leaf venation
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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-79
Agung Dwi Santoso ◽  
Purnomo Purnomo

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is a plant used as a mixture of cigarettes, and recreational media especially for men. This study aimed to identify variations, and determine the relationship between tobacco cultivars in Central Java and Yogyakarta based on macromorphological and micromorphological characters. Sampling locations are determined by surveying locations in both regions. Tobacco samples found include 5 cultivars in Central Java namely 'Mantili', 'Uler Magetan', 'Garut', ‘Gober Boyolali’, 'Manila', and 3 cultivars in Yogyakarta namely 'Siluk', 'Java', and 'Virginia'. Characterization with 23 qualitative macromorphological characters including leaves, and stems, with 9 qualitative and quantitative micromorphological characters including trichome and stomata. Descriptive data analysis is done to obtain the typical character of each cultivar, followed by numerical analysis including scoring characters processed with MVSP (Multi Variate Statistical Package), clustering with UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Averages), and calculation of similarity coefficients with Simple matching formula. The results showed variations in the macromorphological characters including the shape of the leaf lamina, the base of the leaf, the absence of leaf stalks, and type of leaf venation. Tobacco has anisositic stomata, and varies in terms of length, width, and density of stomata. Tobacco trichomes are glandular. The result dendrograms form two clusters (A and B) with the similarity index of each cluster above 0.80. Cultivars with close relationships such as 'Siluk'-'Java', and far relationship like 'Java'-'Manila'.

2021 ◽  
Shreya Chowdhury ◽  
Shrabani Basak ◽  
Rohit Das ◽  
Arunava Mandal ◽  
Pallob Kundu

Abstract Leaf curl disease of tomato caused by Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus (ToLCNDV) inflicts huge economical loss. Disease symptoms resemble leaf developmental defects including abnormal vein architecture. Leaf vein patterning related TORNADO1 gene’s ( SlTRN1 ) transcript level is augmented in virus-infected leaves. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the upregulation of SlTRN1 in vivo we have deployed SlTRN1 promoter-reporter transgenic tomato plants and investigated the gene’s dynamic expression pattern in leaf growth stages and infection. Expression of the gene was delimited in the vascular tissues and oppressed in growing leaves. Methylation-sensitive PCR analyses confirmed the accumulation of CHH methylation at multiple locations in the SlTRN1 promoter in older leaves. However, ToLCNDV infection reverses the methylation status and restores expression level in the leaf vascular bundle. The virus dampens the level of key maintenance and de novo DNA methyltransferases SlDRM5 , SlMET1 , SlCMT2 with concomitant augmentation of two DNA demethylases, SlDML1 and SlDML2 levels in SlTRN1 promoter-reporter transgenics. Transient overexpression of SlDML2 mimics the virus-induced hypomethylation state of the SlTRN1 promoter in mature leaves. Further, in line with the previous studies, we confirm the crucial role of viral suppressors of RNA silencing AC1 and AC4 proteins in promoting DNA demethylation and directing it to reinstate activated transcription of SlTRN1 in silenced tissues for possible modification of leaf venation architecture, leaf curling and easy vector acquisition of viral particles.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 1646
Hafiz Ghulam Muhu-Din Ahmed ◽  
Muhammad Nouman Iqbal ◽  
Muhammad Arslan Iqbal ◽  
Yawen Zeng ◽  
Aziz Ullah ◽  

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed for stomata- and yield-related attributes with high-density Illumina 90 K Infinium SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array in bread wheat to determine genetic potential of germplasm for scarce water resources with sustainable yield potential. Major yield and stomata attributes were phenotyped on a panel of Pakistani and foreign accessions grown in non-stressed and water shortage environments during two seasons. Highly significant variations were shown among accessions in both conditions for examined characteristics. Water shortage conditions reduced the overall wheat yield and strong positive correlation existed among stomatal frequency, leaf venation and grain yield per plant. Population structure analyses based on 90,000 SNP data classified the accessions into four sub-populations which indicated the presence of genetic variability. Marker-trait association (MTA) analyses revealed that 422 significant SNPs at p ≤ 10−3, after crossing the false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05 threshold, were linked with examined attributes. Pleiotropic loci (wsnp_Ex_c8913_14881924 and Tdurum_contig10598_304) were associated with flag leaf area (FLA), stomata size (SS), stomata frequency (SF), leaf venation (LV), number of grain per spike (NGS) and grain yield per plant (GYP), which were located on chromosome 4B and 6B at the positions 173.63cM and 229.64cM, respectively, under water shortage conditions. Pleotropic loci wsnp_Ex_c24167_33416760, wsnp_Ex_c5412_9564046 and Tdurum_contig81797_369 on chromosomes 7A, 2A and 4B at the positions 148.26cM, 261.05cM and 173.63cM, respectively, were significantly linked with stomata and yield indices such as FLA, SS, SF, LV, NGS and GYP under normal and water shortage conditions. The current experiment not only validated several MTAs for studied indices reported in other studies but also discovered novel MTAs significant under water shortage environments. Associated and significant SNPs will be useful in discovering novel genes underpinning water shortage tolerance in bread wheat for producing high-yielding and drought tolerant wheat varieties to fulfill the wheat demand for growing populations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 10915
Priyanka UNIYAL ◽  
Dharmendra Singh RAWAT ◽  

In the present study leaf venation types of 30 Saxifraga L. species, found in Indian Western Himalaya, were studied. Out of these, leaf venation patterns of 20 species were not previously studied. In total, five major types of leaf venations- acrodomous (perfect-basal; perfect-suprabasal; imperfect-suprabasal), camptodromous (eucamptodromous), campylodromous, hyphodromous, and palinactinodromous – were recorded. Section Micranthes show palinactinodromous; section Ciliatae show mainly acrodromous; section Mesogyne show palinactinodromous; and sect. Porphyrion show acrodromous, eucamptodromous and hyphodromous types of venation. Palinactinodromous appear as the ancestral venation type.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 514 (2) ◽  
pp. 140-148

The Flora Neotropica treatment of Flaucourtiaceae s.l., by Sleumer, was a milestone in the study of the group and, consequently, of the families that were subsequently segregated from Flaucourtiaceae. Of these, Lacistemataceae comprise 16 tree-shrub species that usually occur in humid forests. However, specimens from campos rupestres in Bahia State, Brazil, were not analyzed by Sleumer so some morphological variation remained unnoticed. Here, we describe Lacistema ligiae, a new species from the campos rupestres of Bahia, and include notes on leaf venation and pollen morphology of related species. Lacistema ligiae can be recognized by leaf blades with sinuous secondary veins, which are covered by long and adpressed trichomes abaxially, hairy filament and ovary, and a distinct style not exceeding the height of the stamen.

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