scholarly journals The Role of Self-Care Activities (SASS-14) in Depression (PHQ-9): Evidence From Slovakia During the COVID-19 Pandemic

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Beata Gavurova ◽  
Boris Popesko ◽  
Viera Ivankova ◽  
Martin Rigelsky

In the ongoing situation, when the world is dominated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the development of self-care programs appears to be insufficient, while their role in mental health may be crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between self-care activities and depression in the general Slovak population, but also in its individual gender and age categories. This was achieved by validating the self-care screening instrument, assessing differences, and evaluating the associations using quantile regression analysis. The final research sample consisted of 806 participants [males: 314 (39%), females: 492 (61%)] and data were collected through an online questionnaire from February 12, 2021 to February 23, 2021. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression (α = 0.89) and Self-Care Activities Screening Scale (SASS-14) [health consciousness (HC) (α = 0.82), nutrition and physical activity (NPA) (α = 0.75), sleep quality (SLP) (α = 0.82), and interpersonal and intrapersonal coping strategies (IICS) (α = 0.58)] were used as screening measures. Mild depressive symptoms were found in 229 participants (28.41%), moderate depressive symptoms in 154 participants (19.11%), moderately severe depressive symptoms in 60 participants (7.44%) and severe depressive symptoms in 43 participants (5.33%). The main findings revealed the fact that individual self-care activities were associated with depression. This supported the idea that well-practiced self-care activities should be an immediate part of an individual's life in order to reduce depressive symptoms. Sleep quality played an important role, while HC indicated the need for increased attention. Other dimensions of self-care also showed significant results that should not be overlooked. In terms of depression, females and younger individuals need targeted interventions. The supportive educational intervention developed based on the self-care theory can help manage and maintain mental health during a stressful period, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Health policy leaders should focus on health-promoting preventive self-care interventions, as the demand for them increases even more during the pandemic.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Heba Saadeh ◽  
Maha Saadeh ◽  
Wesam Almobaideen ◽  
Assem Al Refaei ◽  
Nour Shewaikani ◽  

Objectives: This study was designed to assess the effect of COVID-19 home quarantine and its lifestyle challenges on the sleep quality and mental health of a large sample of undergraduate University students in Jordan. It is the first study applied to the Jordanian population. The aim was to investigate how quarantine for several weeks changed the students' habits and affected their mental health.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random representative sample of 6,157 undergraduate students (mean age 19.79 ± 1.67 years, males 28.7%) from the University of Jordan through voluntarily filling an online questionnaire. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to assess sleep quality and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: The PSQI mean score for the study participants was 8.1 ± 3.6. The sleep quality of three-quarters of the participants was negatively affected by the extended quarantine. Nearly half of the participants reported poor sleep quality. The prevalence of poor sleep quality among participants was 76% (males: 71.5% and females: 77.8%). Similarly, the prevalence of the depressive symptoms was 71% (34% for moderate and 37% for high depressive symptoms), with females showing higher prevalence than males. The overall mean CES-D score for the group with low depressive symptoms is 9.3, for the moderate group is 19.8, while it is 34.3 for the high depressive symptoms group. More than half of the students (62.5%) reported that the quarantine had a negative effect on their mental health. Finally, females, smokers, and students with decreased income levels during the extended quarantine were the common exposures that are significantly associated with a higher risk of developing sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms.Conclusions: Mass and extended quarantine succeeded in controlling the spread of the COVID-19 virus; however, it comes with a high cost of potential psychological impacts. Most of the students reported that they suffer from sleeping disorders and had a degree of depressive symptoms. Officials should provide psychological support and clear guidance to help the general public to reduce these potential effects and overcome the quarantine period with minimum negative impacts.

