radiation pneumonitis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Hiroshi Mayahara ◽  
Kazuyuki Uehara ◽  
Aya Harada ◽  
Keiji Kitatani ◽  
Tomonori Yabuuchi ◽  

Abstract Background Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by durvalumab is the standard of care for unresectable locally-advanced non-small cell carcinoma (LA-NSCLC). However, a major concern about administration of durvalumab after CCRT is whether the incidence of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) may increase or not. In the present analysis, we report the initial results of CCRT followed by durvalumab in patients with LA-NSCLC in a real-world setting with focus on predicting factors for symptomatic RP. Methods Patients who were pathologically diagnosed as NSCLC and initiated treatment with CCRT followed by durvalumab between July 2018 to December 2019 were eligible for this study. Patients were included if they completed the planned CRT course and administered at least one course of durvalumab. We retrospectively investigated the preliminary survival outcome and incidence and predicting factors for symptomatic RP. Results Of the 67 patients who planned CCRT, 63 patients completed the entire CCRT course. Of these, 56 patients proceeded to consolidation with durvalumab. The median time to eternal discontinuation of durvalumab was 9.7 months. The cumulative proportion of the patients who exhibited symptomatic RP was 30, 40 and 44% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. In multivariate analyses, pulmonary fibrosis score and lung V40 were significant predictive factors for symptomatic RP (p < 0.001, HR: 7.83, 95% CI: 3.38–18.13, and p = 0.034, HR: 3.17, 95% CI: 1.09–9.19, respectively). Conclusions Pulmonary fibrosis sore and lung V40 were significant predictive factors for symptomatic RP. We should be cautious about the administration of durvalumab for patients having subclinical pulmonary fibrosis. To our best knowledge, this is one of the first report showing the predictive value of high dose volumes to the lung in patients with LA-NSCLC who received CCRT followed by durvalumab.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jianping Bi ◽  
Jing Qian ◽  
Dongqin Yang ◽  
Lu Sun ◽  
Shouyu Lin ◽  

PurposeDosimetric parameters (e.g., mean lung dose (MLD), V20, and V5) can predict radiation pneumonitis (RP). Constraints thereof were formulated before the era of combined immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and radiotherapy, which could amplify the RP risk. Dosimetric predictors of acute RP (aRP) in the context of ICIs are urgently needed because no data exist thus far.Methods and MaterialsAll included patients underwent thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy, previously received ICIs, and followed-up at least once. Logistic regression models examined predictors of aRP (including a priori evaluation of MLD, V20, and V5), and their discriminative capacity was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis.ResultsMedian follow-up of the 40 patients was 5.3 months. Cancers were lung (80%) or esophageal (20%). ICIs were PD-1 (85%) or PD-L1 (15%) inhibitors (median 4 cycles). Patients underwent definitive (n=19), consolidative (n=14), or palliative (n=7) radiotherapy; the median equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) was 60 Gy (IQR, 51.8-64 Gy). Grades 1-5 aRP occurred in 25%, 17.5%, 15%, 2.5%, and 5%, respectively. The only variables associated with any-grade aRP were V20 (p=0.014) and MLD (p=0.026), and only V20 with grade ≥2 aRP (p=0.035). Neither the number of prior ICI cycles nor the delivery of concurrent systemic therapy significantly associated with aRP risk. Graphs were constructed showing the incrementally increasing risk of aRP based on V20 and MLD (continuous variables).ConclusionsThis is the first study illustrating that V20 and MLD may impact aRP in the setting of prior ICIs. However, these data should not be extrapolated to patients without pre-radiotherapy receipt of prior ICIs, or to evaluate the risk of chronic pulmonary effects. If these results are validated by larger studies with more homogeneous populations, the commonly accepted V20/MLD dose constraints could require revision if utilized in the setting of ICIs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Saori Tatsuno ◽  
Hiroshi Doi ◽  
Wataru Okada ◽  
Eri Inoue ◽  
Kiyoshi Nakamatsu ◽  

AbstractThe risk factors for severe radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with lung cancer who undergo rotating gantry intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or helical tomotherapy (HT) are poorly understood. Fifty-two patients who received rotating gantry IMRT for locally advanced lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. In total, 31 and 21 patients received VMAT and HT, respectively. The median follow-up duration was 14 months (range, 5.2–33.6). Twenty (38%) and eight (15%) patients developed grade ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 RP, respectively. In multivariate analysis, lung V5 ≥ 40% was associated with grade ≥ 2 RP (P = 0.02), and past medical history of pneumonectomy and total lung volume ≤ 3260 cc were independently associated with grade ≥ 3 RP (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). Rotating gantry IMRT was feasible and safe in patients with lung cancer undergoing definitive radiotherapy. Reducing lung V5 may decrease the risk of symptomatic RP, and care should be taken to avoid severe RP after radiotherapy in patients with a past medical history of pneumonectomy and small total lung volume.

