acute hypoxia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 140 ◽  
pp. 104297
Author(s):  
Fengyang Li ◽  
Xue Gou ◽  
Dan Xu ◽  
Dan Han ◽  
Kai Hou ◽  
...  

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 484
Author(s):  
Luke Erber ◽  
Shirelle Liu ◽  
Yao Gong ◽  
Phu Tran ◽  
Yue Chen

Iron and oxygen deficiencies are common features in pathophysiological conditions, such as ischemia, neurological diseases, and cancer. Cellular adaptive responses to such deficiencies include repression of mitochondrial respiration, promotion of angiogenesis, and cell cycle control. We applied a systematic proteomics analysis to determine the global proteomic changes caused by acute hypoxia and chronic and acute iron deficiency (ID) in hippocampal neuronal cells. Our analysis identified over 8600 proteins, revealing similar and differential effects of each treatment on activation and inhibition of pathways regulating neuronal development. In addition, comparative analysis of ID-induced proteomics changes in cultured cells and transcriptomic changes in the rat hippocampus identified common altered pathways, indicating specific neuronal effects. Transcription factor enrichment and correlation analysis identified key transcription factors that were activated in both cultured cells and tissue by iron deficiency, including those implicated in iron regulation, such as HIF1, NFY, and NRF1. We further identified MEF2 as a novel transcription factor whose activity was induced by ID in both HT22 proteome and rat hippocampal transcriptome, thus linking iron deficiency to MEF2-dependent cellular signaling pathways in neuronal development. Taken together, our study results identified diverse signaling networks that were differentially regulated by hypoxia and ID in neuronal cells.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Argen Mamazhakypov ◽  
Meerim Sartmyrzaeva ◽  
Nadira Kushubakova ◽  
Melis Duishobaev ◽  
Abdirashit Maripov ◽  
...  

Background: Acute hypoxia exposure is associated with an elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), resulting in an increased hemodynamic load on the right ventricle (RV). In addition, hypoxia may exert direct effects on the RV. However, the RV responses to such challenges are not fully characterized. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the effects of acute hypoxia on the RV in healthy lowland adults.Methods: We systematically reviewed PubMed and Web of Science and article references from 2005 until May 2021 for prospective studies evaluating echocardiographic RV function and morphology in healthy lowland adults at sea level and upon exposure to simulated altitude or high-altitude.Results: We included 37 studies in this systematic review, 12 of which used simulated altitude and 25 were conducted in high-altitude field conditions. Eligible studies reported at least one of the RV variables, which were all based on transthoracic echocardiography assessing RV systolic and diastolic function and RV morphology. The design of these studies significantly differed in terms of mode of ascent to high-altitude, altitude level, duration of high-altitude stay, and timing of measurements. In the majority of the studies, echocardiographic examinations were performed within the first 10 days of high-altitude induction. Studies also differed widely by selectively reporting only a part of multiple RV parameters. Despite consistent increase in PAP documented in all studies, reports on the changes of RV function and morphology greatly differed between studies.Conclusion: This systematic review revealed that the study reports on the effects of acute hypoxia on the RV are controversial and inconclusive. This may be the result of significantly different study designs, non-compliance with international guidelines on RV function assessment and limited statistical power due to small sample sizes. Moreover, the potential impact of other factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, physical activity, mode of ascent and environmental factors such as temperature and humidity on RV responses to hypoxia remained unexplored. Thus, this comprehensive overview will promote reproducible research with improved study designs and methods for the future large-scale prospective studies, which eventually may provide important insights into the RV response to acute hypoxia exposure.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sebastián Castillo-Galán ◽  
Daniela Parrau ◽  
Ismael Hernández ◽  
Sebastián Quezada ◽  
Marcela Díaz ◽  
...  

