yield potential
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

2647
(FIVE YEARS 1216)

H-INDEX

77
(FIVE YEARS 18)

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 038-046
Author(s):  
Zipporah Page ◽  
David P Tokpah ◽  
Khady N Drame ◽  
Zogbo Luther ◽  
Victor M Voor ◽  
...  

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food crop in many countries in Africa. Africa consumes 11.6 million tons of rice per annum and out of 39 rice-producing countries, 21 import 50% to 99% of their rice requirements. The inability to reach the yield potential that would sustain Africa’s need for rice is due to many biotic and abiotic constraints that rice production faces. In lowland grown rice, one of the abiotic factors hindering rice production is iron toxicity. Excess uptake of ferrous (Fe2+) ions leads to a physiological stress, which results, into poor production. The current study aimed at selection of varieties tolerant to iron toxicity and assessment of the genetic diversity linked to this trait. In a hydroponic experiment conducted in a screen house at Africa Rice Centre in Dar es Salaam, 32 rice varieties were evaluated for tolerance to iron toxicity. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with iron concentration as the main plot factor and variety as the sub plot factor. Two levels of iron concentration were used: 2 ppm and 300 ppm of Fe2+ as control and test concentrations, respectively. Traits observed to gauge tolerance were leaf bronzing (an indicator of iron toxicity), plant height, tillering, number of leaves, shoot weight (above ground), root length and root weight. The varieties ARICA8, and CK801 were found to be tolerant due to low bronzing indices, higher shoot weight, more number of leaves and lack of significant variation in morphology between the two Fe treatments except for the plant height. Correlation analysis depicted negative correlation between leaf bronzing and the other traits measured especially shoot biomass.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qasim Raza ◽  
Awais Riaz ◽  
Rana Muhammad Atif ◽  
Babar Hussain ◽  
Iqrar Ahmad Rana ◽  
...  

MADS-box gene family members play multifarious roles in regulating the growth and development of crop plants and hold enormous promise for bolstering grain yield potential under changing global environments. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a key stable food crop around the globe. Until now, the available information concerning MADS-box genes in the wheat genome has been insufficient. Here, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis identified 300 high confidence MADS-box genes from the publicly available reference genome of wheat. Comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes classified the wheat genes into 16 distinct subfamilies. Gene duplications were mainly identified in subfamilies containing unbalanced homeologs, pointing towards a potential mechanism for gene family expansion. Moreover, a more rapid evolution was inferred for M-type genes, as compared with MIKC-type genes, indicating their significance in understanding the evolutionary history of the wheat genome. We speculate that subfamily-specific distal telomeric duplications in unbalanced homeologs facilitate the rapid adaptation of wheat to changing environments. Furthermore, our in-silico expression data strongly proposed MADS-box genes as active guardians of plants against pathogen insurgency and harsh environmental conditions. In conclusion, we provide an entire complement of MADS-box genes identified in the wheat genome that could accelerate functional genomics efforts and possibly facilitate bridging gaps between genotype-to-phenotype relationships through fine-tuning of agronomically important traits.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (49) ◽  
pp. 1-1
Author(s):  
Galina Konieva ◽  
◽  
Vitalii Ochirov ◽  
Vera Ivanova ◽  
Rustam Shabanov

Realization of the yield potential depends on the biological characteristics of the variety, cultivation technology and weather conditions. The article presents the results of studies carried out in 2018-2021. on the productivity of various varieties of winter rye in dryland conditions of the central zone of the Republic of Kalmykia. The fresh yield of winter rye harvested for fodder depended on the variety. Its highest index was obtained for the Saratovskaya 4 variety and amounted to 17.7 ... 26.9 t / ha. The analysis of the productivity of winter rye harvested for green fodder showed that the studied varieties provided the yield of dry matter at the level of 5.4 ... 7.1 t / ha on average for three years. All varieties have good winter hardiness. Keywords: WINTER RYE, VARIETY, NAKED FALLOW, PLANT HEIGHT, GREEN MASS, FRESH YIELD, CROP PRODUCTIVITY, DRY MATTER


MAUSAM ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 189-192
Author(s):  
NEHA PAREEK ◽  
SUMANA ROY ◽  
A.S. NAIN ◽  
SMITA GUPTA ◽  
GAURAVKUMAR CHATURVEDI

