methylation status
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yuting Dong ◽  
Xiaozhao Liu ◽  
Bijun Jiang ◽  
Siting Wei ◽  
Bangde Xiang ◽  

BackgroundThe alternative usage of promoters provides a way to regulate gene expression, has a significant influence on the transcriptome, and contributes to the cellular transformation of cancer. However, the function of alternative promoters (APs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been systematically studied yet. In addition, the potential mechanism of regulation to the usage of APs remains unclear. DNA methylation, one of the most aberrant epigenetic modifications in cancers, is known to regulate transcriptional activity. Whether DNA methylation regulates the usage of APs needs to be explored. Here, we aim to investigate the effects of DNA methylation on usage of APs in HCC.MethodsPromoter activities were calculated based on RNA-seq data. Functional enrichment analysis was implemented to conduct GO terms. Correlation tests were used to detect the correlation between promoter activity and methylation status. The LASSO regression model was used to generate a diagnostic model. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to compare the overall survival between high and low methylation groups. RNA-seq and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) in HCC samples were performed to validate the correlation of promoter activity and methylation.ResultsWe identified 855 APs in total, which could be well used to distinguish cancer from normal samples. The correlation of promoter activity and DNA methylation in APs was observed, and the APs with negative correlation were defined as methylation-regulated APs (mrAPs). Six mrAPs were identified to generate a diagnostic model with good performance (AUC = 0.97). Notably, the majority of mrAPs had CpG sites that could be used to predict clinical outcomes by methylation status. Finally, we verified 85.6% of promoter activity variation and 92.3% of methylation changes in our paired RNA-seq and WGBS samples, respectively. The negative correlation between promoter activity and methylation status was further confirmed in our HCC samples.ConclusionThe aberrant methylation status plays a critical role in the precision usage of APs in HCC, which sheds light on the mechanism of cancer development and provides a new insight into cancer screening and treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 422
Daniel Dubinski ◽  
Sae-Yeon Won ◽  
Bedjan Behmanesh ◽  
Max Dosch ◽  
Viktoria Puchinin ◽  

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) patients are at particularly high risk for thrombotic complications. In the event of a postoperative pulmonary embolism, therapeutic anticoagulation (tAC) is indispensable. The impact of therapeutic anticoagulation on recurrence pattern in GBM is currently unknown. Methods: We conducted a matched-pair cohort analysis of 57 GBM patients with or without tAC that were matched for age, sex, gross total resection and MGMT methylation status in a ratio of 1:2. Patients’ characteristics and clinical course were evaluated using medical charts. MRI characteristics were evaluated by two independent authors blinded to the AC status. Results: The morphologic MRI appearance in first GBM recurrence showed a significantly higher presence of multifocal, midline crossing and sharp demarcated GBM recurrence patterns in patients with therapeutic tAC compared to the matched control group. Although statistically non-significant, the therapeutic tAC cohort showed increased survival. Conclusion: Therapeutic anticoagulation induced significant morphologic changes in GBM recurrences. The underlying pathophysiology is discussed in this article but remains to be further elucidated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ritu Raina ◽  
Abdulmajeed G. Almutary ◽  
Sali Abubaker Bagabir ◽  
Nazia Afroze ◽  
Sharmila Fagoonee ◽  

Purpose: Plant-derived phytochemicals have shown epigenetic modulatory effect in different types of cancer by reversing the pattern of DNA methylation and chromatin modulation, thereby restoring the function of silenced tumor-suppressor genes. In the present study, attempts have been made to explore chrysin-mediated epigenetic alterations in HeLa cells.Methods: Colony formation and migration assays followed by methylation-specific PCR for examining the methylation status of CpG promoters of various tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) and the expression of these TSGs at the transcript and protein levels were performed. Furthermore, global DNA methylation; biochemical activities of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone methyl transferases (HMTs), histone deacetylases (HDACs), and histone acetyl transferases (HATs) along with the expression analysis of chromatin-modifying enzymes; and H3 and H4 histone modification marks analyses were performed after chrysin treatment.Results: The experimental analyses revealed that chrysin treatment encourages cytostatic behavior as well as inhibits the migration capacity of HeLa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Chrysin reduces the methylation of various tumor-suppressor genes, leading to their reactivation at mRNA and protein levels. The expression levels of various chromatin-modifying enzymes viz DNMTs, HMTs, HDACs, and HATS were found to be decreased, and H3 and H4 histone modification marks were modulated too. Also, reduced global DNA methylation was observed following the treatment of chrysin.Conclusion: This study concludes that chrysin can be used as a potential epigenetic modifier for cancer treatment and warrants for further experimental validation.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 190
Michael Ackah ◽  
Liangliang Guo ◽  
Shaocong Li ◽  
Xin Jin ◽  
Charles Asakiya ◽  

