may be less important than ensuring the quality of life in elderly patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The aim of this study was to determine predictors for adherence. Clinical and pathological data from patients ≥70 years with HNSCC (initial diagnoses 2004-2018) were investigated retrospectively. Evaluated clinical predictors included biological age (Charlson Comorbidity Index; CCI), patient health (Karnofsky Performance Status; KPS) and therapy data. A total of 1125 patients were included. The median age was 75 years, 33.1% reached CCI ≥6, and 53.7% reached KPS ≤ 70%. In total, 968 patients were adherent, whereas 157 were nonadherent. Nonadherent patients were significantly more often smokers (p = 0.003), frequent drinkers (p = 0.001), had a worse health status (p ≤ 0.001) and a lower biological age (p = 0.003), an advanced T classification and lymph node involvement or UICC stage (each p ≤ 0.001). Approximately 88.0% of the included patients received a curative treatment recommendation. A total of 6.9% discontinued the therapy, and 7.0% refused the therapy. With the increasing complexity of a recommended therapy, adherence decreased. The 5-year overall survival was significantly higher in adherent patients (45.1% versus 19.2%). In contrast to the chronological patient age, biological age is a significant predictor for adherence. The evaluated predictors for nonadherence need to be verified prospectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Ellen B. M. Elsman ◽  
Edine P. J. van Munster ◽  
Femke van Nassau ◽  
Peter Verstraten ◽  
Ruth M. A. van Nispen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Karim Keshavjee ◽  
Dustin Johnston-Jewell ◽  
Brian Lee ◽  
Robert Kyba

mHealth apps for patient use are promising but continue to face a plateau in usage. Current apps work for a limited segment of the patient population, i.e., those who enjoy tracking for intrinsic rewards. There are many opportunities to support patient care in between health care provider visits that are not currently being met for many diseases and patient types (personas). This is an area of great potential growth for mHealth apps and could contribute greatly to patient health and wellness. In this chapter, we propose a framework for how to think about the between-visit needs of patients that would motivate continued use of mhealth apps. We view the app design process from the following perspectives: 1) disease-specific needs, 2) non-disease specific needs, 3) behavioral theoretical aspects of app usage and 4) app-intrinsic usage motivators. Myasthenia gravis serves as the use case for illustrating these perspectives and how to use them in designing a disease-specific mHealth app.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003329412110571
Valentina Massaroni ◽  
Valentina Delle Donne ◽  
Nicoletta Ciccarelli ◽  
Francesca Lombardi ◽  
Silvia Lamonica ◽  

The care engagement of people living with HIV (PLWH) measured with the patient health engagement (PHE) model and its association with HIV-related internalized stigma are not well established. Indeed, currently there are no data yet about the engagement of PLWH measured with the PHE model. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of HIV-related internalized stigma on care engagement and mental health and to fill the lack of data on PHE model applied to PLWH. We found that the internalized stigma score was significantly higher for PLWH ( n=82) in worse care engagement phase and both higher internalized stigma scores and worse engagement were associated to major depression symptoms. In conclusion, our findings describe for the first time the engagement in care of PLWH measured with PHE and highlight the importance of PLWH support to find strategies to cope stigma-related stress and optimize their care engagement.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 278
Vanessa M. Oddo ◽  
Lauren Welke ◽  
Andrew McLeod ◽  
Lacey Pezley ◽  
Yinglin Xia ◽  

Depression is a leading cause of disability, yet current prevention and treatment approaches have only had modest effects. It is important to better understand the role of dietary patterns on depressive symptoms, which may help prevent depression or complement current treatments. This study examined whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet (Med Diet), determined by the Alternate Med Diet score (aMED), was associated with depressive symptoms in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The aMED score (range 0–9) was calculated from a 24-h diet recall with gender-specific quartiles (Q) estimated. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to define depressive symptoms, which was dichotomized as no to mild (0–9) versus moderate to severe symptoms (10–27). Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between quartiles of aMED and depressive symptoms when controlling for sociodemographics, total calories, and the time of year of diet recall; 7.9% of the sample had moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Compared to individuals with the lowest aMED (Q1), individuals in Q3 and Q4 had 40% and 45% lower odds of moderate to severe depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50, 0.74; OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.84, respectively). This study provides modest support of Med Diet’s role in supporting positive mental health.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jihoon Hong ◽  
Hussein Walid Mreydem ◽  
Bayan Tarek Abou Ali ◽  
Nada Omar Saleh ◽  
Sajida Fawaz Hammoudi ◽  

Introduction: Self-efficacy signifies an individual's belief in their own ability to perform the actions required to achieve a particular performance. In this study, we used an online survey to assess the mediation effect of resilience and self-efficacy on the overall psychological well-being of Lebanese people during the crises of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Beirut explosion.Methods: Overall, 567 Lebanese people participated in an online survey between March 17–28, 2021. The survey included the Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics-6 items (SAVE-6), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale-2 items, WHO-5 Well-being Index, General Self-Efficacy scale, and a single item on insomnia. We also assessed their risk perception regarding exposure to COVID-19 or explosions.Results: About 53% of participants were assessed as having depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) in the recent crisis. About half of participants (53.2%) reported feeling more stressed by COVID-19 than by the Beirut explosion, and 23.4% felt more stressed by the Beirut explosion than by COVID-19. Only the SAVE-6 score differed significantly between groups with greater stress responses to COVID-19 and the Beirut explosion. Self-efficacy mediated the influence of depression on people's psychological well-being, and self-efficacy and resilience mediated the influence of viral anxiety on psychological well-being.Conclusion: Self-efficacy is important for reducing people's depression and improving their psychological well-being during the Lebanon crises and also mediates the influence of anxiety in response to the viral epidemic on their psychological well-being in some people.

Trauma Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-22
Chidi Chima ◽  
Reham Shalaby ◽  
Mobolaji A. Lawal ◽  
Wesley Vuong ◽  
Marianne Hrabok ◽  

Background: This cross-sectional study explored variation of the prevalence of perceived stress, depression and anxiety among different self-identified gender identity groups in the Canadian population during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Anxiety, depression, and stress were assessed using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) respectively. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results: There were 8267 respondents to the online survey; 982 (12.0%) were male-identified, 7120 (86.9%) female-identified, and 92 (1.1%) identified as a diverse gender group. Prevalence rates for clinically meaningful anxiety (333 (41.7%), 2882 (47.6%), 47 (61.0%)), depression (330 (40.2%), 2736 (44.3%), 46 (59.7%)), and stress (702 (79.6%), 5711 (86.4%), 74 (90.2%)) were highest among respondents who self-identified as “other gender” followed by female-identified and then male-identified, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between gender groups for mean scores on GAD-7 (F (2, 6929) = 18.02, p = 0.00), PHQ-9 (F (2191.4) = 11.17, p < 0.001), and PSS (F (2204.6) = 21.13, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Gender identity differences exist in terms of the prevalence and severity of anxiety, depressive, and stress symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. This finding highlights the importance of incorporating self-identified gender identity in medical research, clinical practice, and policy.

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