Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Zengjun Liu ◽  
Hongtu Yuan ◽  
Mingyong Han

A novel SS18-POU5F1 fusion gene was recently reported in soft tissue sarcoma occurring in three adolescent and young adult patients. Herein, we firstly reported the treatment response of SS18-POU5F1 sarcoma to immune checkpoint inhibitor, angiogenesis inhibitor, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Our patient demonstrated no response to various systemic therapies including immune checkpoint inhibitor, angiogenesis inhibitor and chemotherapy. However, we noted that the SS18-POU5F1 sarcoma had a quick, robust but transient clinical response to radiotherapy. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the different tumor response to radiotherapy and systemic therapy in this kind of tumor.

Wendy Zhou ◽  
Joseph Frye ◽  
Camille Soroudi ◽  
George Triadafilopoulos ◽  
Rani Berry

2021 ◽  
pp. 106689692110258
Adrian C. Bateman

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy with a worldwide distribution. Despite bowel cancer screening programmes, the management of patients with metastatic disease is still an important and challenging problem. Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy is a well-established treatment in several cancers, eg, malignant melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma and is used in metastatic disease. The principle of this treatment is to use monoclonal antibodies to block the immune tolerance that commonly develops to tumor cells, therefore allowing host T-cell immunity to recognise and lyse cancer cells. The cellular receptors most commonly targeted by ICI therapy are cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 and the programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 system. This review provides a scientific background to current ICI therapy and discusses the factors that predict response to this treatment. This is followed by a description of the emerging evidence for the use of ICI therapy in CRC and the utility of cellular pathology in stratifying patients for this treatment, especially when the systemic disease is present.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rong Liu ◽  
Fang Yang ◽  
Ji-Ye Yin ◽  
Ying-Zi Liu ◽  
Wei Zhang ◽  

The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) is likely an important determinant of sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. However, a comprehensive analysis covering the complexity and diversity of the TIME and its influence on ICI therapeutic efficacy is still lacking. Data from 782 samples from 10 ICI clinical trials were collected. To infer the infiltration of 22 subsets of immune cells, CIBERSORTx was applied to the bulk tumor transcriptomes. The associations between each cell fraction and the response to ICI treatment, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated, modeling cellular proportions as quartiles. Activity of the interferon-γ pathway, the cytolytic activity score and the MHC score were associated with good prognosis in melanoma. Of the immune cells investigated, M1 macrophages, activated memory CD4+ T cells, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and CD8+ T cells correlated with response and prolonged PFS and OS, while resting memory CD4+ T cells was associated with unfavorable prognosis in melanoma and urothelial cancer. Consensus clustering revealed four immune subgroups with distinct responses to ICI therapy and survival patterns. The cluster with high proportions of infiltrated CD8+ T cells, activated memory CD4+ T cells, and Tfh cells and low levels of resting memory CD4+ T cells exhibited a higher tumor mutation burden and neoantigen load in melanoma and conferred a higher probability of response and improved survival. Local systemic immune cellular differences were associated with outcomes after ICI therapy. Further investigations of the tumor-infiltrating cellular immune response will lay the foundation for achieving durable efficacy.

Antoine N. Saliba ◽  
Zhuoer Xie ◽  
Alexandra S. Higgins ◽  
Xavier A. Andrade‐Gonzalez ◽  
Harry E. Fuentes‐Bayne ◽  

Nicolas L. Palaskas ◽  
Ana Segura ◽  
Laura Lelenwa ◽  
Bilal A. Siddiqui ◽  
Sumit K. Subudhi ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Boran Pang ◽  
Yongqiang Hao

BackgroundLong-term survival is still low for high-risk patients with soft tissue sarcoma treated with standard management options, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy is a promising new potential treatment paradigm. However, the application of immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of patients with sarcoma did not yield promising results in a clinical trial. Therefore, there is a considerable need to identify factors that may lead to immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance.MethodsIn this study, we performed a bioinformatic analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to detect key long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that were correlated with immune checkpoint inhibitory molecules in sarcoma. The expression levels of these lncRNAs and their correlation with patient prognosis were explored. The upstream long noncoding RNAs were also examined via 450K array data from the TCGA. The potential roles of these lncRNAs were further examined via KEGG and GO analysis using DAVID online software. Finally, the relationship between these lncRNAs and immune cell infiltration in tumors and their effect on immune checkpoint inhibitors were further explored.ResultsWe identified lncRNAs correlated with tumor cell immune evasion in sarcoma. The expression of these lncRNAs was upregulated and correlated with worse prognosis in sarcoma and other human cancer types. Moreover, low DNA methylation occupation of these lncRNA loci was detected. Negative correlations between DNA methylation and lncRNA expression were also found in sarcoma and other human cancer types. KEGG and GO analyses indicated that these lncRNAs correlated with immune evasion and negative regulation of the immune response in sarcoma. Finally, high expression of these lncRNAs correlated with more suppressive immune cell infiltration and reduced sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitors in sarcoma and other human cancer types.ConclusionOur results suggest that long noncoding RNAs confer immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance in human cancer. Further characterization of these lncRNAs may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying immune checkpoint inhibitor resistance and uncover a novel therapeutic intervention point for immunotherapy.

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