2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 507-508
Ying Wang ◽  
Mandong Liu ◽  
Iris Chi

Abstract Chinese immigrant caregivers face unique self-care difficulties in the United States due to language barriers, cultural isolation, and occupational stress. This study aimed to conduct a formative evaluation on a caregiver self-care curriculum of an app designed for Chinese immigrants in the United States. Using a co-design approach in 2019, 22 Chinese immigrant caregivers in Los Angeles county were recruited through purposive sampling method. The directed content analysis was adopted to analyze the qualitative data using NVivo 12.1.0 software. We organized the findings under two main contents: self-care and caregiving. Three categories were identified under the self-care content: physical health, emotional and mental health, and support resources. Sixteen subcategories under physical health (e.g., dietary supplements), five subcategories under emotional and mental health (e.g., depression) and eight subcategories under support resources (e.g., support and networking group, senior center) are suggested. Two categories were identified under the caregiving content: caregiving knowledge and skills, and community resources. Fourteen subcategories under caregiving knowledge and skills (e.g., care assessment) and six subcategories under community resources (e.g., medical emergency call) were mentioned. With this useful information, we could further refine the self-care curriculum to be more linguistically, culturally and occupationally sensitive for Chinese immigrant caregivers. Empowerment approach for enhancing the ability to caregiving and self-care should be emphasized in content design for immigrant caregivers. The co-design approach is crucial for planning of the program and intervention curriculum to improve understanding of the users’ needs and better cater them.

2021 ◽  
pp. 003329412110006
Kelly Ka Lai Lam ◽  
Wei-Wen Chen

In this study, we investigated the relations between family interaction, gratitude, and depressive symptoms among Chinese emerging adults. It also investigated gratitude as a mediator in the relation between family interaction and depression. Data were obtained from 321 college students who completed the online questionnaire about the Family Assessment Instrument, Gratitude Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire, and demographic information. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypotheses and bootstrapping with 5,000 resamplings (95% confidence interval) was used to confirm the mediation model. Results showed that gratitude partially mediated the relation between family interaction and depression. In other words, students with healthy family interaction, as indicated by perceived better family communication, mutuality, and harmony with family members, tended to report higher general gratitude, and subsequently diminished depressive symptoms. The practical implications were discussed.

2020 ◽  
Christine Byrnes ◽  
Anu Ganapathy ◽  
Melinda Lam ◽  
Lise Mogensen ◽  
Wendy CY Hu

Abstract Background Medical student mental health and wellbeing is highly topical worldwide. Research has tended to be either large-scale, quantitative, prevalence studies of wellbeing and associated factors such as burnout, or evaluations of single institution interventions. While theoretically informed definitions of wellbeing abound, how do medical students themselves understand and perceive wellbeing? What aspects of the curriculum do they regard as affecting their wellbeing and mental health? This study explored these questions, and aimed to identify factors associated with student acceptability of wellbeing programs and interventions. Methods All students at an Australian undergraduate medical school were invited to complete a qualitative online questionnaire between 2017 and 2018 following the introduction of several wellbeing initiatives, including “Wellbeing Days” (WBD). WBD allow students to take single absence days for self-care. Open-ended questions were asked about perceptions and experience of wellbeing and mental health, and views on interventions to improve wellbeing such as WBD. Thematic analysis was performed , initially by three authors who developed preliminary themes, then confirmed by all researchers . Thematic saturation was achieved within the 68 responses, which included participants from all cohorts. Results Participants described wellbeing as positively experienced work/life balance, impacted by four factors; contact hours, peer relationships, staff relationships, and trust in how wellbeing initiatives were used. Long course contact hours were deemed incompatible with self-care activities, maintaining employment, and seeking professional medical/psychological help. Peers could promote wellbeing by offering social and academic support, but also undermine wellbeing by being competitors. Degree of trust, engagement and communication with staff influenced acceptability of interventions. Participants viewed initiatives such as WBD favourably, but distrust of peers, and of staff, led to perceptions that WBD could be prone to misuse, or used for surveillance rather than support. Conclusion Our findings suggest that wellbeing days which allow self-care, reduction in contact hours, and peer support may promote student wellbeing, but the acceptability of any interventions is influenced by relationships between students and staff, and with peers. Further research is recommended to investigate the relationship between trust, perceptions of wellbeing in self and peers, and the effectiveness of wellbeing interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Daniel Rogoža ◽  
Robertas Strumila ◽  
Eglė Klivickaitė ◽  
Edgaras Diržius ◽  
Neringa Čėnaitė

