Checkpoint Inhibitors
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Quentin Giordan ◽  
Julia Salleron ◽  
Catherine Vallance ◽  
Clothilde Moriana ◽  
Christelle Clement-Duchene

BackgroundThe use of antibiotics (ATB) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) alters the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota, which can influence the immune system, consequently interfering with response to anti-PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). We assessed the impact of ATB and/or PPI use on the efficacy and safety of ICI.MethodsTwo hundred twelve patients treated with anti-PD1 ICI for non-small cell lung carcinoma, melanoma, upper airway & digestive tract carcinoma or renal cell carcinoma were retrospectively included. Patients having received ATB within 60 days before ICI initiation were included in the ATB+ group. Patients having received PPI within 30 days before ICI initiation were included in the PPI+ group. Four groups were thus considered: ATB-/PPI-, ATB+/PPI-, ATB-/PPI+, ATB+/PPI+. Response rate was assessed by RECIST v1.1. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and adverse events, recorded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 5, were compared using inverse probability of treatment weighting to account for selection bias.ResultsPFS at 6 months was 56.7 %, 95%CI (49.6%; 63.2%) and 47.2 %, 95%CI (39.8%;54.1%) at 12 months. OS was 81.6%, 95%CI (75.6%; 86.2%) at 6 months, and 69.4%, 95%CI (61.9%;75.7%) at 12 months. Compared to ATB-/PPI- group, PFS was lower for the ATB+/PPI- group [Hazard ratio (HR) 1.90, 95%CI (1.41;2.57)] and the ATB-/PPI+ group [HR 1.51, 95%CI (1.11;2.05)], and lowest in the ATB+/PPI+ group [HR 3.65, 95%CI (2.75;4.84)]. For OS, the use of ATB alone or PPI alone or in combination was a risk factor for death, with each increasing HR values by a similar magnitude, and the combination of ATB and PPI did not increase risk further. AEs were observed in 78 cases (36.8%) with no significant impact of ATB or PPI use.ConclusionsThis study reveals that ATB and/or PPI use can alter response to anti-PD1 ICI, and the prognosis of cancer patients. The microbiota mechanisms involved in the response to ICI should be investigated to optimize patient management.

Alberto Vogrig ◽  
Sergio Muñiz-Castrillo ◽  
Antonio Farina ◽  
Jérôme Honnorat ◽  
Bastien Joubert

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Sayeda Yasmin-Karim ◽  
Jana Wood ◽  
Johanna Wirtz ◽  
Michele Moreau ◽  
Noella Bih ◽  

Effective in situ cancer vaccines require both a means of tumor cell death and a source of adjuvant to activate local dendritic cells. Studies have shown that the use of radiotherapy (RT) to induce tumor cell death and anti-CD40 to activate dendritic cells can result in in situ vaccination in animal models. Here, investigations are carried out on potential strategies to enhance such in situ vaccination. Strategies investigated include the use of smart immunogenic biomaterials (IBM) loaded with anti-CD40 in different tumor types including immunologically cold tumors like pancreatic and prostate tumors. The use of downstream checkpoint inhibitors to further boost such in situ vaccination is also examined. Results indicate that the use of IBM to deliver the anti-CD40 significantly enhances the effectiveness of in situ vaccination with anti-CD40 compared with direct injection in pancreatic and prostate cancers (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). This finding is consistent with significant increase in infiltration of antigen-presenting cells in the treated tumor, and significant increase in the infiltration of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte into distant untreated tumors. Moreover, in situ vaccination with IBM is consistently observed across different tumor types. Meanwhile, the addition of downstream immune checkpoint inhibitors further enhances overall survival when using the IBM approach. Overall, the findings highlight potential avenues for enhancing in situ vaccination when combining radiotherapy with anti-CD40.

