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The cutting-edge technology, namely Cloud of Things (CoT) has shaped the existing business process into a new orientation in terms of performance, usability, and reliability. Among different business processes, online education is one of the prime areas where CoT can be used to make it more agile in the context of performance and usability. In this endeavor, a novel methodology has been proposed for an online higher education framework based on CoT. The proposed framework is made agile using Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Furthermore, in order to make the proposed framework more reliable, a Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKPF) system has been introduced here. The proposed ZKPF algorithm is based on the Hadamard matrix. Experimental results have shown to lay bare the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 147 ◽  
pp. 107693
Xiao-Jun Wen ◽  
Yong-Zhi Chen ◽  
Xin-Can Fan ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  
Zheng-Zhong Yi ◽  

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 607
Mayuresh Sunil Pardeshi ◽  
Ruey-Kai Sheu ◽  
Shyan-Ming Yuan

Authentication is essential for the prevention of various types of attacks in fog/edge computing. Therefore, a novel mode-based hash chain for secure mutual authentication is necessary to address the Internet of Things (IoT) devices’ vulnerability, as there have been several years of growing concerns regarding their security. Therefore, a novel model is designed that is stronger and effective against any kind of unauthorized attack, as IoT devices’ vulnerability is on the rise due to the mass production of IoT devices (embedded processors, camera, sensors, etc.), which ignore the basic security requirements (passwords, secure communication), making them vulnerable and easily accessible. Furthermore, crackable passwords indicate that the security measures taken are insufficient. As per the recent studies, several applications regarding its requirements are the IoT distributed denial of service attack (IDDOS), micro-cloud, secure university, Secure Industry 4.0, secure government, secure country, etc. The problem statement is formulated as the “design and implementation of dynamically interconnecting fog servers and edge devices using the mode-based hash chain for secure mutual authentication protocol”, which is stated to be an NP-complete problem. The hash-chain fog/edge implementation using timestamps, mode-based hash chaining, the zero-knowledge proof property, a distributed database/blockchain, and cryptography techniques can be utilized to establish the connection of smart devices in large numbers securely. The hash-chain fog/edge uses blockchain for identity management only, which is used to store the public keys in distributed ledger form, and all these keys are immutable. In addition, it has no overhead and is highly secure as it performs fewer calculations and requires minimum infrastructure. Therefore, we designed the hash-chain fog/edge (HCFE) protocol, which provides a novel mutual authentication scheme for effective session key agreement (using ZKP properties) with secure protocol communications. The experiment outcomes proved that the hash-chain fog/edge is more efficient at interconnecting various devices and competed favorably in the benchmark comparison.

2022 ◽  
pp. 2426-2458
Aviv Bick ◽  
Gillat Kol ◽  
Rotem Oshman

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 221
Ciprian Iacobescu ◽  
Gabriel Oltean ◽  
Camelia Florea ◽  
Bogdan Burtea

Technological breakthroughs have offered innovative solutions for smart parking systems, independent of the use of computer vision, smart sensors, gap sensing, and other variations. We now have a high degree of confidence in spot classification or object detection at the parking level. The only thing missing is end-user satisfaction, as users are forced to use multiple interfaces to find a parking spot in a geographical area. We propose a trustless federated model that will add a layer of abstraction between the technology and the human interface to facilitate user adoption and responsible data acquisition by leveraging a federated identity protocol based on Zero Knowledge Cryptography. No central authority is needed for the model to work; thus, it is trustless. Chained trust relationships generate a graph of trustworthiness, which is necessary to bridge the gap from one smart parking program to an intelligent system that enables smart cities. With the help of Zero Knowledge Cryptography, end users can attain a high degree of mobility and anonymity while using a diverse array of service providers. From an investor’s standpoint, the usage of IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) lowers operational costs, increases service resilience, and decentralizes the network of smart parking solutions. A peer-to-peer content addressing system ensures that the data are moved close to the users without deploying expensive cloud-based infrastructure. The result is a macro system with independent actors that feed each other data and expose information in a common protocol. Different client implementations can offer the same experience, even though the parking providers use different technologies. We call this InterPlanetary Smart Parking Architecture NOW—IPSPAN.

2021 ◽  
Patrick Biel ◽  
Shiquan Zhang ◽  
Hans-Arno Jacobsen

2021 ◽  
pp. 104858
Léo Robert ◽  
Daiki Miyahara ◽  
Pascal Lafourcade ◽  
Luc Libralesso ◽  
Takaaki Mizuki

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