Background: Previous research suggests that healthcare professionals (HCPs) experience high levels of work-related psychological distress, including depressive symptoms. Due to the stigma of mental health problems and other barriers, HCPs are likely to be hesitant to seek appropriate mental healthcare. We aimed to explore these phenomena among HCPs in Lithuania.Methods: A web survey inquiring about depressive symptoms, help-seeking, and barriers to mental healthcare was conducted. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). 601 complete questionnaires were included in the analyses. The barriers to help-seeking were identified using the inductive content analysis approach. Descriptive, non-parametric, and robust statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software.Results: Most of the respondents have reported depression-like symptoms over the lifetime, although only about a third of them sought professional help. Of those, roughly half preferred a private specialist. The stigma and neglect of mental health problems were the most common barriers to help-seeking. Around half of the HCPs believed that seeking mental healthcare can imperil their occupational license. About a quarter of the HCPs screened positive for clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Statistically significant differences in the PHQ-9 score were found between categories of healthcare specialty, marital status, religious beliefs, workplace, and years of work as a HCP. Fewer years of work and younger age were associated with the higher PHQ-9 score.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HCPs in Lithuania may be inclined not to seek appropriate mental healthcare and experience poor mental health, although stronger evidence is needed to verify these findings. 

2021 ◽  
Chen Chen ◽  
Yun Chen ◽  
Qingzhi Huang ◽  
Shengming Yan ◽  
Junli Zhu

UNSTRUCTURED Background: Severe Mental Disorders (SMD) have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for the quality of life and functioning. In the pages that follow, it will be argued that the self-care ability and its influencing factors among SMD patients in Beijing, according to the questionnaire survey in 2019. Methods: The present study aimed to explore the factors influencing the self-care ability of SMD patients. Multi-stage sampling and proportioning sampling were used to take samples. The demographic characteristics of patients were obtained by questionnaires, and the self-care ability was measured by self-made scales. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influencing factors. Results: We surveyed 662 people and found that the deficiency of self-care ability is common in SMD patients. Significant relations were found between self-care ability and age, educated levels, guardian care, course of disease and physical disease (P<0.05). From a dimensional perspective, the daily basic activity was associated with educated levels and physical disease (P<0.05); the housework ability was associated with gender, educated levels, source of income, physical disease and medication adherence (P<0.05); the social function was associated with age, educated levels, source of income, guardian care course of disease, physical disease and medication adherence (P<0.05). Conclusion: The self-care ability of SMD patients is affected by many factors, including patient characteristics and social factors. Therefore, targeted interventions are needed to help patients restore their self-care ability, which requires the joint efforts of the government and the whole society.

2018 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 527-534 ◽  
Maria Liljeroos ◽  
Anna Strömberg ◽  
Kristofer Årestedt ◽  
Misook L Chung

Background: As treatment has improved, patients with heart failure live longer, and the care mostly takes place at home with partners providing the main assistance. Perceived control over heart failure is important in managing self-care activities to maintain health in patients and their family. Depressive symptoms are associated with impaired health status in patients with heart failure and their family. However, there is limited knowledge about how depressive symptoms affect the relationship between health status and perceived control over heart failure in patients with heart failure and their cohabiting partners. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between perceived control and health status (i.e. mental and physical) was mediated by depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure and their partners. Methods: In this secondary data analysis, we included 132 heart failure patients and 132 partners who completed measures of depressive symptoms (the Beck depression inventory II), perceived control (the control attitude scale), and physical and mental health status (the short form-36) instruments. The mediation effect of depression was examined using a series of multiple regression in patients and their family caregivers separately. Results: We found a mediator effect of depressive symptoms in the relationship between perceived control and mental health status in both patients and partners. The relationship between perceived control and physical health status was mediated by depressive symptoms in the patients, not in the partners. Conclusion: Efforts to improve self-care management and maintenance by targeting perceived control may be more effective if depressive symptoms are also effectively managed.

