Crocetin is an aglycone of crocin naturally occurring in saffron and produced in biological systems by hydrolysis of crocin as a bioactive metabolite. It is known to exist in several medicinal plants, the desiccative ripe fruit of the cape jasmine belonging to the Rubiaceae family, and stigmas of the saffron plant of the Iridaceae family. According to modern pharmacological investigations, crocetin possesses cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antidepressant, antiviral, anticancer, atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and memory-enhancing properties. Although poor bioavailability hinders therapeutic applications, derivatization and formulation preparation technologies have broadened the application prospects for crocetin. To promote the research and development of crocetin, we summarized the distribution, preparation and production, total synthesis and derivatization technology, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, drug safety, drug formulations, and preparation of crocetin.
Recent reports of antiepileptic activity of the fungal alkaloid TMC-120B have renewed the interest in this natural product. Previous total syntheses of TMC-120B comprise many steps and have low overall yields (11–17 steps, 1.5–2.9% yield). Thus, to access this compound more efficiently, we herein present a concise and significantly improved total synthesis of the natural product. Our short synthesis relies on two key cyclization steps to assemble the central scaffold: isoquinoline formation via an ethynyl-imino cyclization and an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction to form the furanone.
This review describes the various synthetic methods commonly used to obtain molecules possessing conjugated dienes. We focus on methods involving cross-coupling reactions using various metals such as nickel, palladium, ruthenium, cobalt, cobalt/zinc, manganese, zirconium, or iron, mainly through examples that aimed to access natural molecules or their analogues. Among the natural molecules covered in this review, we discuss the total synthesis of a phytohormone, Acid Abscisic (ABA), carried out by our team involving the development of a conjugated diene chain.
The potential of natural and synthetic chalcones as therapeutic leads against different pathological conditions has been investigated for several years, and this class of compounds emerged as a privileged chemotype due to its interesting anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. The objective of our study was to contribute to the investigation of this class of natural products as anti-leishmanial agents. We aimed at investigating the structure–activity relationships of the natural chalcone lophirone E, characterized by the presence of benzofuran B-ring, and analogues on anti-leishmania activity. Here we describe an effective synthetic strategy for the preparation of the natural chalcone lophirone E and its application to the synthesis of a small set of chalcones bearing different substitution patterns at both the A and heterocyclic B rings. The resulting compounds were investigated for their activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes disclosing derivatives 1 and 28a,b as those endowed with the most interesting activities (IC50 = 15.3, 27.2, 15.9 μM, respectively). The synthetic approaches here described and the early SAR investigations highlighted the potential of this class of compounds as antiparasitic hits, making this study worthy of further investigation.
A total synthesis of lamellarins U and A3 is described. The synthesis features interruption of a halogen dance reaction of a metalated α,β-dibromopyrrole. The pyrrolylmagnesium reagent, generated by deprotonative metalation using (TMP)MgCl·LiCl (TMP: 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide) as base, was transmetalated to the corresponding organozinc species without causing the halogen dance reaction, which underwent a Negishi coupling to incorporate an aryl group onto the pyrrole ring. The arylated α,β-dibromopyrrole was then converted into lamellarins U and A3 through an α-selective halogen–magnesium exchange followed by carboxylation and subsequent palladium-mediated cyclization. The late-stage introduction of another aryl group was performed using a Kosugi–Migita–Stille coupling to provide lamellarins U and A3.
The first total synthesis of the natural product iopsoralenoside, isolated from the n-butyl alcohol extract of Fructus Psoraleae (FP), was achieved in 17% yield over 7 steps. The key steps of the process are the glycosylation and irradiation promoted by ultraviolet light. This synthesis provides a sufficient amount of synthesized trans- and cis-isopsoralenoside for further bioassays.