Internal Consistency
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2021 ◽  

Abstract Objectives:To verify the Correlation between the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) and Premature Infant Pain Profile – Revised (PIPP-R), the internal consistency of each scale, and assess the reliability between evaluators in the assessment of pain during the aspiration procedure in premature newborns. Methods: an observational, prospective study. Participated in the study, 50 infants who met the following criteria for inclusion: Newborn (NB) preterm (GA> 26 weeks and <36 weeks and five days) with low birth weight (<2500 g), hemodynamically stable, with minimal sedation or without sedation or mechanical ventilation in CPAP or catheter nose of O2 or the air environment that needed to perform the procedure of vacuum in the period of hospitalization. The evaluation of the newborns occurred during three different aspiration procedures; aspiration 1 (no intervention), aspiration 2 (use of gentle touch), and aspiration 3 (use of sucrose). They have applied two evaluation instruments, NIPS and PIPP-R. that Cronbach's alpha determined the internal consistency, reliability between evaluators by the coefficient of Correlation intraclass, validity competitor by Spearman test. Results: Internal Consistency was high for NIPS (r= 0.824) and moderate for PIPP-R (0.655). Reliability between raters was high respectively in the three conditions 0.991; 0.987; 0.993 on the NIPS scale and 0.997; 0.986; 0.977 on the PIPP-R scale. One observed concurrent validity Only in the first aspiration. Conclusion: the NIPS seems to have a better utility clinic than PIPP-R; however, the two scales showed good reliability among the evaluators, and internal consistency, being a good choice for evaluation of pain during the procedure of aspiration.

Husam Almalki ◽  
Lee Herrington ◽  
Richard Jones

BACKGROUND: In order to administer the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC) questionnaire to Arabic speakers, a rigorous process of cross-cultural adaptation and validation is required in order to reach equivalence between the original publication and target version of the questionnaire. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study is to translate and culturally adapt the IKDC into Arabic to suit the Arabic population. The secondary aim is to assess the Arabic version of the IKDC in order to test the psychometric characteristics (reliability, validity and dimensionality). METHODS: The translation process has been carried out according to cross-cultural adaptation guidelines in accordance with the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine guidelines with forward/backward translations and pre-testing. The Arabic IKDC, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), RAND-36-Item Health Survey (RAND-36) questionnaire, and visual analogue scales (VAS) of pain were tested in 105 ACLR patients. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and content validity were evaluated. RESULTS: The test-retest reliability proved excellent with a high value for the intraclass correlation coefficient (r= 0.95). The internal consistency was strong (Cronbach’s α= 0.91). Good construct validity by the strong correlations between similar component of the KOOS subscales, Rand-36 subscales and VAS, and good content validity with absence of floor and ceiling effects. CONCLUSIONS: The Arabic version of the IKDC is a valid and reliable instrument for Arabic patients with ACLR. However, further research is required with a more varied knee sample in order to enable generalisation to a wider population.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Razieh Javaherirenani ◽  
Pantea Ahadianfard ◽  
Ahmad Ashouri

Background: According to Contrast Avoidance Model, those suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are afraid of severe emotional changes such as the transition from a good or neutral position to sudden unhappiness following a negative event. Also, the model shows that persistent worrying can be used to maintain negative emotions as a means of preventing a sudden change to negative in people with GAD. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the General Emotion Questionnaire-Contrast Avoidance Model (GEQ-CAM). Methods: Early, the GEQ was translated into Persian according to the translation instructions and using multistage cluster sampling. Initially, five universities located in Tehran were randomly selected, then from each of them, three different colleges were selected for the academic year of 2020. Afterward, 50 cases with GAD were selected using the convenience sampling method, yielding a total sample size of 576 (526 students and 50 cases with GAD). Results: General Emotion Questionnaire has an excellent level of internal consistency (α = 0.973) and test-retest reliability (0.986). This questionnaire indicated a positive and significant correlation with Penn State Worry Questionnaire (r = 0.804) and GAD-7 (r = 0.727), which indicates its appropriate convergent validity. Also, confirmatory factor analysis supported its 2-factor structure. Conclusions: In accordance with previous studies, the findings suggested that psychometric properties of the Persian version of the General Emotion Questionnaire-Contrast Avoidance Model are acceptable; hence, this questionnaire can be used for research, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 567-581
Silia Vitoratou ◽  
Nora Uglik-Marucha ◽  
Chloe Hayes ◽  
Mercede Erfanian ◽  
Oliver Pearson ◽  

