It has been less than a decade since immune checkpoint inhibitors became the mainstay of lung cancer treatment, and 2020 saw the advent of the era of complex immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although clinical trials have shown that the therapeutic effects of complex immune checkpoint inhibitors are favorable, they are associated with an increase in adverse events. The use of combined immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice has progressed slowly, and the frequency and types of adverse events they cause remain unclear. Here we report the adverse events of six patients with lung cancer treated with regimens containing nivolumab and ipilimumab in 2021. Four of the six patients had grade 3 or higher adverse events, including one patient with lung injury and one patient with skin injury, both of whom died. The timing and nature of the adverse events were difficult to predict.
BackgroundImmune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy dramatically prolongs melanoma survival. Currently, the identified ICI markers are sometimes ineffective. The objective of this study was to identify novel determinants of ICI efficacy.MethodsWe comprehensively curated pretreatment somatic mutational profiles and clinical information from 631 melanoma patients who received blockade therapy of immune checkpoints (i.e., CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1, or a combination). Significantly mutated genes (SMGs), mutational signatures, and potential molecular subtypes were determined. Their association with ICI responses was assessed simultaneously.ResultsWe identified 27 SMGs, including four novel SMGs (COL3A1, NRAS, NARS2, and DCC) that are associated with ICI efficacy and well-known driver genes. COL3A1 mutations were associated with improved ICI overall survival (hazard ratio (HR): 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45–0.91, p = 0.012), whereas immune resistance was observed in patients with NRAS mutations (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.10–1.82, p = 0.006). The presence of the tobacco smoking-related signature was significantly correlated with inferior prognoses (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.11–1.82, p = 0.005). In addition, the signature resembling that of alkylating agents and a newly discovered signature both exhibited extended prognoses (both HR < 1, p < 0.05). Based on the activities of the extracted 6 mutational signatures, we identified one immune subtype that was significantly associated with better ICI outcomes (HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.23–0.87, p = 0.017).ConclusionWe uncovered several novel SMGs and re-annotated mutational signatures that are linked to immunotherapy response or resistance. In addition, an immune subtype was found to exhibit favorable prognoses. Further studies are required to validate these findings.