Liver Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Kennedy Yao Yi Ng ◽  
Sze Huey Tan ◽  
Jack Jie En Tan ◽  
Desiree Shu Hui Tay ◽  
Ailica Wan Xin Lee ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Development of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) has been associated with enhanced efficacy with the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). It remains unknown whether such an association exists in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC). This study aims to evaluate the association between irAEs and ICI efficacy in patients with aHCC. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We performed a retrospective cohort study on patients with aHCC who received at least one dose of an ICI between May 2015 and November 2019 at the National Cancer Centre Singapore. The primary study objectives were to compare the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) between patients with and without irAEs. Complementary multivariable landmark analyses were performed at the 6-week and 12-week landmarks. Data cutoff was December 31, 2020. <b><i>Results:</i></b> One hundred and sixty-eight patients were included. Median age was 69 years, 85.7% were male, 57.7% had hepatitis B infection, 60.7% had ECOG 0, and 78.0% had Child-Pugh A liver cirrhosis. 82.7% received ICI monotherapy, while 17.3% received ICI in combination. Development and severity of irAE were correlated with survival. The median PFS for grade ≥3 irAE versus grades 1–2 irAE versus no irAE was 8.5 versus 3.6 versus 1.3 mths (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). The median OS for grade ≥3 irAE versus grades 1–2 irAE versus no irAE was 26.9 versus 14.0 versus 4.6 mths (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). Patients with ≥2 irAEs had a significantly longer OS on multivariable analysis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]0.35, <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001). The presence of grade ≥3 irAEs was associated with a significantly longer OS on the multivariable analysis at the 6-week landmark (aHR0.34, <i>p</i> = 0.030) and 12-week landmark (aHR0.28, <i>p</i> = 0.011). The use of systemic corticosteroids in patients with irAE was associated with a trend toward a longer OS (20.7 vs. 14.3 mths, <i>p</i> = 0.064). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our study suggests that the presence of all-grade irAEs may be a potential prognostic biomarker in patients with aHCC treated with ICI. Patients with more severe irAEs and multisystem involvement have better prognosis. The prompt use of systemic corticosteroids to treat patients with irAEs is key to ensure the best long-term outcomes for these patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  
Yi Li ◽  
Jiani Xiong ◽  
Bin Lan ◽  
Xuefeng Wang ◽  

AbstractThe PRKDC gene encodes the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) protein. DNA-PKcs plays an important role in nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is also closely related to the establishment of central immune tolerance and the maintenance of chromosome stability. The occurrence and development of different types of tumors and the results of their treatment are also influenced by DNA-PKcs, and it may also predict the results of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Here, we discuss and review the structure and mechanism of action of PRKDC and DNA-PKcs and their relationship with cancer.

Kaili Yang ◽  
Lu Han ◽  
Shikai Wu ◽  
Xiujuan Qu ◽  
Qin Li ◽  

Abstract Background Treatment strategies are limited for patients with chemotherapy refractory microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) combined with regorafenib in this population in routine clinical practice. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer who received at least one dose of ICIs combined with regorafenib in 14 Chinese medical centers. The primary outcome was objective response rate (ORR). This study was registered at on February 2020 (NCT04771715). Results Eighty-four patients received ICIs combined with regorafenib from January 2019 to January 2021. Most patients (91%) received two or more systemic treatment lines before the study treatment. Seventy-six patients (90%) had confirmed MSS status. At a median follow-up of 5.5 months, four patients achieved partial response (5%) and 37 patients achieved stable disease (45%) as the best response. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.1 months, and the median overall survival was 17.3 months. Eleven patients (13%) remained progression-free for more than 6 months. Baseline liver metastasis (HR 1.98, 95%CI 1.07–3.69, P = 0.03) and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of ≥ 1.5 (HR 2.83, 95%CI 1.00–7.98, P = 0.05) were associated with shorter PFS in multivariate analysis. Grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) occurred in 16 patients (19%). Conclusion The combination of ICIs with regorafenib can be a valuable treatment option for a proportion of patients with chemotherapy refractory MSS colorectal cancer. Patients with no liver metastasis and a low NLR at baseline may derive most benefit from this strategy.

2021 ◽  
Aaron Javitt ◽  
Merav D. Shmueli ◽  
Matthias P. Kramer ◽  
Aleksandra A. Kolodziejczyk ◽  
Ivan J. Cohen ◽  

Protein degradation by proteasomes is important for the immune response against tumors. Antigens generated by the proteasome promote immune cell infiltration into tumors and improve tumor response to immunotherapy. For example, immunoproteasomes – a subset of proteasomes induced by inflammatory signals – may improve the response of melanomas to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) by eliciting tumor inflammation. Yet, it is unclear whether and how protein degradation by proteasomes impacts cancer progression and contributes to immune evasion and resistance. Here, we profile the proteasome-cleaved peptides in lung cancers and find that PSME4 serves as a novel inhibitory regulator of the immunoproteasome, playing an anti-inflammatory role in cancer. Biochemical assays combined with scRNA-seq, immunopeptidomics and in vivo analyses demonstrate that PSME4 promotes an immunosuppressive environment around the tumor and abrogates anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting antigen presentation and attenuating tumor inflammation. Furthermore, we find that PSME4 expression is correlated with responsiveness to ICI across several cancer types. Our findings suggest that PSME4-mediated regulation of proteasome activity is a novel mechanism of immune evasion in non-small-cell lung carcinoma and may be targeted therapeutically for restoring anti-tumor immunity.

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