Misophonia is characterised by a low tolerance for day-to-day sounds, causing intense negative affect. This study conducts an in-depth investigation of 35 misophonia triggers. A sample of 613 individuals who identify as experiencing misophonia and 202 individuals from the general population completed self-report measures. Using contemporary psychometric methods, we studied the triggers in terms of internal consistency, stability in time, precision, severity, discrimination ability, and information. Three dimensions of sensitivity were identified, namely, to eating sounds, to nose/throat sounds, and to general environmental sounds. The most informative and discriminative triggers belonged to the eating sounds. Participants identifying with having misophonia had also significantly increased odds to endorse eating sounds as auditory triggers than others. This study highlights the central role of eating sounds in this phenomenon and finds that different triggers are endorsed by those with more severe sound sensitivities than those with low sensitivity.

2021 ◽  
pp. 097226292110503
Suchitra Pal ◽  
Lalatendu Kesari Jena

The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) is popular among researchers and validated in many countries but has not yet been tested for the Indian context. This study examined the CAAS Short Form (CAAS-SF) among a sample of Indian business school students. The CAAS-SF consists of four subscales, each with three items measuring concern, control, curiosity and confidence as psychosocial resources. A sample of 369 Indian business-school students with human resource management as major participated in the scale validation process. The internal consistency estimates for the subscales and total scores were found to be comparable or better than previous CAAS-SF assessments. Based on this study’s findings, the CAAS-SF appears to be appropriate for measuring career adaptability resources in Indian business school students.

Naomi H. Rodgers ◽  
Hope Gerlach ◽  
Andrea L. Paiva ◽  
Mark L. Robbins ◽  
Patricia M. Zebrowski

Purpose This article is the second in a two-part series on the application of the Transtheoretical Model to stuttering management among adolescents. The purpose of this article was to apply and explore the validity of newly developed Transtheoretical measures for adolescents who stutter. Method The online survey was completed by a national sample of 173 adolescents who stutter between the ages of 13 and 21 years. The multipart survey included a Stage of Change scale, Decisional Balance scale, and Situational Self-Efficacy scale. Participants also completed the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), either the teenage or adult version depending on the participant's age, so preliminary construct validity of the new scales could be examined. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to determine model fit and reduce the scales to the most meaningful items. External validity of the three-part survey was examined by comparing OASES scores across stage of change as well as evaluating the functional relations between the three scales. Results Adolescents' readiness to manage stuttering could be clearly described with five discrete stages, although most of the respondents reported being in the Maintenance stage. The pros of managing stuttering reliably predicted stage placement. Internal consistency of the scales ranged from good to excellent. OASES scores differed across stages of readiness in complex but predictable ways. Conclusions These findings suggest that the Transtheoretical Model fits the target behaviors involved stuttering management among adolescents. Further examination of the application of the model to validate a stage-based framework for change among individuals who stutter is warranted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rodrigo Becerra ◽  
Carmen Gloria Baeza ◽  
Ana Maria Fernandez ◽  
David A. Preece

Alexithymia is a trait composed of difficulties identifying feelings (DIF), difficulties describing feelings (DDF), and externally orientated thinking (EOT). It is an important transdiagnostic risk factor for psychosomatic disorders and other types of emotion-based psychopathologies, and can reduce the efficacy of some treatment approaches. Alexithymia assessments are therefore important in psychiatric and research settings. The Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire (PAQ) was recently developed to enable more comprehensive alexithymia assessments, however, its psychometric properties need further examination and it is so far only available in English. In this study, we sought to address this by translating the PAQ into Spanish and testing its psychometric properties in an adult sample from Chile (N = 370). Confirmatory factor analyses found the PAQ to have a theoretically congruent factor structure, supporting the contemporary status of alexithymia as a multifaceted construct and the PAQ's capacity to assess the DIF, DDF, and EOT facets of alexithymia across negative and positive emotions. All subscale and composite scores had high internal consistency reliability, and demonstrated good concurrent and discriminant validity. The PAQ therefore appears to provide a robust and detailed alexithymia profile. This Spanish version should help to enable more comprehensive cross-cultural research into alexithymia and its role in and psychological disorders.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Tolulope Adeniji ◽  
Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi

Purpose This study aims at translating and adapting a common and widely used proxy rated cognitive screening tool – Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) into Hausa language and also to evaluate the instrument’s psychometric properties. Design/methodology/approach IQCODE was translated and adapted using a qualitative process involving experts and the adapted version was then evaluated against a gold standard (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder V criteria for neurocognitive disorders) with older adults subjects (N = 100), while its reliability (internal consistency) was also evaluated. Descriptive statistics of mean and frequencies, and inferential statistic of receiver operating curve analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were used for data analysis at an alpha level set at 0.05. Findings The Hausa IQCODE has a sensitivity value of 73.3%, specificity value of 71.8% and optimal cut-off values of between 3.2 and 3.3. For his adapted instrument the area under the Curve (AUC) curve is 0.79 (95% CI: 0.663–0.919; std. err: 0.066; P = 0.000), and Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.819 was obtained indicating that the adapted instrument has good internal consistency. Research limitations/implications The adapted IQCODE is a valid and reliable proxy based cognitive screening tool for the older adult Hausa speakers in Maiduguri. However, clinician and researcher might want to consider different optimal cut-off points when using this tool to screen or to monitor cognitive changes among older adults. Originality/value This research paper translated and adapted Hausa IQCODE into Hausa language. And it gives information on the validity and reliability of the adapted tool alongside with new optimal cut-off for cognitive screening by proxy among older adult patients in Nigeria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Marwan F. Alawieh ◽  
Rania N. Bzeih ◽  
Mohamad F. El-Khatib ◽  
Abla M. Sibai ◽  
Lilian A. Ghandour ◽  

Abstract Background/objectives Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency requiring Home Mechanical Ventilation (HMV) requires a valid measurement tool. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) questionnaire, originally developed in German, has been translated into different languages and tested in different contexts, but has so far not been in use in Arabic-speaking populations. The objective of this study is to validate the Arabic version of the SRI questionnaire in a sample of Arabic-speaking patients from Lebanon. Methods Following forward/backward translations, the finalized Arabic version was administered to 149 patients (53 males–96 females, age 69.80 ± 10 years) receiving HMV. Patients were recruited from outpatient clinics and visited at home. The Arabic SRI and the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were administered, in addition to questions on sociodemographics and medical history. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was used to explore dimensionality; internal consistency reliability of the unidimensional scale and its subscales was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. External nomological validity was examined by assessing the correlation between the SRI and SF-36 scores. Results The 49-item Arabic SRI scale showed a high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha for the total scale was 0.897 and ranged between 0.73 and 0.87 for all subscales). Correlations between the SF-36-Mental Health Component MHC and SF-36-Physical Health Component with SRI-Summary Scale were 0.57 and 0.66, respectively, with higher correlations observed between the SF-36 and specific sub-scales such as the Physical Functioning and the Social Functioning subscales [r = 0.81 and r = 0.74 (P < 0.01), respectively]. Conclusion and recommendations The Arabic SRI is a reliable and valid tool for assessing HRQL in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency receiving home mechanical ventilation.

Ali H. Alnahdi ◽  
Ali Albarrati

The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the upper extremity functional index (UEFI) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Seventy patients with stable COPD completed the UEFI and St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and performed lung function tests in the first testing session. They completed the UEFI and the Global Rating of Change Scale in the second session, which was within ten days of the first session. The UEFI floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, test–retest reliability, measurement error, and construct validity were examined. The UEFI was found to have no floor and ceiling effects. The UEFI was also found to have an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.955) and an excellent test–retest reliability (ICC2,1 = 0.91). Totals of 4.85 points and 11.32 points represent the scale’s standard error of measurement, and a minimal detectable change at 90% confidence was used. The UEFI scores showed a significant correlation with the SGRQ activity domain (r = −0.66, p < 0.001) and differed significantly between participants with severe disease and those with mild disease (p = 0.03). The UEFI had no floor or ceiling issues, an excellent internal consistency, a good test–retest reliability, and an acceptable measurement error. The UEFI also demonstrated evidence supporting its construct validity as a measure of upper extremity-related activity limitations in patients with COPD.

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