natural compounds
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Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Geoffrey Dumonteil ◽  
Sabine Berteina-Raboin

This review describes the various synthetic methods commonly used to obtain molecules possessing conjugated dienes. We focus on methods involving cross-coupling reactions using various metals such as nickel, palladium, ruthenium, cobalt, cobalt/zinc, manganese, zirconium, or iron, mainly through examples that aimed to access natural molecules or their analogues. Among the natural molecules covered in this review, we discuss the total synthesis of a phytohormone, Acid Abscisic (ABA), carried out by our team involving the development of a conjugated diene chain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Daniela Hartwig ◽  
Liane K. Soares ◽  
Luiz H. Dapper ◽  
José E. R. Nascimento ◽  
Eder João Lenardão

Abstract Carbon–carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond forming reactions are strategically employed for the generation of a variety of heterocyclic systems. This class of compounds represents the most general structural unit, present in many natural compounds. They are recognized for their valuable biologically properties and wide range of applications in medicinal, pharmaceutical, and other related fields of chemistry. This is an updated review on the use of dicarbonyl compounds under environmentally friendly conditions to access a series of heterocyclic structures, e.g., quinoxaline, quinazolinones, benzochalcogenazoles, indoles, among others. Synthetic protocols involving copper-catalyzed, multicomponent and cascade reactions, decarboxylative cyclization, recycling of CO2, and electrochemical approaches are presented and discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Bin Tang ◽  
Wu Zeng ◽  
Lin Lin Song ◽  
Hui Miao Wang ◽  
Li Qun Qu ◽  

Exosomes are nano-extracellular vesicles with diameters ranging from 30 to 150 nm, which are secreted by the cell. With their role in drug cargo loading, exosomes have been applied to carry compounds across the blood–brain barrier in order to target the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, high-purity exosomes isolated by the ultra-high-speed separation method were applied as the natural compound carrier, with the loading efficiency confirmed by UHPLC-MS analysis. Through the optimization of various cargo loading methods using exosomes, this study compared the efficiency of different ways for the separation of exosomes and the exosome encapsulation of natural compounds with increasing molecular weights via extensive in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies. In a pharmacokinetic study, our data suggested that the efficiency of compound’s loading into exosomes is positively correlated to its molecular weight. However, with a molecular weight of greater than 1109 Da, the exosome-encapsulated natural compounds were not able to pass through the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In vitro cellular models confirmed that three of the selected exosome-encapsulated natural compounds—baicalin, hederagenin and neferine—could reduce the level of neurodegenerative disease mutant proteins—including huntingtin 74 (HTT74), P301L tau and A53T α-synuclein (A53T α-syn)—more effectively than the compounds alone. With the traditional pharmacological role of the herbal plant Nelumbo nucifera in mitigating anxiety, exosome-encapsulated-neferine was, for the first time, reported to improve the motor deficits of APP/PS1 (amyloid precursor protein/ presenilin1) double transgenic mice, and to reduce the level of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain when compared with the same concentration of neferine alone. With the current trend in advocating medicine–food homology and green healthcare, this study has provided a rationale from in vitro to in vivo for the encapsulation of natural compounds using exosomes for the targeting of BBB permeability and neurodegenerative diseases in the future.

Mya Myat Ngwe Tun ◽  
Kazufumi Toume ◽  
Elizabeth Luvai ◽  
Khine Mya Nwe ◽  
Shusaku Mizukami ◽  

Molbank ◽  
10.3390/m1313 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 (1) ◽  
pp. M1313
Giovanni Ribaudo

Natural compounds are endowed with an intriguing variety of scaffolds, functional groups and stereochemical properties [...]

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Ilaria Maria Saracino ◽  
Claudio Foschi ◽  
Matteo Pavoni ◽  
Renato Spigarelli ◽  
Maria Chiara Valerii ◽  

Candida spp. are commensal organisms of the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, blood, and vagina of animals and humans. In recent decades, the incidence of human fungal infections has increased, with Candida spp. (mainly C. albicans) infections being the most frequent, and the treatment of fungal infections is still a clinical challenge. Colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract by Candida spp. is significant because infections (e.g., candidemia and vulvovaginal candidiasis) frequently arise from commensal microorganisms. The aim of this study was to test in vitro the antifungal activity and the eventual synergistic effect of five pure components of essential oils: cinnamaldehyde, α-pinene, limonene, eucalyptol, and eugenol. These compounds were tested on 18 Candida strains (15 C. albicans, 2 C. glabrata, and 1 C. lusitaniae) derived from a culture collection of vaginal clinical strains. Methods: Fungistatic activity was evaluated using the disk diffusion method. For fungicidal activity, microdilution and time–kill curve protocols were set up. The checkerboard method was chosen to evaluate a possible synergistic effect of these compounds when mixed. Results: Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol gave the best results, inhibiting all the Candida strains and showing a highly additive effect (FICI 0.625). The cinnamaldehyde inhibition zone (IZ), MIC, and MFC means were 69 mm, 50.05 mg/L, and 109.26 mg/L respectively. Cinnamaldehyde led to the total loss of viable Candida cells within 4 h. Eugenol IZ, MIC, and MFC means were 35.2 mm, 455.42 mg/L, and 690.09 mg/L, respectively. Eugenol led to the total loss of viable fungal cells within 1 h. Treatment with α-pinene inhibited 88.9% of Candida strains, with an IZ mean of 21.2 mm, a MIC mean of 195.41 mg/L, and a MFC mean of 251.27 mg/L; this compound led to the total loss of viable fungal cells only after 24 h. Limonene inhibited only 33.3% of the tested strains and eucalyptol did not produce an inhibition halo, so these compounds were not tested further. Conclusions: These characteristics, together with the well-known safety of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol for human use, make these two natural compounds the perfect candidates for the treatment of candidiasis. This was a pilot study, the purpose of which was to evaluate the best composition of a mixture to be used against intestinal and vulvovaginal candidiasis; in vivo studies are needed to confirm these very encouraging results.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Sreejita Ghosh ◽  
Dibyajit Lahiri ◽  
Moupriya Nag ◽  
Ankita Dey ◽  
Soumya Pandit ◽  

Increased resistance of Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter sp. (ESKAPE) pathogens against various drugs has enhanced the urge for the development of alternate therapeutics. Quorum sensing (QS) is a density dependent cell-to-cell communication mechanism responsible for controlling pathogenicity with the regulation of gene expression. Thus, QS is considered a potential target for the development of newer anti-biofilm agents that do not depend on the utilization of antibiotics. Compounds with anti-QS effects are known as QS inhibitors (QSIs), and they can inhibit the QS mechanism that forms the major form in the development of bacterial pathogenesis. A diverse array of natural compounds provides a plethora of anti-QS effects. Over recent years, these natural compounds have gained importance as new strategies for combating the ESKAPE pathogens and inhibiting the genes involved in QS. Different pharmacognostical and pharmacological studies have been carried out so far for identification of novel drugs or for the discovery of their unique structures that may help in developing more effective anti-biofilm therapies. The main objective of this review is to discuss the various natural compounds, so far identified and their employed mechanisms in hindering the genes responsible for QS leading to bacterial pathogenesis.

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