2019 ◽  
Vol 3 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S944-S945
Eunbea Kim ◽  
Danielle K Nadorff ◽  
Rachel Scott ◽  
Ian T McKay

Abstract Increased life expectancy and the diversity of family structure have resulted in a substantial rise in the number of families with grandparents as the main caregivers (e.g. custodial grandparents). The structures of these families affect the well-being of all family members. After middle age, psychological well-being is associated with marital relationship quality, and raising one’s grandchildren is a known source of strain to relationships. The current study examined adults aged 40 and older (M age = 57.6 yr, 53% female) using a nationwide sample from MIDUS to assess the extent to which custodial grandparenting status influences marital affectual solidarity, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and perceived stress. Measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Index, Spousal Affectual Solidarity, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Marital affectual solidarity was significantly related to custodial status and psychological well-being, and there were significant differences in marital relationship quality and psychological well-being between custodial grandparents and non-custodial grandparents. However, custodial status failed to moderate the relation between marital affectual solidarity and mental health. Although other factors surrounding custodial grandparents likely affect their marital relationship and mental health, these results suggest that grandparents raising grandchildren are under particular strain in their marriages and are in need of targeted interventions to ameliorate stress and depressive symptoms. These findings will inform the need for more research and supportive educational programs on family relationships and the psychological health of custodial grandparents.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Daniel A. Antiporta ◽  
Yuri L. Cutipé ◽  
Maria Mendoza ◽  
David D. Celentano ◽  
Elizabeth A. Stuart ◽  

Abstract Background Population health and well-being in Latin America, the current epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, has been severely affected during the past semester. Despite the growing evidence about the link between the pandemic, its control measures, and mental health worldwide, there is still no regional evidence of the potential mental health impact. We describe the prevalence and distribution of depressive symptoms across demographic and socioeconomic risk factors in the Peruvian population amidst a national lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Cross-sectional study conducted during the community transmission phase and national lockdown in Peru (May 4th–16th, 2020). We recorded 64,493 responses from adult Peruvian residents through an opt-in online questionnaire. All analyses were weighted using raking based on proportions of sociodemographic variables from the last Peruvian census in 2017. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was calculated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score of 10 or more. We identified associated demographic and socioeconomic factors by prior mental health diagnosis. Sensitivity analysis considered an alternative cut-off point for depressive symptoms of PHQ-9 ≥ 14. Results A total of 57,446 participants were included in the analytical sample. A third of the participants (n = 23,526, unweighted) showed depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to the study. Participants who reported a previous mental health diagnosis doubled the sample prevalence of depressive symptoms (59, 95%CI 56.7, 61.4%) of those without a prior diagnosis. Psychosocial and functioning reactions were largely more prevalent among females and young adults. A dose-response relationship was found between household income and depressive symptoms across previous mental health diagnosis strata, being as low as 32% less in the wealthiest than the most impoverished group (PR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.58,0.79). Other critical factors associated with a higher burden of depressive symptoms were lower education level, single, unemployed, and chronic comorbidity. Conclusions An increased burden of depressive symptoms and psychosocial reactions has emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru compared to previous years. The mental health burden disproportionately affects women, the younger population, and those with low income and education. As the country eases the social distancing measures, it is crucial to use local evidence to adjust public health policies and mental health services to the renewed population needs.

Stefan Fröhlich ◽  
Christian Imboden ◽  
Samuel Iff ◽  
Jörg Spörri ◽  
Boris B. Quednow ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated first lockdown measures may have had a relevant impact on the mental health of competitive athletes. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of various mental health issues in a Swiss elite athletes’ cohort during the first lockdown of the pandemic, and to assess their association with different potential risk factors. Elite athletes from different disciplines were interviewed during the first lockdown in spring 2020 by means of an online questionnaire on symptoms of existing anxieties, depression and sleep disorders, as well as on training circumstances and physical performance before and during the lockdown. Additionally, the economic situation, secondary occupations and current physical health problems were surveyed. A total of 203 (92 female, 111 male) athletes met the inclusion criteria and participated in the survey. Training volume and intensity decreased significantly during lockdown from 3.1 to 2.7 h/day. Financial existential fears increased and were associated with higher training volumes and higher trait anxiety scores. Depressive symptoms and insomnia were present but not exceptionally frequent during the lockdown. Depressive symptoms were associated with higher anxiety scores, higher insomnia severity scores, lower training intensity and worse coping with the measures taken by the authorities against the pandemic. Changes in training and daily habits due to the first lockdown may have affected the mental health of elite athletes. Longitudinal studies should, however, further investigate the long-term effects of the pandemic on mental health.

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