Calcium signaling is key for the contraction, differentiation, and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, calcium influx through store-operated channels (SOCs) is particularly important in the vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia. Previously, we found a decrease in pulmonary hypertension and remodeling in normoxic newborn lambs partially gestated under chronic hypoxia, when treated with 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borinate (2-APB), a non-specific SOC blocker. However, the effects of 2-APB are unknown in neonates completely gestated, born, and raised under environmental hypoxia. Accordingly, we studied the effects of 2-APB-treatment on the cardiopulmonary variables in lambs under chronic hypobaric hypoxia. Experiments were done in nine newborn lambs gestated, born, and raised in high altitude (3,600 m): five animals were treated with 2-APB [intravenous (i.v.) 10 mg kg–1] for 10 days, while other four animals received vehicle. During the treatment, cardiopulmonary variables were measured daily, and these were also evaluated during an acute episode of superimposed hypoxia, 1 day after the end of the treatment. Furthermore, pulmonary vascular remodeling was assessed by histological analysis 2 days after the end of the treatment. Basal cardiac output and mean systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and resistance from 2-APB- and vehicle-treated lambs did not differ along with the treatment. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) decreased after the first day of 2-APB treatment and remained lower than the vehicle-treated group until the third day, and during the fifth, sixth, and ninth day of treatment. The net mPAP increase in response to acute hypoxia did not change, but the pressure area under the curve (AUC) during hypoxia was slightly lower in 2-APB-treated lambs than in vehicle-treated lambs. Moreover, the 2-APB treatment decreased the pulmonary arterial wall thickness and the α-actin immunoreactivity and increased the luminal area with no changes in the vascular density. Our findings show that 2-APB treatment partially reduced the contractile hypoxic response and reverted the pulmonary vascular remodeling, but this is not enough to normalize the pulmonary hemodynamics in chronically hypoxic newborn lambs.


Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 56
Author(s):  
Hang Cheng ◽  
Yiming (Amy) Qin ◽  
Rashpal Dhillon ◽  
James Dowell ◽  
John M. Denu ◽  
...  

Hypoxia poses a major physiological challenge for mammals and has significant impacts on cellular and systemic metabolism. As with many other small rodents, naked mole-rats (NMRs; Heterocephalus glaber), who are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals, respond to hypoxia by supressing energy demand (i.e., through a reduction in metabolic rate mediated by a variety of cell- and tissue-level strategies), and altering metabolic fuel use to rely primarily on carbohydrates. However, little is known regarding specific metabolite changes that underlie these responses. We hypothesized that NMR tissues utilize multiple strategies in responding to acute hypoxia, including the modulation of signalling pathways to reduce anabolism and reprogram carbohydrate metabolism. To address this question, we evaluated changes of 64 metabolites in NMR brain and liver following in vivo hypoxia exposure (7% O2, 4 h). We also examined changes in matched tissues from similarly treated hypoxia-intolerant mice. We report that, following exposure to in vivo hypoxia: (1) phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan anabolism are supressed both in NMR brain and liver; (2) carbohydrate metabolism is reprogramed in NMR brain and liver, but in a divergent manner; (3) redox state is significantly altered in NMR brain; and (4) the AMP/ATP ratio is elevated in liver. Overall, our results suggest that hypoxia induces significant metabolic remodelling in NMR brain and liver via alterations of multiple metabolic pathways.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Silvia V. Conde ◽  
Joana F. Sacramento ◽  
Bernardete F. Melo ◽  
Rui Fonseca-Pinto ◽  
Mario I. Romero-Ortega ◽  
...  

Chronic carotid sinus nerve (CSN) electrical modulation through kilohertz frequency alternating current improves metabolic control in rat models of type 2 diabetes, underpinning the potential of bioelectronic modulation of the CSN as a therapeutic modality for metabolic diseases in humans. The CSN carries sensory information from the carotid bodies, peripheral chemoreceptor organs that respond to changes in blood biochemical modifications such as hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, and hyperinsulinemia. In addition, the CSN also delivers information from carotid sinus baroreceptors—mechanoreceptor sensory neurons directly involved in the control of blood pressure—to the central nervous system. The interaction between these powerful reflex systems—chemoreflex and baroreflex—whose sensory receptors are in anatomical proximity, may be regarded as a drawback to the development of selective bioelectronic tools to modulate the CSN. Herein we aimed to disclose CSN influence on cardiovascular regulation, particularly under hypoxic conditions, and we tested the hypothesis that neuromodulation of the CSN, either by electrical stimuli or surgical means, does not significantly impact blood pressure. Experiments were performed in Wistar rats aged 10–12 weeks. No significant effects of acute hypoxia were observed in systolic or diastolic blood pressure or heart rate although there was a significant activation of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system. We conclude that chemoreceptor activation by hypoxia leads to an expected increase in sympathetic activity accompanied by compensatory regional mechanisms that assure blood flow to regional beds and maintenance of hemodynamic homeostasis. Upon surgical denervation or electrical block of the CSN, the increase in cardiac sympathetic nervous system activity in response to hypoxia was lost, and there were no significant changes in blood pressure in comparison to control animals. We conclude that the responses to hypoxia and vasomotor control short-term regulation of blood pressure are dissociated in terms of hypoxic response but integrated to generate an effector response to a given change in arterial pressure.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 236
Author(s):  
Kamila Płoszczyca ◽  
Małgorzata Chalimoniuk ◽  
Iwona Przybylska ◽  
Miłosz Czuba