2022 ◽  
Jianbo Zhu ◽  
Guangpeng Chen ◽  
Kai Niu ◽  
Yongdong Feng ◽  
Lijiao Xie ◽  

Background: This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the efficacy and safety of recombinant human endostatin (Rh-endostatin) combined with radiotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Patients with unresectable stage III and IV NSCLC who treated with radiotherapy were enrolled. Patients who received Rh-endostatin infusion throughout the whole peri-radiotherapy period formed the Endostar group, and those who received no Rh-endostatin infusion were the control group. Results: The median progression-free survival was 8.0 and 4.4 months (hazard ratio: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.32–0.90; p = 0.019) and median overall survival was 40.0 and 13.1 months (hazard ratio: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28–0.98; p = 0.045) for the Endostar and control groups, respectively. The Endostar group exhibited a numerically lower rate of radiation pneumonitis relapse, radiation pneumonitis death and pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusion: Rh-endostatin infusion throughout the peri-radiotherapy period enhanced radiosensitivity and showed better survival outcomes and a tendency toward fewer radiation-related pulmonary events in patients with NSCLC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Jeong Yun Jang ◽  
Su Ssan Kim ◽  
Si Yeol Song ◽  
Yeon Joo Kim ◽  
Sung-woo Kim ◽  

Abstract Background Immunotherapy has been administered to many patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only few studies have examined toxicity in patients receiving an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective study to determine factors that predict radiation pneumonitis (RP) in these patients. Methods We evaluated the size of the planning target volume, mean lung dose (MLD), and the lung volume receiving more than a threshold radiation dose (VD) in 106 patients. The primary endpoint was RP ≥ grade 2, and toxicity was evaluated. Results After CCRT, 51/106 patients were treated with ICI. The median follow-up period was 11.5 months (range, 3.0–28.2), and RP ≥ grade 2 occurred in 47 (44.3%) patients: 27 and 20 in the ICI and non-ICI groups, respectively. Among the clinical factors, only the use of ICI was associated with RP (p = 0.043). Four dosimetric variables (MLD, V20, V30, and V40) had prognostic significance in univariate analysis for occurrence of pneumonitis (hazard ratio, p-value; MLD: 2.3, 0.009; V20: 2.9, 0.007; V30: 2.3, 0.004; V40: 2.5, 0.001). Only V20 was a significant risk factor in the non-ICI group, and MLD, V30, and V40 were significant risk factors in the ICI group. The survival and local control rates were superior in the ICI group than in the non-ICI group, but no significance was observed. Conclusions Patients receiving ICI after definitive CCRT were more likely to develop RP, which may be related to the lung volume receiving high-dose radiation. Therefore, several factors should be carefully considered for patients with NSCLC.

Erin McKenzie ◽  
Yasmeen Razvi ◽  
Sandi Bosnic ◽  
Matt Wronski ◽  
Irene Karam ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zengfu Zhang ◽  
Jialin Zhou ◽  
Vivek Verma ◽  
Xu Liu ◽  
Meng Wu ◽  

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a form of radiation damage to normal lung tissue caused by radiotherapy (RT) for thoracic cancers, which is most commonly comprised of radiation pneumonitis (RP) and radiation pulmonary fibrosis (RPF). Moreover, with the widespread utilization of immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors as first- and second-line treatments for various cancers, the incidence of immunotherapy-related lung injury (IRLI), a severe immune-related adverse event (irAE), has rapidly increased. To date, we know relatively little about the underlying mechanisms and signaling pathways of these complications. A better understanding of the signaling pathways may facilitate the prevention of lung injury and exploration of potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the signaling pathways of RILI and IRLI and focuses on their crosstalk in diverse signaling pathways as well as on possible mechanisms of adverse events resulting from combined radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Furthermore, this review proposes potential therapeutic targets and avenues of further research based on signaling pathways. Many new studies on pyroptosis have renewed appreciation for the value and importance of pyroptosis in lung injury. Therefore, the authors posit that pyroptosis may be the common downstream pathway of RILI and IRLI; discussion is also conducted regarding further perspectives on pyroptosis as a crucial signaling pathway in lung injury treatment.

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