quantile regression analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Beata Gavurova ◽  
Boris Popesko ◽  
Viera Ivankova ◽  
Martin Rigelsky

In the ongoing situation, when the world is dominated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the development of self-care programs appears to be insufficient, while their role in mental health may be crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between self-care activities and depression in the general Slovak population, but also in its individual gender and age categories. This was achieved by validating the self-care screening instrument, assessing differences, and evaluating the associations using quantile regression analysis. The final research sample consisted of 806 participants [males: 314 (39%), females: 492 (61%)] and data were collected through an online questionnaire from February 12, 2021 to February 23, 2021. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression (α = 0.89) and Self-Care Activities Screening Scale (SASS-14) [health consciousness (HC) (α = 0.82), nutrition and physical activity (NPA) (α = 0.75), sleep quality (SLP) (α = 0.82), and interpersonal and intrapersonal coping strategies (IICS) (α = 0.58)] were used as screening measures. Mild depressive symptoms were found in 229 participants (28.41%), moderate depressive symptoms in 154 participants (19.11%), moderately severe depressive symptoms in 60 participants (7.44%) and severe depressive symptoms in 43 participants (5.33%). The main findings revealed the fact that individual self-care activities were associated with depression. This supported the idea that well-practiced self-care activities should be an immediate part of an individual's life in order to reduce depressive symptoms. Sleep quality played an important role, while HC indicated the need for increased attention. Other dimensions of self-care also showed significant results that should not be overlooked. In terms of depression, females and younger individuals need targeted interventions. The supportive educational intervention developed based on the self-care theory can help manage and maintain mental health during a stressful period, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Health policy leaders should focus on health-promoting preventive self-care interventions, as the demand for them increases even more during the pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yafeng Zhang ◽  
Wei Tian ◽  
Yuqi Xin ◽  
Quan Zhou ◽  
Guangcan Yan ◽  

Abstract Background Parental rearing is well documented as an important influencing factor of interpersonal sensitivity (IS). However, little research has focused on the extent by which various aspects of parental rearing in fluence IS. This study aimed to analyze the effects of parental rearing on IS, using quantile regression. We analyzed the extent of the influence of parental rearing on IS by quantile regression to provide definitive evidence on the family education of adolescents with IS problems. Methods The multiple cross-sectional studies were conducted among 3345 adolescents from Harbin, China, in 1999, 2006, 2009 and 2016. Furthermore, a multistage sampling method (stratified random cluster) was used to select participants. IS was assessed using a subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision. Perceived parental rearing was assessed using the Egna Minnen av. Barndoms Uppfostran. The ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression was used to determine the average effect of parental rearing on IS. The quantile regression was conducted to examine the established associations and to further explain the association. Results Paternal emotional warmth was found to be associated with IS across the quantile, especially after the 0.6 quantiles; however, this association was not found for maternal emotional warmth. Paternal punishment was associated with IS at the 0.22–0.27 and 0.60 quantile; however, maternal punishment had no significant effect on IS. QR method found that paternal overinvolvement was associated with IS at the 0.48–0.65 quantiles, but paternal overprotection was associated with IS across the quantile; however, maternal overinvolvement and overprotection was positively correlated with IS at the 0.07–0.95 quantiles. The correlation between paternal rejection and IS was found at the 0.40–0.75 and > 0.90 quantiles; maternal rejection was associated with IS within the 0.05–0.92 quantiles. Conclusions Parental rearing practices predict different magnitudes of IS at varying levels. This study provides suggestions for parents to assess purposefully and systematically, intervene, and ameliorate adolescent IS problems. We also highlight the role of paternal rearing in children’s IS problems, providing new ideas for family education.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Ahmed Hassanein ◽  
Jamal Ali Al-Khasawneh ◽  
Hany Elzahar

Purpose Corporate managers spend on research and development (R&D) for reasons of growth and survival. However, they may be less willing to invest in R&D because of its long-term horizon, high failure rate and uncertain outcomes. This study aims to explore the extent to which managerial ownership influences R&D expenditure decisions. Design/methodology/approach Apart from the linear regression models, this study uses a semi-parametric quantile regression analysis for a sample of German non-financial firms throughout 2009–2018. Findings This study finds a nonmonotonic sensitivity of R&D spending to the level of managerial ownership over various quantiles of R&D distribution. That is, managerial ownership increases the expenditure on R&D at low R&D intensity firms. However, it decreases the expenditure on R&D at high R&D intensity firms. These results suggest the presence of a maximum level of R&D expenditure, after which owner-managers would be unwilling to spend on R&D. Practical implications The results confirm the importance of corporate ownership structure for firm R&D and innovation activities. It provides an implication for corporate policymakers to reform the corporate ownership structures to encourage corporate managers and owners to invest in R&D projects. Originality/value This study offers two distinct contributions study. First, it provides the first German shred of evidence on the nonlinear relationship between managerial ownership and R&D expenditure decisions by distinguishing between high and low R&D intensity firms. Second, unlike prior research, it uses a semi-parametric quantile regression analysis. This method is more efficient than least-squares estimators and produces robust estimators to heteroscedasticity of the residuals.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Kyulee Shin ◽  
Sukkyung You