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium phosphate (SP) supplementation on aerobic capacity in hypoxia. Twenty-four trained male cyclists received SP (50 mg·kg−1 of FFM/day) or placebo for six days in a randomized, crossover study, with a three-week washout period between supplementation phases. Before and after each supplementation phase, the subjects performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion in hypoxia (FiO2 = 16%). Additionally, the levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), inorganic phosphate (Pi), calcium (Ca), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and acid-base balance were determined. The results showed that phosphate loading significantly increased the Pi level by 9.0%, whereas 2,3-DPG levels, hemoglobin oxygen affinity, buffering capacity and myocardial efficiency remained unchanged. The aerobic capacity in hypoxia was not improved following SP. Additionally, our data revealed high inter-individual variability in response to SP. Therefore, the participants were grouped as Responders and Non-Responders. In the Responders, a significant increase in aerobic performance in the range of 3–5% was observed. In conclusion, SP supplementation is not an ergogenic aid for aerobic capacity in hypoxia. However, in certain individuals, some benefits can be expected, but mainly in athletes with less training-induced central and/or peripheral adaptation.


Author(s):  
M.I. Bocharov ◽  
A.S. Shilov

Despite much available information on the heart activity under acute normobaric hypoxia (ANH), there are no data on the leading ECG components and the criteria for predicting their deviations at various stages of ANH and depending on its duration. The aim of the paper is to determine the leading ECG components and the dependence of their deviations on the initial parameters at different stages of acute normobaric hypoxia and depending on its duration in a healthy person. Materials and Methods. The shifts in parameter indicators were determined in two groups of men (aged 18–26) under 20-minute mild (14.5 % O2, n1=30) and medium (12.3 % O2, n2=29) ANH. During the study the authors used 7 ECG parameters and oximetry. Statistica 10.0 software package was used for data processing. The authors determined normality of distribution, they also used factor analysis, correlation, and regression. Results. For all ANH degrees, the leading factor included QT, T1II, and (with one exception) RR. In case of mild ANH, the 1st factor was supplemented by P1II at the 5th minute of exposure, and in case of medium ANH at the 20th minute. The second most important factor in case of mild ANH was determined by BAR and RII at the 5th and 20th min and by BAR at the 10th min. In case of medium ANH it was supplemented by P1II at the 5th min, by RII and BAR at the 10th min, and by BAL at the 20th min. It was shown that in case of mild ANH P1II, RII, BAR, and RR deviations reliably depend on the initial parameters; for medium ANH, such dependence is observed for RR and QT at the 5th and 10th min, for RII at the 10th and 20th min, and for P1II at the 20th min. Conclusion. The main markers of heart bioelectrical processes under ANH are QT, T1II and RR, other parameters are variable. The availability to predict deviations of ECG parameters by their initial parameters depends on ANH stage. Key words: human, hypoxia, oximetry, electrocardiography, factorial, correlation, regression analysis. Несмотря на имеющиеся многочисленные сведения о деятельности сердца при острой нормобарической гипоксии (ОНГ), данные о ведущих компонентах ЭКГ и критериях прогнозирования их отклонений при разной степени ОНГ и в зависимости от ее длительности отсутствуют. Цель работы – определить ведущие компоненты ЭКГ и зависимости их отклонений от исходных величин при разных степенях острой нормобарической гипоксии и в зависимости от её длительности у здорового человека. Материалы и методы. С помощью ЭКГ (7 параметров) и оксигемометрии определены сдвиги их показателей у мужчин (18–26 лет) двух групп при легкой (14,5 % О2, n1=30) и средней (12,3 % О2, n2=29) ОНГ в течение 20 мин. Материал обработан с помощью программного пакета Statistica 10.0. Определяли нормальность распределения, применяли факторный анализ, корреляцию, регрессию. Результаты. При всех степенях ОНГ ведущий фактор включал QT, T1II и (с одним исключением) RR. При легкой ОНГ 1-й фактор на 5-й мин воздействия дополняется P1II, а при средней ОНГ на 20-й мин – P1II. Второй по весомости фактор при легкой ОНГ на 5-й и 20-й мин определяется BAR и RII, на 10-й мин – BAR, а при средней ОНГ на 5-й мин – P1II, на 10-й мин – RII и BAR, на 20-й мин – BAL. Показано, что при легкой ОНГ от исходных данных достоверно зависят отклонения P1II, RII, BAR и RR, при средней ОНГ такая зависимость наблюдается для RR и QT на 5-й и 10-й мин, для RII на 10-й и 20-й мин и для P1II на 20-й мин. Выводы. Основными маркерами биоэлектрических процессов сердца при ОНГ являются QT, T1II и RR, остальные параметры отличаются вариабельностью. Возможность прогноза отклонений параметров ЭКГ по их исходным величинам зависит от степени ОНГ. Ключевые слова: человек, гипоксия, оксигемометрия, электрокардиография, факторный, корреляционный, регрессионный анализы.