Drought stress remains one of the most detrimental environmental cues affecting plant growth and survival. In this work, the DNA methylome changes in mulberry leaves under drought stress (EG) and control (CK) and their impact on gene regulation were investigated by MethylRAD sequencing. The results show 138,464 (37.37%) and 56,241 (28.81%) methylation at the CG and CWG sites (W = A or T), respectively, in the mulberry genome between drought stress and control. The distribution of the methylome was prevalent in the intergenic, exonic, intronic and downstream regions of the mulberry plant genome. In addition, we discovered 170 DMGs (129 in CG sites and 41 in CWG sites) and 581 DMS (413 in CG sites and 168 in CWG sites). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicates that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, spliceosome, amino acid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, RNA transport, plant hormone, signal transduction pathways, and quorum sensing play a crucial role in mulberry response to drought stress. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR analysis indicates that the selected 23 genes enriched in the KEGG pathways are differentially expressed, and 86.96% of the genes share downregulated methylation and 13.04% share upregulation methylation status, indicating the complex link between DNA methylation and gene regulation. This study serves as fundamentals in discovering the epigenomic status and the pathways that will significantly enhance mulberry breeding for adaptation to a wide range of environments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 6-10
A. A. Ivanova ◽  
A. A. Gurazheva ◽  
S. V. Maksimova ◽  
S. K. Malyutina ◽  
V. P. Novoselov ◽  

The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of methylation of the F2RL3, CDKN2A gene with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Material and methods. Case-control study design. The SCD group included 150 deceased men (mean age 46.7 ± 9.2 years) with the main pathological diagnoses of acute circulatory failure, acute coronary insufficiency, which meets the SCD criteria of the European Society of Cardiology. The control group included 150 men who died suddenly, but not due to cardiovascular pathology (mean age 42.6 ± 1.2 years). DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction from myocardial tissue in both groups. The methylation status of the F2RL3 gene (19: 16890405-16890606, GRCh38.p13) and the CDKN2A gene (9: 21974726-21974877, GRCh38.p13) was assessed by methyl-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results. In the SCD group, 17.3 % (26/150) had the F2RL3 gene completely methylated (MM); in 6.0 % (9/150) it is completely unmethylated (UU); 76.7 % (115/150) had both methylated and unmethylated F2RL3 (MU) gene. In the control group, 16 % (24/150) had the F2RL3 gene completely methylated (MM); in 5.3 % (8/150), it is completely unmethylated (UU); 78.7 % (118/150) had both methylated and unmethylated F2RL3 (MU) gene. When comparing the groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the methylation status of the F2RL3 gene between the groups (p > 0.05). In all subjects in the SCD group and the control group, the CDKN2A gene is completely unmethylated. Conclusions. Methylation of genes F2RL3, CDKN2A is not associated with sudden cardiac death.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Thangarajan Rajkumar ◽  
Sathyanarayanan Amritha ◽  
Veluswami Sridevi ◽  
Gopisetty Gopal ◽  
Kesavan Sabitha ◽  

AbstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy among women globally. Development of a reliable plasma biomarker panel might serve as a non-invasive and cost-effective means for population-based screening of the disease. Transcriptomic profiling of breast tumour, paired normal and apparently normal tissues, followed by validation of the shortlisted genes using TaqMan® Low density arrays and Quantitative real-time PCR was performed in South Asian women. Fifteen candidate protein markers and 3 candidate epigenetic markers were validated first in primary breast tumours and then in plasma samples of cases [N = 202 invasive, 16 DCIS] and controls [N = 203 healthy, 37 benign] using antibody array and methylation specific PCR. Diagnostic efficiency of single and combined markers was assessed. Combination of 6 protein markers (Adipsin, Leptin, Syndecan-1, Basic fibroblast growth factor, Interleukin 17B and Dickopff-3) resulted in 65% sensitivity and 80% specificity in detecting breast cancer. Multivariate diagnostic analysis of methylation status of SOSTDC1, DACT2, WIF1 showed 100% sensitivity and up to 91% specificity in discriminating BC from benign and controls. Hence, combination of SOSTDC1, DACT2 and WIF1 was effective in differentiating breast cancer [non-invasive and invasive] from benign diseases of the breast and healthy individuals and could help as a complementary diagnostic tool for breast cancer.

2022 ◽  
Natsuki Nakanishi ◽  
Satoko Osuka ◽  
Tomohiro Kono ◽  
Hisato Kobayashi ◽  
Shinya Ikeda ◽  

Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrinal disorder, is associated with impaired oocyte development, which leads to infertility. However, the pathogenesis of PCOS has not been completely elucidated. This study aimed to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and epigenetic changes in the oocytes of the PCOS mouse model to identify the etiological factors. In this study, RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that 90 DEGs were upregulated and 27 DEGs were downregulated in the PCOS mouse model. DNA methylation analysis revealed 30 hypomethylated and 10 hypermethylated regions in the PCOS group. However, the DNA methylation status was not correlated with differential gene expression. The pathway enrichment analysis revealed that five DEGs (Rps21, Rpl36, Rpl36a, Rpl37a, and Rpl22l1) were enriched in ribosome-related pathways in the oocytes of the PCOS mouse model, and the immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly upregulated expression levels of Rps21 and Rpl36. These results suggest that differential gene expression in the oocytes of the PCOS mouse model is related to impaired folliculogenesis. These findings improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of PCOS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Pengfei Liu

