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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. p1
Dongsheng Yan

From 1885 till now, dams keep played an important role in Pacific Northwest. However, despite providing transportation convenience and electricity affecting the salmon population, they greatly impacted the salmon population. Nowadays, people standing for different parties are arguing whether the dams should be removed to restore the salmon population. Currently, a solid plan for dam removal has been proposed by Congressman Simpson. And it’s barely a start, further discussions will become more intensified and require an urgent environmental political response.

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Brent Warneke ◽  
Lloyd Nackley ◽  
Jay W. Pscheidt

Wine grapes are an important agricultural commodity in the Pacific Northwest where grape powdery mildew (GPM) is one of the main disease problems. The efficacy of different sulfur concentrations and different output volumes from an air blast sprayer retrofitted with the Intelligent Spray System (ISS) were evaluated for the management of GPM. The ISS consists of a LiDAR sensor, Doppler speed sensor, embedded computer, flow controller, and individual pulse-width-modulation solenoid valves at each nozzle. GPM cluster severity ranged from 55% to 75% across all trials in the study when using the ISS at its default spray rate of 62.5 ml m-3 and micronized sulfur at 6 g L-1, which was significantly higher than all other fungicide treatments, but lower than non-treated controls. Similarly, leaf incidence values were highest on non-treated vines, followed by micronized sulfur at 6 g L-1 applied at 62.5 ml m-3 , with all other fungicide treatments being significantly lower in all trials. Using the ISS at the 62.5 ml m-3 rate and a rotation of locally systemic fungicides resulted in the lowest observed GPM leaf incidence, and average cluster severity of 11% in both 2019 and 2020, the lowest cluster severity of all fungicide treatments tested. GPM control using the ISS and micronized sulfur was equivalent to a constant-rate air blast treatment at 6 g L-1 when the spray rate of the ISS was increased to 125ml m-3, or if the concentration of sulfur was increased to 24 g L-1. In those cases, the amount of sulfur applied to vines was at or above the minimum label rate from bloom until the end of the season, or the entire season, respectively. This study has shown that sufficient disease control cannot always be expected when mixing pesticides at the same rate as would be used for a constant-rate sprayer in a variable rate sprayer, especially when using contact fungicides like sulfur . With appropriate adjustments, the variable-rate ISS can be a useful tool to reduce pesticide quantities, water required for mixing, and as a result labor, as fewer trips to refill for a given spray event are required.

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Madalyn Shires ◽  
Alice Wright ◽  
Scott Harper

Little cherry virus-2 (LChV-2) is a viral pathogen that is reaching epidemic levels in Washington state. This virus is insect-vectored and has significant impacts on sweet cherry production. To aid growers in making informed management decisions we sought to develop a diagnostic assay to better detect isolates of LChV-2 currently found in Washington, allowing for more accurate estimations of disease occurrence. This study showed that there were two distinct genotypes of LChV-2 present in Washington state. This information was used to develop an up-to-date reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay, which was then optimized, validated, and compared to four previously published assays using a panel of field samples. This comparison demonstrated that the newly developed assay provided greater sensitivity, accurately detecting less than 10 copies per reaction and could detect both LChV-2 genotypes. Finally, we examined the effect of potential inhibitors in various tissue types from cherry, finding that young leaf tissue affected sensitivity of detection less than root tissues.

2022 ◽  
Silas Shumate ◽  
Maggie Haylett ◽  
Brenda Nelson ◽  
Nicole Young ◽  
Kurt Lamour ◽  

Tetranychus urticae (Koch) is an economically important pest of many agricultural commodities in the Pacific Northwest. Multiple miticides are currently registered for control including abamectin, bifenazate, bifenthrin, and extoxazole. However, populations of Tetranychus urticae have developed miticide resistance through multiple mechanisms, in many different growing regions. Producers of agricultural commodities where Tetranychus urticae infestations are problematic rely on integrated pest management tools to determine optimal control methods. Within this species multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms have been documented in different genes which are associated with miticide resistance phenotypes. The detection of these mutations through TaqMan qPCR has been suggested as a practical, quick, and reliable tool to inform agricultural producers of miticide resistance phenotypes present within their fields and have potential utility for making appropriate miticide application and integrated pest management decisions. Within this investigation we examined the use of a TaqMan qPCR-based approach to determine miticide resistance genotypes in field-collected populations of Tetranychus urticae from mint fields and hop yards in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and confirmed the results with a multiplex targeted sequencing. The results suggest the TaqMan approach accurately genotypes Tetranychus urticae populations collected from agricultural fields. The interpretation of the results, however, provide additional challenges for integrated pest management practitioners, including making miticide application recommendations where populations of Tetranychus urticae are a mix of resistant and wildtype individuals.