The ideal sowing period is critical for maximizing the crop's yield potential under specific agroclimatic conditions (Nain, 2016; Patra et al., 2017). It influences the phenological stages of the crop's development and, as a result, the efficient conversion of biomass into economic yield. During rabi 2013-14, a field research was done at GBPUA&T's Borlaug Crop Research Centre to determine the best sowing dates for wheat crops employing Aquacrop model. Aquacrop model has been calibrated against vegetative and economic yield forthree sowing dates, viz., 3rd December, 18th December and 3rd January (Pareek et al., 2017). After calibrating the Aquacrop model, a set of conservative variables was obtained (Pareek et al., 2017). Afterward, the calibrated Aquacrop model was used to validate wheat yield and biomass for three years in a row, namely 2010-11, 2011-12 and 2012-13. The model subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates. For all of the tested years, the simulation findings of the Aquacrop model reflected the observed crop yields and biomass of wheat. The model was used to simulate the optimum sowing week based on varying sowing dates and produced grain yield for a period of 10 years (Malik et al., 2013). The average and assured yield of wheat was worked out based on probability analysis (60, 75 and 90%). The optimum sowing time for Tarai region of Uttarakhand was suggested as first week of November followed by second week of November (Nain, 2016). In no case wheat should be sown during third week of November and beyond due to poor assured yield and average yield (Nain, 2016). The finding of the studies will help to increase productivity and production of wheat crop in Tarai region of Uttarakhand.  


2022 ◽  
pp. 003072702110731
Author(s):  
K.G. Cassman ◽  
D.J. Connor

Perennial grain crops have been proposed as environmentally sustainable alternatives to annual grain crop systems that currently dominate the world's major breadbaskets. Proponents emphasize the potential of perennial grains to mimic natural systems and thereby reduce soil erosion, nutrient losses, and degradation of soil quality although need for adequate grain yield is also recognized as a prerequisite for success. Here we assess progress since 2005 (16 y) towards development of perennial grain systems with sufficient productivity to be seen as competent alternatives to annual wheat on the prairies and plains of North America and Australia. Based on reports published in refereed journals, we see little evidence that yield of Intermediate Wheatgrass or perennial wheats have improved to the point they are viable alternatives. Slow progress is attributed to lack of minimum grain yield targets for economic viability, lack of designated target regions where perennial grains are most likely to be competitive against annuals, selection methods that focused on components of yield rather than yield per se (i.e. on an area basis), and relatively small R & D investment compared to resources given to genetic and agronomic improvement of major annual grain crops. Given current status, we conclude that perennial grains will require substantial R & D investment and several decades if they are to achieve sufficient yield potential and yield persistence to become more than a niche crop for upscale health food markets in wealthy countries.


MAUSAM ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-52
Author(s):  
R. K. MALL ◽  
M. K. SRIVASTAVA

This study reports the role of field experimentation and system simulation in better quantifying the productivity of wheat crop, and examine how knowledge on potential productivity can improve the efficiency of the production system. When knowledge from field experimentation is utilised into crop weather simulation models, gap between actual, attainable and potential yield for a given environment can be determined and opportunities for yield improvement can be assessed. Results show that while actual district average yields show increasing trend, decreasing trend is noticed in potential and attainable yield. While the total and management yield gap is decreasing over time, research yield gap does not show any trend, it is nearly stagnant from early eighties to late nineties. The study reported here presents the advantage of simulation models to determine the yield gap against a variable annual yield potential for a agro-climatic region.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nestor Kippes ◽  
Helen Tsai ◽  
Meric Lieberman ◽  
Darrin Culp ◽  
Brian McCormack ◽  
...  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 196
Author(s):  
Yonggang Ding ◽  
Xiaoqing Tang ◽  
Xinbo Zhang ◽  
Min Zhu ◽  
Chunyan Li ◽  
...  