The metastatic cancer of unknown primary (CUP) sites remains a leading cause of cancer death with few therapeutic options. The aberrant DNA methylation (DNAm) is the most important risk factor for cancer, which has certain tissue specificity. However, how DNAm alterations in tumors differ among the regulatory network of multi-omics remains largely unexplored. Therefore, there is room for improvement in our accuracy in the prediction of tumor origin sites and a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In our study, an integrative analysis based on multi-omics data and molecular regulatory network uncovered genome-wide methylation mechanism and identified 23 epi-driver genes. Apart from the promoter region, we also found that the aberrant methylation within the gene body or intergenic region was significantly associated with gene expression. Significant enrichment analysis of the epi-driver genes indicated that these genes were highly related to cellular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, including T-cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and signal transduction. Based on the ensemble algorithm, six CpG sites located in five epi-driver genes were selected to construct a tissue-specific classifier with a better accuracy (>95%) using TCGA datasets. In the independent datasets and the metastatic cancer datasets from GEO, the accuracy of distinguishing tumor subtypes or original sites was more than 90%, showing better robustness and stability. In summary, the integration analysis of large-scale omics data revealed complex regulation of DNAm across various cancer types and identified the epi-driver genes participating in tumorigenesis. Based on the aberrant methylation status located in epi-driver genes, a classifier that provided the highest accuracy in tracing back to the primary sites of metastatic cancer was established. Our study provides a comprehensive and multi-omics view of DNAm-associated changes across cancer types and has potential for clinical application.

2021 ◽  
Waqar Haque ◽  
Caitlyn Teh ◽  
E. Brian Butler ◽  
Bin S. Teh

Abstract BackgroundMGMT promoter methylation has been associated with favorable prognosis and survival outcomes in patients with glioblastoma and grade 3 glioma. However, the effects of promoter methylation of MGMT in patients with grade 2 gliomas have not been established. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the prognostic impact and predictive values of MGMT methylation in patients with grade 2 glioma.MethodsThe National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried (2004-2016) for patients with newly diagnosed grade 2 glioma. Demographics and clinical characteristics of these patients were examined. Statistics included Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) analysis alongside Cox proportional hazards modeling.ResultsA total of 11,223 patients met the selection criteria; 1,252 patients (11%) had MGMT testing. Of the patients who had MGMT testing, 58.5% were MGMT methylated (mMGMT), and 43.5% were MGMT unmethylated (uMGMT). mMGMT patients had greater median overall survival (77.3 months) than both uMGMT patients (42.6 months) and patients with no MGMT status reported (61.9 months (p<0.001 for both). mMGMT was also associated with improved OS, when compared to patients with uMGMT, for patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiation or adjuvant radiation therapy.ConclusionsThis is the largest study to date demonstrating both the prognostic and predictive impact of MGMT methylation on patients with grade II glioma. The current results show that mMGMT is a prognostic factor and possibly a predictive biomarker for grade II glioma patients. MGMT methylation status can be used to determine and stratify patients by risk levels, and thus select patients for treatment intensification.

Corinne E Griguer ◽  
Claudia R Oliva ◽  
Christopher S Coffey ◽  
Merit E Cudkowicz ◽  
Robin A Conwit ◽  

Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM) has a 5-year survival rate of 3–5%. GBM treatment includes maximal resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the mechanism of resistance to TMZ. In a prior retrospective trial, CcO activity in GBMs inversely correlated with clinical outcome. The current Cyto-C study was designed to prospectively evaluate and validate the prognostic value of tumor CcO activity in patients with newly diagnosed primary GBM, and compared to the known prognostic value of MGMT promoter methylation status. Methods This multi-institutional, blinded, prospective biomarker study enrolled 152 patients with newly diagnosed GBM who were to undergo surgical resection and would be candidates for standard of care. The primary end point was overall survival time (OS), and the secondary end point was progression-free survival time (PFS). Tumor CcO activity and MGMT promoter methylation status were assayed in a centralized laboratory. Results OS and PFS did not differ by high or low tumor CcO activity, and the prognostic validity of MGMT promoter methylation was confirmed. Notably, a planned exploratory analysis suggested that the combination of low CcO activity and MGMT promoter methylation in tumors may be predictive of long-term survival. Conclusions Tumor CcO activity alone was not confirmed as a prognostic marker in GBM patients. However, the combination of low CcO activity and methylated MGMT promoter may reveal a sub-group of GBM patients with improved long term survival that warrants further evaluation. Our work also demonstrates the importance of performing large, multi-institutional, prospective studies to validate biomarkers. We also discuss lessons learned in assembling such studies.

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