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Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 200
Maria R. Pozo ◽  
Gantt W. Meredith ◽  
Emilia Entcheva

The epigenetic landscape and the responses to pharmacological epigenetic regulators in each human are unique. Classes of epigenetic writers and erasers, such as histone acetyltransferases, HATs, and histone deacetylases, HDACs, control DNA acetylation/deacetylation and chromatin accessibility, thus exerting transcriptional control in a tissue- and person-specific manner. Rapid development of novel pharmacological agents in clinical testing—HDAC inhibitors (HDACi)—targets these master regulators as common means of therapeutic intervention in cancer and immune diseases. The action of these epigenetic modulators is much less explored for cardiac tissue, yet all new drugs need to be tested for cardiotoxicity. To advance our understanding of chromatin regulation in the heart, and specifically how modulation of DNA acetylation state may affect functional electrophysiological responses, human-induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hiPSC-CM) technology can be leveraged as a scalable, high-throughput platform with ability to provide patient-specific insights. This review covers relevant background on the known roles of HATs and HDACs in the heart, the current state of HDACi development, applications, and any adverse cardiac events; it also summarizes relevant differential gene expression data for the adult human heart vs. hiPSC-CMs along with initial transcriptional and functional results from using this new experimental platform to yield insights on epigenetic control of the heart. We focus on the multitude of methodologies and workflows needed to quantify responses to HDACis in hiPSC-CMs. This overview can help highlight the power and the limitations of hiPSC-CMs as a scalable experimental model in capturing epigenetic responses relevant to the human heart.

M.I. Bocharov ◽  
A.S. Shilov

Despite much available information on the heart activity under acute normobaric hypoxia (ANH), there are no data on the leading ECG components and the criteria for predicting their deviations at various stages of ANH and depending on its duration. The aim of the paper is to determine the leading ECG components and the dependence of their deviations on the initial parameters at different stages of acute normobaric hypoxia and depending on its duration in a healthy person. Materials and Methods. The shifts in parameter indicators were determined in two groups of men (aged 18–26) under 20-minute mild (14.5 % O2, n1=30) and medium (12.3 % O2, n2=29) ANH. During the study the authors used 7 ECG parameters and oximetry. Statistica 10.0 software package was used for data processing. The authors determined normality of distribution, they also used factor analysis, correlation, and regression. Results. For all ANH degrees, the leading factor included QT, T1II, and (with one exception) RR. In case of mild ANH, the 1st factor was supplemented by P1II at the 5th minute of exposure, and in case of medium ANH at the 20th minute. The second most important factor in case of mild ANH was determined by BAR and RII at the 5th and 20th min and by BAR at the 10th min. In case of medium ANH it was supplemented by P1II at the 5th min, by RII and BAR at the 10th min, and by BAL at the 20th min. It was shown that in case of mild ANH P1II, RII, BAR, and RR deviations reliably depend on the initial parameters; for medium ANH, such dependence is observed for RR and QT at the 5th and 10th min, for RII at the 10th and 20th min, and for P1II at the 20th min. Conclusion. The main markers of heart bioelectrical processes under ANH are QT, T1II and RR, other parameters are variable. The availability to predict deviations of ECG parameters by their initial parameters depends on ANH stage. Key words: human, hypoxia, oximetry, electrocardiography, factorial, correlation, regression analysis. Несмотря на имеющиеся многочисленные сведения о деятельности сердца при острой нормобарической гипоксии (ОНГ), данные о ведущих компонентах ЭКГ и критериях прогнозирования их отклонений при разной степени ОНГ и в зависимости от ее длительности отсутствуют. Цель работы – определить ведущие компоненты ЭКГ и зависимости их отклонений от исходных величин при разных степенях острой нормобарической гипоксии и в зависимости от её длительности у здорового человека. Материалы и методы. С помощью ЭКГ (7 параметров) и оксигемометрии определены сдвиги их показателей у мужчин (18–26 лет) двух групп при легкой (14,5 % О2, n1=30) и средней (12,3 % О2, n2=29) ОНГ в течение 20 мин. Материал обработан с помощью программного пакета Statistica 10.0. Определяли нормальность распределения, применяли факторный анализ, корреляцию, регрессию. Результаты. При всех степенях ОНГ ведущий фактор включал QT, T1II и (с одним исключением) RR. При легкой ОНГ 1-й фактор на 5-й мин воздействия дополняется P1II, а при средней ОНГ на 20-й мин – P1II. Второй по весомости фактор при легкой ОНГ на 5-й и 20-й мин определяется BAR и RII, на 10-й мин – BAR, а при средней ОНГ на 5-й мин – P1II, на 10-й мин – RII и BAR, на 20-й мин – BAL. Показано, что при легкой ОНГ от исходных данных достоверно зависят отклонения P1II, RII, BAR и RR, при средней ОНГ такая зависимость наблюдается для RR и QT на 5-й и 10-й мин, для RII на 10-й и 20-й мин и для P1II на 20-й мин. Выводы. Основными маркерами биоэлектрических процессов сердца при ОНГ являются QT, T1II и RR, остальные параметры отличаются вариабельностью. Возможность прогноза отклонений параметров ЭКГ по их исходным величинам зависит от степени ОНГ. Ключевые слова: человек, гипоксия, оксигемометрия, электрокардиография, факторный, корреляционный, регрессионный анализы.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 119-130
Iskandar Yusuf ◽  
Iskandar Iskandar

Teachers in the perspective of Islamic education are people who are responsible for the development of all potential students. If we look functionally the word teacher can be interpreted as a giver or distributor of knowledge, skills. A teacher has a sense of responsibility towards his duties as a teacher. As said by Imam Ghazali that "the task of educators is to perfect, clean, perfect and bring the human heart to Taqarrub to Allah SWT. While students are creatures who are in the process of development and growth according to their respective natures, where they really need consistent guidance and direction towards the optimal point of their natural abilities. Based on this understanding, students can be characterized as people who are in need of knowledge or knowledge, guidance and direction.

Morphologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 213-219
A.O. Svitlytskyi ◽  
A.V. Cherniavskyi ◽  
Yu.Yu. Abrosimov

The present time is characterized by an increase in the pace of life, and medicine is no exception. Often, when analyzing the medical literature, specialists are faced with the fact that in different publications almost the same structure has a different name, which causes misunderstanding among specialists in various medical fields. This is especially true for clinicians who use the convenient anatomical names of fundamental scientists such as morphologists. As these names, terms from the International Anatomical Nomenclature are used, along with which, especially in clinical anatomy and medicine, eponymous names are accepted. The use of the latter can also be misunderstood, because eponyms are absent in modern anatomical terminology. However, additional knowledge of eponyms, along with common terms, gives the opportunity to look into the past and honor the memory of those who first described the structures. The paper attempts to systematize the names - eponyms of human heart structures. The need for such work exists because many structures have several eponymous names. In addition, if you arrange the terms in the chronological order of their occurrence, you can trace the main stages in the history of the human heart study. Despite the large number of eponymous names for the same structure and the doubtful attribution of some authors, the work lists only the most common eponyms in domestic and foreign literature, about the origin and authors of which reliable information was found. In 1955, at the IV International Congress of Anatomists in Paris (Paris Anatomical Nomenclature, PNA), eponymous names were excluded from the terminology. There are a number of objective reasons for this, but at the same time, the main function of eponyms is lost - the preservation and transmission to descendants the memory of major figures of medical science who made a significant contribution to its development. Therefore, despite the exclusion of eponyms from the official terminology, these terms are widely used today both at the departments of universities in the world, and in clinical literature and practice.

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