Global warming has changed the suitability of areas traditionally planted with crops, raising concerns about cereal security. To investigate the possibilities and constraints of increasing yields by breaking through traditional area plantings of wheat cultivars, a two-year field experiment was conducted in southern and northern locations in the Yangtze River basin (YRB), China (separated by approximately 180 km), with seven weak-winter types and six semi-winter types, respectively, bred for the two regions. The movement of weak-winter-type cultivars to the north increased or did not change grain yield and their grain yields were not significantly higher than those of local semi-winter-type cultivars. The movement of semi-winter-type cultivars to the south significantly decreased their yields. Thus, breaking through traditional area plantings did not significantly increase grain yields compared with those of local wheat cultivars. Grain yield of wheat planted in the northern YRB was higher by 5 to 20% than that in the southern YRB because of an increase in spikes that resulted from a longer spike formation phase. In addition, the post-anthesis leaf area declined more slowly in the northern YRB because of higher main stem and tiller survival. High-yielding cultivars always had more spikes and larger photosynthetic areas after anthesis than those of low-yielding cultivars regardless of the planting locations, which led to increases in post-anthesis biomass. However, the grain yield of different cultivars was highly variable under different environmental conditions. The coefficient of variation (CV) of grain yield in different cultivars was significantly positively correlated with the CV of spike number and post-anthesis biomass, implying that flexibility spike number and post-anthesis biomass in response to environmental changes can maximize release of yield potential. Therefore, improving main stem and tiller survival can increase spike number and maintain post-anthesis photosynthetic areas and help to establish a large, highly stable, and productive population with a high level of suitability and production through effectively utilizing the resources during the late growth phase. Valuable suggestions for breeding high-yield and -stability cultivars and confirming their planting range in the future are given.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 170
Author(s):  
Alicia Ayerdi Gotor ◽  
Elisa Marraccini

In Europe, there is an increasing interest in pulses both for their beneficial effects in cropping systems and for human health. However, despite these advantages, the acreage dedicated to pulses has been declining and their diversity has reduced, particularly in European temperate regions, due to several social and economic factors. This decline has stimulated a political debate in the EU on the development of plant proteins. By contrast, in Southern countries, a large panel of minor pulses is still cropped in regional patterns of production and consumption. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential for cultivation of minor pulses in European temperate regions as a complement to common pulses. Our assumption is that some of these crops could adapt to different pedoclimatic conditions, given their physiological adaptation capacity, and that these pulses might be of interest for the development of innovative local food chains in an EU policy context targeting protein autonomy. The research is based on a systematic review of 269 papers retrieved in the Scopus database (1974–2019), which allowed us to identify 41 pulses as candidate species with protein content higher than 20% that are already consumed as food. For each species, the main agronomic (e.g., temperature or water requirements) and nutritional characteristics (e.g., proteins or antinutritional contents) were identified in their growing regions. Following their agronomic characteristics, the candidate crops were confronted with variability in the annual growing conditions for spring crops in Western European temperate areas to determine the earliest potential sowing and latest harvest dates. Subsequently, the potential sum of temperatures was calculated with the Agri4cast database to establish the potential climatic suitability. For the first time, 21 minor pulses were selected to be grown in these temperate areas and appear worthy of investigation in terms of yield potential, nutritional characteristics or best management practices.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leonardo F. Rocha ◽  
Jason P. Bond ◽  
Ahmad M. Fakhoury

Plant-parasitic nematodes represent a substantial constraint on global food security by reducing the yield potential of all major crops. The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is widely distributed across important soybean production areas of the U.S., being the major soybean yield-limiting factor, especially in the Midwestern U.S. Double cropped (DC) soybean is commonly planted following winter wheat. We previously reported double-cropping soybean fields with reduced SCN counts compared to fallow at both R1 growth stage (beginning of flowering) (−31.8%) and after soybean harvest (−32.7%). To test if higher counts of beneficial and SCN antagonistic microorganisms could be correlated with the suppression of SCN in fields previously planted with wheat, three field locations with noted SCN suppression were selected for a metagenomics study. Ten subplots were selected (5 wheat and 5 fallow pre-soybean) from each location. A total of 90 soil samples were selected: 3 fields ×2 treatments × 3 timepoints × 5 replications. Three DNA markers targeted distinct microbial groups: bacteria (16S V4-V5), fungi (ITS2), and Fusarium (tef1). Amplicons were sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform (300 bp paired-end). Sequencing datasets were processed in R using the DADA2 pipeline. Fungal populations were affected by location in all sampling periods and differed significantly between DC and fallow plots at soybean planting and after harvest (P < 0.001). Several enriched fungal and bacterial taxa in wheat plots, including Mortierella, Exophiala, Conocybe, Rhizobacter spp., and others, were previously reported to parasitize SCN and other plant-parasitic nematodes, suggesting a potential role of beneficial microbes in suppression of SCN in soybean fields double-cropped with wheat.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document