genome wide association
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Author(s):  
Rongrong Ding ◽  
Zhanwei Zhuang ◽  
Yibin Qiu ◽  
Donglin Ruan ◽  
Jie Wu ◽  
...  

Abstract Backfat thickness (BFT) is complex and economically important traits in the pig industry, since it reflects fat deposition and can be used to measure the carcass lean meat percentage in pigs. In this study, all 6,550 pigs were genotyped using the Geneseek Porcine 50K SNP Chip to identify SNPs related to BFT and to search for candidate genes through genome-wide association analysis in two Duroc populations. In total, 80 SNPs, including 39 significant and 41 suggestive SNPs, and 6 QTLs were identified significantly associated with the BFT. In addition, 9 candidate genes, including a proven major gene MC4R, 3 important candidate genes (RYR1, HMGA1 and NUDT3) which were previously described as related to BFT, and 5 novel candidate genes (SIRT2, NKAIN2, AMH, SORCS1 and SORCS3) were found based on their potential functional roles in BFT. The functions of candidate genes and gene set enrichment analysis indicate that most important pathways are related to energy homeostasis and adipogenesis. Finally, our data suggests that most of the candidate genes can be directly used for genetic improvement through molecular markers, except that the MC4R gene has an antagonistic effect on growth rate and carcass lean meat percentage in breeding. Our results will advance our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of BFT traits, and laid the foundation for additional genetic studies to increase carcass lean meat percentage of pig through marker-assisted selection and/or genomic selection.


Crop Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Matheus M. Suela ◽  
Camila F. Azevedo ◽  
Moysés Nascimento ◽  
Ana Carolina C. Nascimento ◽  
Marcos Deon V. Resende

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262569
Author(s):  
Hafiz Ghulam Muhu-Din Ahmed ◽  
Muhammad Naeem ◽  
Yawen Zeng ◽  
Muhammad Abdul Rehman Rashid ◽  
Aziz Ullah ◽  
...  

Dissecting the genetic basis of physiological and yield traits against tolerance to heat stress is an essential in wheat breeding programs to boost up the wheat yield for sustainable food security. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to reveal the genetic basis of heat tolerance using high-density Illumina 90K Infinium SNPs array through physiological and yield indices. These indices were phenotyped on a diverse panel of foreign and domestic genotypes of Pakistan, grown in normal and heat-stressed environments. Based on STRUCTURE analysis, the studied germplasm clustered into four sub-population. Highly significant variations with a range of moderate (58.3%) to high (77.8%) heritability was observed under both conditions. Strong positive correlation existed among physiological and yield related attributes. A total of 320 significant (-log10 P ≥ 3) marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified for the observed characters. Out of them 169 and 151 MTAs were recorded in normal and heat stress environments, respectively. Among the MTA loci, three (RAC875_c103017_302, Tdurum_contig42087_1199, and Tdurum_contig46877_488 on chromosomes 4B, 6B, and 7B respectively), two (BobWhite_c836_422 and BS00010616_51) and three (Kukri_rep_c87210_361, D_GA8KES401BNLTU_253 and Tdurum_contig1015_131) on chromosomes 5A, 1B, and 3D at the positions 243.59cM, 77.82cM and 292.51cM) showed pleiotropic effects in studied traits under normal, heat-stressed and both conditions respectively. The present study not only authenticated the numerous previously reported MTAs for examined attributes but also revealed novel MTAs under heat-stressed conditions. Identified SNPs will be beneficial in determining the novel genes in wheat to develop the heat tolerant and best yielded genotypes to fulfill the wheat requirement for the growing population.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yanyu Liang ◽  
Milton Pividori ◽  
Ani Manichaikul ◽  
Abraham A. Palmer ◽  
Nancy J. Cox ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are valuable to translate the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) into clinical practice. To date, most GWAS have been based on individuals of European-ancestry leading to poor performance in populations of non-European ancestry. Results We introduce the polygenic transcriptome risk score (PTRS), which is based on predicted transcript levels (rather than SNPs), and explore the portability of PTRS across populations using UK Biobank data. Conclusions We show that PTRS has a significantly higher portability (Wilcoxon p=0.013) in the African-descent samples where the loss of performance is most acute with better performance than PRS when used in combination.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexander S Hatoum ◽  
Sarah M.C. Colbert ◽  
Emma C Johnson ◽  
Spencer B. Huggett ◽  
Joseph D. Deak ◽  
...  

Genetic liability to substance use disorders can be parsed into loci conferring general and substance-specific addiction risk. We report a multivariate genome-wide association study that disaggregates general and substance-specific loci for problematic alcohol use, problematic tobacco use, and cannabis and opioid use disorders in a sample of 1,025,550 individuals of European and 92,630 individuals of African descent. Nineteen loci were genome-wide significant for the general addiction risk factor (addiction-rf), which showed high polygenicity. Across ancestries PDE4B was significant (among others), suggesting dopamine regulation as a cross-trait vulnerability. The addiction-rf polygenic risk score was associated with substance use disorders, psychopathologies, somatic conditions, and environments associated with the onset of addictions. Substance-specific loci (9 for alcohol, 32 for tobacco, 5 for cannabis, 1 for opioids) included metabolic and receptor genes. These findings provide insight into the genetic architecture of general and substance-specific use disorder risk that may be leveraged as treatment targets.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lihua Wang ◽  
Yanlong Liu ◽  
Li Gao ◽  
Xiaocui Yang ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
...  

Genetic dissection of forage yield traits is critical to the development of sorghum as a forage crop. In the present study, association mapping was performed with 85,585 SNP markers on four forage yield traits, namely plant height (PH), tiller number (TN), stem diameter (SD), and fresh weight per plant (FW) among 245 sorghum accessions evaluated in four environments. A total of 338 SNPs or quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) were associated with the four traits, and 21 of these QTNs were detected in at least two environments, including four QTNs for PH, ten for TN, six for SD, and one for FW. To identify candidate genes, dynamic transcriptome expression profiling was performed at four stages of sorghum development. One hundred and six differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that were enriched in hormone signal transduction pathways were found in all stages. Weighted gene correlation network analysis for PH and SD indicated that eight modules were significantly correlated with PH and that three modules were significantly correlated with SD. The blue module had the highest positive correlation with PH and SD, and the turquoise module had the highest negative correlation with PH and SD. Eight candidate genes were identified through the integration of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and RNA sequencing. Sobic.004G143900, an indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase gene that is involved in indoleacetic acid biosynthesis, was down-regulated as sorghum plants grew in height and was identified in the blue module, and Sobic.003G375100, an SD candidate gene, encoded a DNA repair RAD52-like protein 1 that plays a critical role in DNA repair-linked cell cycle progression. These findings demonstrate that the integrative analysis of omics data is a promising approach to identify candidate genes for complex traits.


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