LAG3 is the most promising immune checkpoint next to PD-1 and CTLA-4. High LAG3 and FGL1 expression boosts tumor growth by inhibiting the immune microenvironment. This review comprises four sections presenting the structure/expression, interaction, biological effects, and clinical application of LAG3/FGL1. D1 and D2 of LAG3 and FD of FGL1 are the LAG3-FGL1 interaction domains. LAG3 accumulates on the surface of lymphocytes in various tumors, but is also found in the cytoplasm in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. FGL1 is found in the cytoplasm in NSCLC cells and on the surface of breast cancer cells. The LAG3-FGL1 interaction mechanism remains unclear, and the intracellular signals require elucidation. LAG3/FGL1 activity is associated with immune cell infiltration, proliferation, and secretion. Cytokine production is enhanced when LAG3/FGL1 are co-expressed with PD-1. IMP321 and relatlimab are promising monoclonal antibodies targeting LAG3 in melanoma. The clinical use of anti-FGL1 antibodies has not been reported. Finally, high FGL1 and LAG3 expression induces EGFR-TKI and gefitinib resistance, and anti-PD-1 therapy resistance, respectively. We present a comprehensive overview of the role of LAG3/FGL1 in cancer, suggesting novel anti-tumor therapy strategies.
In the classification and typing of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one type of refractory breast cancer, while chemotherapy stays in the traditional treatment methods. However, the impact of chemotherapy is short-lived and may lead to recurrence due to incomplete killing of tumor cells. The occurrence, development, and relapse of breast cancer are relevant to T cell dysfunction, multiplied expression of related immune checkpoint molecules (ICIs) such as programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) produce immunosuppressive effect. Immunotherapy (namely, immune checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cellular immunotherapy, CAR-T immunotherapy and some potential treatments) provides new hope in TNBC. This review focuses on the new immune strategies of TNBC patients.
Autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitides represent an increasingly recognized cause of devastating human illness as well as an emerging area of neurological injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Two groups of antibodies have been detected in affected patients. Antibodies in the first group are directed against neuronal cell surface membrane proteins and are exemplified by antibodies directed against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR), found in patients with autoimmune encephalitis, and antibodies directed against the leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (anti-LGI1), associated with faciobrachial dystonic seizures and limbic encephalitis. Antibodies in this group produce non-lethal neuronal dysfunction, and their associated conditions often respond to treatment. Antibodies in the second group, as exemplified by anti-Yo antibody, found in patients with rapidly progressive cerebellar syndrome, and anti-Hu antibody, associated with encephalomyelitis, react with intracellular neuronal antigens. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with underlying malignancy, and neurological impairment is the result of neuronal death. Within the last few years, major advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of neurological disorders associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens. In contrast, the events that lead to neuronal death in conditions associated with antibodies directed against intracellular antigens, such as anti-Yo and anti-Hu, remain poorly understood, and the respective roles of antibodies and T lymphocytes in causing neuronal injury have not been defined in an animal model. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of these two groups of antibodies in terms of their discovery, how they arise, the interaction of both types of antibodies with their molecular targets, and the attempts that have been made to reproduce human neuronal injury in tissue culture models and experimental animals. We then discuss the emerging area of autoimmune neuronal injury associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and the implications of current research for the treatment of affected patients.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors were used for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) more and more frequently and the effects were thrilling. Toripalimab as a new immune checkpoint inhibitor has been shown to be effective in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, data regarding the safety and feasibility of surgical resection after treatment with toripalimab for NSCLC remain scarce. Here, we present a case with locally advanced NSCLC that received video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy after treatment with toripalimab in combination with chemotherapy.
A 62-year-old male patient with a history of coronary artery stenting operation for two times was found a 3.4 × 3.2 cm cavity mass in the upper lobe of the left lung and enlarged left hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. Pathological results identified squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with a locally advanced NSCLC and received VATS left upper lobectomy and lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus toripalimab for 3 cycles. The postoperative pathological results showed complete tumor remission. Short-term follow-up results were excellent, and long-term results remain to be revealed.
Our preliminary results showed that the use of neoadjuvant toripalimab and chemotherapy for the locally advanced NSCLC before surgical resection is safe and feasible.
AbstractAnti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors are therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that do not target cancer cells but are designed to reactivate or promote antitumor immunity. Dosing and scheduling of these biologics were established according to conventional drug development models, even though the determination of a maximum tolerated dose in the clinic could only be defined for anti-CTLA-4. Given the pharmacology of these monoclonal antibodies, their high interpatient pharmacokinetic variability, the actual clinical benefit as monotherapy that is observed only in a specific subset of patients, and the substantial cost of these treatments, a number of questions arise regarding the selected dose and the dosing interval. This review aims to outline the development of these immunotherapies and considers optimization options that could be used in clinical practice.