This study deepens our understanding of the prediction and structural relationship between a student’s academic performance and his/her regular after-school exercise by estimating models based upon the quantile regression and the instrumental variable quantile regression methods, respectively. Using data on Korean middle school students, we found that negative relationships were dominant for the prediction models, whereas the relationships were reversed for the structural models, affirming the theoretical and experimental hypotheses observed in prior literature. Furthermore, we also found that the low-performing students, in terms of the academic performance, had stronger associations between the two variables than the high-performing students, overall.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Xing Li ◽  
Xiao Li ◽  
Hedi Ma ◽  
Wenjian Hua ◽  
Shanlei Sun ◽  

Changes in temperature variability can have more serious social and ecological impacts than changes in the mean state of temperature, especially when they are concurrent with global warming. The present study examines the summertime temperatures’ trends over China from the quantile perspective. Through fully investigating the quantile trends (QTs) of the maximum (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin) using the homogenized observation data and quantile regression analysis, we identify evident region-specific quantile features of summertime temperature trends. In most of northern China, the QTs in Tmax and Tmin for all percentiles generally show strong uniform warmings, which are dominated by a warm shift in mean state temperatures. In contrast, the QTs of Tmax in the Yangtze River Basin show distinguishable inter-quantile features, i.e., an increasing tendency of QTs from cooling trends in the lower percentile to warming trends in the higher percentile. Further investigations show that such robust growing QTs of Tmax across quantiles are dominated by the temperature variance. Our results highlight that more attention should be paid to the region-specific dominance of temperature variability in trends and the related causes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Musa Otieno Ngayo ◽  
Margaret Oluka ◽  
Wallace Dimbuson Bulimo ◽  
Faith Apolot Okalebo

AbstractHIV-related stigma, lack of disclosure and social support are still hindrances to HIV testing, care, and prevention. We assessed the association of these social-psychological statuses with nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFV) plasma concentrations among HIV patients in Kenya. Blood samples were obtained from 254 and 312 consenting HIV patients on NVP- and EFV-based first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), respectively, and a detailed structured questionnaire was administered. The ARV plasma concentration was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). There were 68.1% and 65.4% of the patients on NVP and EFV, respectively, who did not feel guilty for being HIV positive. The disclosure rates were approximately 96.1% and 94.6% of patients on NVP and EFV, respectively. Approximately 85% and 78.2% of patients on NVP and EFV, respectively, received social support as much as needed. There were 54.3% and 14.2% compared to 31.7% and 4.5% patients on NVP and EFV, respectively, with supratherapeutic and suboptimal plasma concentrations. Multivariate quantile regression analysis showed that feeling guilty for being HIV positive was associated with increased 954 ng/mL NVP plasma concentrations (95% CI 192.7 to 2156.6; p = 0.014) but not associated with EFV plasma concentrations (adjusted β = 347.7, 95% CI = − 153.4 to 848.7; p = 0.173). Feeling worthless for being HIV positive was associated with increased NVP plasma concentrations (adjusted β = 852, 95% CI = 64.3 to 1639.7; p = 0.034) and not with EFV plasma concentrations (adjusted β = − 143.3, 95% CI = − 759.2 to 472.5; p = 0.647). Being certain of telling the primary sexual partner about HIV-positive status was associated with increased EFV plasma concentrations (adjusted β 363, 95% CI, 97.9 to 628.1; p = 0.007) but not with NVP plasma concentrations (adjusted β = 341.5, 95% CI = − 1357 to 2040; p = 0.692). Disclosing HIV status to neighbors was associated with increased NVP plasma concentrations (adjusted β = 1731, 95% CI = 376 to 3086; p = 0.012) but not with EFV plasma concentrations (adjusted β = − 251, 95% CI = − 1714.1 to 1212.1; p = 0.736). Obtaining transportation to the hospital whenever needed was associated with a reduction in NVP plasma concentrations (adjusted β = − 1143.3, 95% CI = − 1914.3 to − 372.4; p = 0.004) but not with EFV plasma concentrations (adjusted β = − 6.6, 95% CI = − 377.8 to 364.7; p = 0.972). HIV stigma, lack disclosure and inadequate social support are still experienced by HIV-infected patients in Kenya. A significant proportion of patients receiving the NVP-based regimen had supra- and subtherapeutic plasma concentrations compared to EFV. Social-psychological factors negatively impact adherence and are associated with increased NVP plasma concentration compared to EFV.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Nikolaos Kapitsinis

Abstract Background Government responses to the pandemic varied in terms of timing, duration, and stringency, seeking to protect healthcare systems, whose pre-pandemic state varied significantly. Therefore, the severity of Covid-19 and, thus, excess mortality have been unequal across counties. This paper explores the geography of excess mortality and its underlying factors in 2020, highlighting the effects of health policies pre-pandemic and strategies devised by governments to cope with Covid-19. Methods Excess mortality is estimated for 79 high, medium and low-income countries. The factors of excess mortality are examined employing median quantile regression analysis. Results Health privatization, healthcare underfunding, and late implementation of containment and mitigation strategies were powerful drivers of excess mortality. By contrast, the results suggest a negative association of excess mortality with health expenditure, number of doctors and hospital beds, share of population covered by health insurance and test and trace capacity. Conclusions The evidence highlights the importance of sufficiently funded healthcare systems with universal access and strong primary healthcare in the battle against the pandemic. An early response to Covid-19, including borders’ controls and a strong test and trace capacity, could improve epidemiological surveillance and minimize excess mortality, with stringent and lengthy lockdowns not providing a significant benefit.

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