checkpoint inhibitors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dan Qiu ◽  
Guijuan Zhang ◽  
Xianxin Yan ◽  
Xinqin Xiao ◽  
Xinyi Ma ◽  
...  

In the classification and typing of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one type of refractory breast cancer, while chemotherapy stays in the traditional treatment methods. However, the impact of chemotherapy is short-lived and may lead to recurrence due to incomplete killing of tumor cells. The occurrence, development, and relapse of breast cancer are relevant to T cell dysfunction, multiplied expression of related immune checkpoint molecules (ICIs) such as programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) produce immunosuppressive effect. Immunotherapy (namely, immune checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cellular immunotherapy, CAR-T immunotherapy and some potential treatments) provides new hope in TNBC. This review focuses on the new immune strategies of TNBC patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
John E. Greenlee ◽  
Noel G. Carlson ◽  
Justin R. Abbatemarco ◽  
Ida Herdlevær ◽  
Stacey L. Clardy ◽  
...  

Autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitides represent an increasingly recognized cause of devastating human illness as well as an emerging area of neurological injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Two groups of antibodies have been detected in affected patients. Antibodies in the first group are directed against neuronal cell surface membrane proteins and are exemplified by antibodies directed against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR), found in patients with autoimmune encephalitis, and antibodies directed against the leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (anti-LGI1), associated with faciobrachial dystonic seizures and limbic encephalitis. Antibodies in this group produce non-lethal neuronal dysfunction, and their associated conditions often respond to treatment. Antibodies in the second group, as exemplified by anti-Yo antibody, found in patients with rapidly progressive cerebellar syndrome, and anti-Hu antibody, associated with encephalomyelitis, react with intracellular neuronal antigens. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with underlying malignancy, and neurological impairment is the result of neuronal death. Within the last few years, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of neurological disorders associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens. In contrast, the events that lead to neuronal death in conditions associated with antibodies directed against intracellular antigens, such as anti-Yo and anti-Hu, remain poorly understood, and the respective roles of antibodies and T lymphocytes in causing neuronal injury have not been defined in an animal model. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of these two groups of antibodies in terms of their discovery, how they arise, the interaction of both types of antibodies with their molecular targets, and the attempts that have been made to reproduce human neuronal injury in tissue culture models and experimental animals. We then discuss the emerging area of autoimmune neuronal injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and the implications of current research for the treatment of affected patients.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 440
Author(s):  
Clara Martori ◽  
Lidia Sanchez-Moral ◽  
Tony Paul ◽  
Juan Carlos Pardo ◽  
Albert Font ◽  
...  

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common malignancy and the fifth cause of cancer death in men. The treatment for localized or locally advanced stages offers a high probability of cure. Even though the therapeutic landscape has significantly improved over the last decade, metastatic PC (mPC) still has a poor prognosis mainly due to the development of therapy resistance. In this context, the use of immunotherapy alone or in combination with other drugs has been explored in recent years. However, T-cell directed immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown limited activity with inconclusive results in mPC patients, most likely due to the highly immunosuppressive PC tumor microenvironment (TME). In this scenario, targeting macrophages, a highly abundant immunosuppressive cell type in the TME, could offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve immunotherapy efficacy. In this review, we summarize the growing field of macrophage-directed immunotherapies and discuss how these could be applied in the treatment of mPC, focusing on their combination with ICIs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Christophe Maritaz ◽  
Sophie Broutin ◽  
Nathalie Chaput ◽  
Aurélien Marabelle ◽  
Angelo Paci

AbstractAnti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors are therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that do not target cancer cells but are designed to reactivate or promote antitumor immunity. Dosing and scheduling of these biologics were established according to conventional drug development models, even though the determination of a maximum tolerated dose in the clinic could only be defined for anti-CTLA-4. Given the pharmacology of these monoclonal antibodies, their high interpatient pharmacokinetic variability, the actual clinical benefit as monotherapy that is observed only in a specific subset of patients, and the substantial cost of these treatments, a number of questions arise regarding the selected dose and the dosing interval. This review aims to outline the development of these immunotherapies and considers optimization options that could be used in clinical practice.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kenta Takayasu ◽  
Koei Muguruma ◽  
Hidefumi Kinoshita

Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which promote or suppress the anti-tumor immune response, are becoming the mainstay of cancer treatment. In 2018, CheckMate 214 study showed a higher response rate with ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy compared to conventional therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma. We report a case of complete response and durable response for two years to ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy in a patient with postoperative renal cancer recurrence that caused immune-related adverse events such as interstitial pneumonia and hepatotoxicity.


Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 406
Author(s):  
Quang Loc Bui ◽  
Léo Mas ◽  
Antoine Hollebecque ◽  
David Tougeron ◽  
Christelle de la Fouchardière ◽  
...  

Background: Several studies reported improved outcomes with conventional treatments (CT, i.e., chemotherapy ± targeted therapy) administered after immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICI) in certain tumor types. No data are available concerning patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability (dMMR/MSI). We aimed to assess the outcomes of dMMR/MSI mCRC pts receiving CT after ICI failure. Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study investigating the outcomes of all dMMR/MSI mCRC pts who received post-ICI CT between 2015 and 2020. Results: 31 pts (male 61%, median age 56 years) were included. ICI was an anti-PD(L)1 monotherapy in 71% of pts, and 61% received >2 lines before post-ICI CT. The overall response rate and disease control rate were 13% and 45%, with a median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival of 2.9 and 7.4 months, respectively. No association of the outcomes with either ICI efficacy or anti-angiogenic agents was observed. Prolonged PFS (range 16.1–21.3 months) was observed in 4 pts (13%). Conclusions: Although conducted on a limited number of patients, our results do not support an association of previous ICI treatment with an enhanced efficacy of CT in dMMR/MSI mCRC. However, prolonged disease control was observed in several cases, suggesting that some pts might derive an unexpected benefit from post-ICI treatments.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jinhui Liu ◽  
Guoliang Cui ◽  
Shuning Shen ◽  
Feng Gao ◽  
Hongjun Zhu ◽  
...  

BackgroundsEpithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a sequential process where tumor cells develop from the epithelial state to the mesenchymal state. EMT contributes to various tumor functions including initiation, propagating potential, and resistance to therapy, thus affecting the survival time of patients. The aim of this research is to set up an EMT-related prognostic signature for endometrial cancer (EC).MethodsEMT-related gene (ERG) expression and clinical data were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The entire set was randomly divided into two sets, one for contributing the risk model (risk score) and the other for validating. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were applied to the training set to select the prognostic ERGs. The expression of 10 ERGs was confirmed by qRT-PCR in clinical samples. Then, we developed a nomogram predicting 1-/3-/5-year survival possibility combining the risk score and clinical factors. The entire set was stratified into the high- and low-risk groups, which was used to analyze the immune infiltrating, tumorigenesis pathways, and response to drugs.ResultsA total of 220 genes were screened out from 1,316 ERGs for their differential expression in tumor versus normal. Next, 10 genes were found to be associated with overall survival (OS) in EC, and the expression was validated by qRT-PCR using clinical samples, so we constructed a 10-ERG-based risk score to distinguish high-/low-risk patients and a nomogram to predict survival rate. The calibration plots proved the predictive value of our model. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) discovered that in the low-risk group, immune-related pathways were enriched; in the high-risk group, tumorigenesis pathways were enriched. The low-risk group showed more immune activities, higher tumor mutational burden (TMB), and higher CTAL4/PD1 expression, which was in line with a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nevertheless, response to chemotherapeutic drugs turned out better in the high-risk group. The high-risk group had higher N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA expression, microsatellite instability level, and stemness indices.ConclusionWe constructed the ERG-related signature model to predict the prognosis of EC patients. What is more, it might offer a reference for predicting individualized response to immune checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapeutic drugs.


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