Gema Alama-Bermejo ◽  
Pavla Bartošová-Sojková ◽  
Stephen D. Atkinson ◽  
Astrid S. Holzer ◽  
Jerri L. Bartholomew

Proteases and their inhibitors play critical roles in host-parasite interactions and in the outcomes of infections. Ceratonova shasta is a myxozoan pathogen that causes enteronecrosis in economically important salmonids from the Pacific Northwest of North America. This cnidarian parasite has host-specific genotypes with varying virulence, making it a powerful system to decipher virulence mechanisms in myxozoans. Using C. shasta genome and transcriptome, we identified four proteases of different catalytic types: cathepsin D (aspartic), cathepsin L and Z-like (cysteine) and aminopeptidase-N (metallo); and a stefin (cysteine protease inhibitor), which implied involvement in virulence and hence represent target molecules for the development of therapeutic strategies. We characterized, annotated and modelled their 3D protein structure using bioinformatics and computational tools. We quantified their expression in C. shasta genotype 0 (low virulence, no mortality) and IIR (high virulence and mortality) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, to demonstrate that there are major differences between the genotypes during infection and parasite development. High proliferation of genotype IIR was associated with high expression of the cathepsin D and the stefin, likely correlated with high nutrient demands and to regulate cell metabolism, with upregulation preceding massive proliferation and systemic dispersion. In contrast, upregulation of the cathepsin L and Z-like cysteine proteases may have roles in host immune evasion in genotype 0 infections, which are associated with low proliferation, low inflammation and non-destructive development. In contrast to the other proteases, C. shasta aminopeptidase-N appears to have a prominent role in nematocyst formation in both genotypes, but only during sporogenesis. Homology searches of C. shasta proteases against other myxozoan transcriptomes revealed a high abundance of cathepsin L and aminopeptidase homologs suggesting common gene requirements across species. Our study identified molecules of potential therapeutic significance for aquaculture and serves as a baseline for future research aimed at functional characterisation of these targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 80 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Luke W. Ridder ◽  
Lesley R. Morris ◽  
Michelle A. Day ◽  
Becky K. Kerns

Andrea Giuffre ◽  
Elaine Gunnison ◽  

While researchers have attempted to estimate the prevalence of and identify risk factors for sexual assault, less is understood about the relationship among populations at high risk for sexual assault and their perceptions of survivors’ services organizations and justice. The purpose of this investigation is to contribute to existing research through exploratory qualitative analyses of 43 undergraduate sorority women’s perceptions of survivors’ services and justice on a large, urban campus in the Pacific Northwest in the United States. Results of these exploratory analyses revealed that the sorority women had preferences for informal confidants and services whom they could trust concerning matters of sexual violence. The women also discussed that they would prefer confidential and mental health competent services for fear that disclosing sexual violence might draw public attention to them. On the same note, the women expressed a preference for justice that would prioritize their reputation and minimize stigmatization and highlighted how disclosure of sexual violence could impact their social, educational, and employment opportunities. Moreover, they described a fear of being blamed or not believed about sexual violence. Lastly, participants supported relatively punitive sanctions for perpetrators. Overall, participants cited many barriers to accessing formal support services, exposing the persistent justice gap that remains for this population. Findings suggest a need for outreach regarding campus services designed to address sexual violence.

2022 ◽  
pp. 243-263
Tracey S. Hodges ◽  
Sharon M. Pratt ◽  
Leslie La Croix ◽  
Sherry Dismuke ◽  
Carol A. Donovan ◽  

To shed some light on how writing methods are currently taught in a variety of programs across the United States and continue examining high-quality writing educators, the present chapter presents five distinct models for teacher preparation. These models are the result of meeting state-level standards; national standards through the International Literacy Association (ILA); and core competencies from research, theory, and practice. The course models represent the Pacific Northwest, Midwest, Southeast, and Northeast, showing diversity across the United States. Specifically in the present chapter, the researchers (1) present effective models of writing instruction; (2) provide examples of integrated approaches to research, theory, and practice for writing instruction; and (3) examine limitations and opportunities within each model. The goal of the present chapter is to outline these models in the hopes that other programs can modify and replicate the models that best fit their unique demographics, needs, and literacy standards.

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