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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. Abrar ◽  
S. Sarwar ◽  
M. Abbas ◽  
H. Chaudhry ◽  
N. Ghani ◽  

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zi-Liang Guo ◽  
Mao-Xing Li ◽  
Xiao-Lin Li ◽  
Peng Wang ◽  
Wei-Gang Wang ◽  

Crocetin is an aglycone of crocin naturally occurring in saffron and produced in biological systems by hydrolysis of crocin as a bioactive metabolite. It is known to exist in several medicinal plants, the desiccative ripe fruit of the cape jasmine belonging to the Rubiaceae family, and stigmas of the saffron plant of the Iridaceae family. According to modern pharmacological investigations, crocetin possesses cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antidepressant, antiviral, anticancer, atherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and memory-enhancing properties. Although poor bioavailability hinders therapeutic applications, derivatization and formulation preparation technologies have broadened the application prospects for crocetin. To promote the research and development of crocetin, we summarized the distribution, preparation and production, total synthesis and derivatization technology, pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, drug safety, drug formulations, and preparation of crocetin.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carole Balthazar ◽  
David L. Joly ◽  
Martin Filion

Among the oldest domesticated crops, cannabis plants (Cannabis sativa L., marijuana and hemp) have been used to produce food, fiber, and drugs for thousands of years. With the ongoing legalization of cannabis in several jurisdictions worldwide, a new high-value market is emerging for the supply of marijuana and hemp products. This creates unprecedented challenges to achieve better yields and environmental sustainability, while lowering production costs. In this review, we discuss the opportunities and challenges pertaining to the use of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. bacteria as crop inoculants to improve productivity. The prevalence and diversity of naturally occurring Pseudomonas strains within the cannabis microbiome is overviewed, followed by their potential mechanisms involved in plant growth promotion and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Emphasis is placed on specific aspects relevant for hemp and marijuana crops in various production systems. Finally, factors likely to influence inoculant efficacy are provided, along with strategies to identify promising strains, overcome commercialization bottlenecks, and design adapted formulations. This work aims at supporting the development of the cannabis industry in a sustainable way, by exploiting the many beneficial attributes of Pseudomonas spp.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 403
Luiz F. S. Oliveira ◽  
Danilo Predes ◽  
Helena L. Borges ◽  
Jose G. Abreu

Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks second in the number of cancer deaths worldwide, mainly due to late diagnoses, which restrict treatment in the potentially curable stages and decrease patient survival. The treatment of CRC involves surgery to remove the tumor tissue, in addition to radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy sessions. However, almost half of patients are resistant to these treatments, especially in metastatic cases, where the 5-year survival rate is only 12%. This factor may be related to the intratumoral heterogeneity, tumor microenvironment (TME), and the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which is impossible to resolve with the standard approaches currently available in clinical practice. CSCs are APC-deficient, and the search for alternative therapeutic agents such as small molecules from natural sources is a promising strategy, as these substances have several antitumor properties. Many of those interfere with the regulation of signaling pathways at the central core of CRC development, such as the Wnt/β-catenin, which plays a crucial role in the cell proliferation and stemness in the tumor. This review will discuss the use of naturally occurring small molecules inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in experimental CRC models over the past decade, highlighting the molecular targets in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms through which these molecules perform their antitumor activities.

Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
Xianhe Li ◽  
Julian Straub ◽  
Tânia Catarina Medeiros ◽  
Chahat Mehra ◽  
Fabian den Brave ◽  

Mitochondria shed their SPOTs Outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) function is essential for cellular health. How mitochondria respond to naturally occurring OMM stress is unknown. Li et al . show that, upon infection with the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii , mitochondria shed large structures positive for OMM (SPOTs). SPOT formation required the parasite effector TgMAF1 and its interaction with the host mitochondrial receptor TOM70 and translocase SAM50. TOM70-dependent SPOT formation mediated a depletion of mitochondrial proteins and optimal parasite growth. SPOT-like structures also formed after OMM perturbations independently of infection. Thus, membrane remodeling is a feature of cellular responses to OMM stress that Toxoplasma hijacks during infection. —SMH