Author(s):  
Cory W Dugan ◽  
Shane K Maloney ◽  
Kristina J Abramoff ◽  
Sohan S Panag ◽  
Elizabeth A Davis ◽  
...  

Abstract Context Current exercise guidelines for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) do not consider the impact that high altitude may have on blood glucose levels (BGL) during exercise. Objective To investigate the effect of acute hypoxia (simulated high altitude) on BGL and carbohydrate oxidation rates during moderate intensity exercise in individuals with T1D. Methods Using a counterbalanced, repeated measures study design, 7 individuals with T1D completed two exercise sessions; normoxia and hypoxia (~4,200m simulated altitude). Participants cycled for 60min on an ergometer at 45% of their sea-level V̇O2peak, and then recovered for 60min. Before, during and after exercise, blood samples were taken to measure glucose, lactate and insulin levels. Respiratory gases were collected to measure carbohydrate oxidation rates. Results Early during exercise (<30min), there was no fall in BGL in either condition. After one hour of exercise and during recovery, BGL were significantly lower under the hypoxic condition compared to both pre-exercise levels (p=0.008) and the normoxic condition (p=0.027). Exercise in both conditions resulted in a significant rise in carbohydrate oxidation rates, which returned to baseline levels post-exercise. Before, during and after exercise, carbohydrate oxidation rates were higher under the hypoxic compared with the normoxic condition (p<0.001). Conclusions The greater decline in BGL during and after exercise performed under acute hypoxia suggests that exercise during acute exposure to high altitude may increase the risk of hypoglycemia in individuals with T1D. Future guidelines may have to consider the impact altitude has on exercise-mediated hypoglycemia.


Technologies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 102
Author(s):  
Oriana Pecchio ◽  
Massimo Martinelli ◽  
Giuseppe Lupi ◽  
Guido Giardini ◽  
Laura Caligiana ◽  
...  

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is significantly influenced by exposure to hypoxia, both hypobaric and normobaric. Alterations in cerebral blood flow can play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute mountain sickness (AMS) and its symptoms, especially headache, dizziness, and nausea. Acupuncture has been proven to be effective in treating some cerebrovascular disorders and PC6 Nei Guan stimulation seems to enhance cerebral blood flow. Therefore, we have hypothesized that PC6 Nei Guan stimulation could affect CBF in acute hypoxia and could be used to contrast AMS symptoms. We evaluated blood flow in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in normoxia, after 15 min in normobaric hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) 14%, corresponding to 3600 m a.s.l.) in basal conditions, and after PC6 Nei Guan stimulation, both by needle and by pressure. No comparisons with other acupuncture points and sham acupuncture were done. PC6 stimulation seemed to counteract the effects of acute normobaric hypoxia on end-diastolic velocity (EDV) in MCA, especially after acupuncture, and significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A rebalance of CBF could control some AMS symptoms, but further studies are necessary.


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