2022 ◽  
Pei Xie ◽  
liying Zhang ◽  
Hui Shen ◽  
Hang Wu ◽  
Jiulong Zhao ◽  

Abstract Exogenous antioxidant materials mimicking endogenous antioxidant systems are commonly used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced injuries. Thus, artificial enzymes have emerged as promising candidates for balancing and treating the dysregulation of redox homeostasis in vivo. Herein, a one-pot hydrothermal strategy for the facile preparation of MoSe2@polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanoparticles (NPs) is reported. The synthesized NPs were biodegradable due to their exposure to oxygen and exhibited high stability. Moreover, they effectively mimicked various naturally occurring enzymes (including catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase) and scavenged free radicals, such as 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ·OH, ·O2−, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Further apoptosis detection studies revealed that MoSe2@PVP NPs significantly increased the cell survival probability in H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytoprotective effect of MoSe2@PVP NPs was explored for an animal model of acute pancreatitis, which confirmed its remarkable therapeutic efficacy. Owing to the biodegradable and biocompatible nature of MoSe2@PVP NPs, the findings of this work can stimulate the development of other artificial nanoenzymes for antioxidant therapies.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 91
Joseph L. Black ◽  
Gus M. Lorenz ◽  
Aaron J. Cato ◽  
Nick R. Bateman ◽  
Nicholas J. Seiter

Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) is a naturally occurring virus commercially produced for control of Heliothines, including Helicoverpa zea. One drawback with using this virus for control has been the slower time to mortality compared with synthetic insecticides. However, a new formulation (Heligen®) has anecdotally been thought to result in quicker mortality than previously observed. The objective of this study was to evaluate percent defoliation, the efficacy of HearNPV on mortality for each H. zea larval instar, and the potential for control of a second infestation. Fourteen days after the first infestation, all plants were re-infested with a second instar larva to simulate a second infestation. Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus was effective at killing 1st–3rd instars, resulting in 99% mortality over 4–6 days. However, 4th and 5th instar mortality only reached 35%. Second infestation larvae died between 3.4 and 3.8 days, significantly faster than the 1st infestation of 2nd instars, which had a mean time to mortality of 4.9 days. An increase in mortality rate is probably due to increasing viral concentrations after viral replication within the first hosts. Final defoliation percentages were significantly smaller in the treated plants versus the untreated plants. Only 3rd and 4th instar larvae caused percent defoliation to exceed the current Arkansas action threshold of 40%. Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus in the Heligen formulation can control 1st–3rd instars within 4–6 days, while keeping defoliation below the action threshold of 40%.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 498
Ana María Moreno de los Moreno de los Reyes ◽  
José Antonio Suárez-Navarro ◽  
María del Mar Alonso ◽  
Catalina Gascó ◽  
Isabel Sobrados ◽  

The use of more eco-efficient cements in concretes is one of the keys to ensuring construction industry sustainability. Such eco-efficient binders often contain large but variable proportions of industrial waste or by-products in their composition, many of which may be naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). This study explored the application of a new gamma spectrometric method for measuring radionuclide activity in hybrid alkali-activated cements from solid 5 cm cubic specimens rather than powder samples. The research involved assessing the effect of significant variables such as the nature of the alkaline activator, reaction time and curing conditions to relate the microstructures identified to the radiological behavior observed. The findings showed that varying the inputs generated pastes with similar reaction products (C-S-H, C-A-S-H and (N,C)-A-S-H) but different microstructures. The new gamma spectrometric method for measuring radioactivity in solid 5 cm cubic specimens in alkaline pastes was found to be valid. The variables involved in hybrid cement activation were shown to have no impact on specimen radioactive content. The powder samples, however, emanated 222Rn (a descendent of 226Ra), possibly due to the deformation taking place in fly ash structure during alkaline activation. Further research would be required to explain that finding.

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