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Published By Mdpi Ag

2073-4344
Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1476
Author(s):  
Vasyl Mykhailovych ◽  
Andrii Kanak ◽  
Ştefana Cojocaru ◽  
Elena-Daniela Chitoiu-Arsene ◽  
Mircea Nicolae Palamaru ◽  
...  

Spinel chromite nanoparticles are prospective candidates for a variety of applications from catalysis to depollution. In this work, we used a sol–gel auto-combustion method to synthesize spinel-type MgCr2O4 nanoparticles by using fructose (FS), tartaric acid (TA), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as chelating/fuel agents. The optimal temperature treatment for the formation of impurity-free MgCr2O4 nanostructures was found to range from 500 to 750 °C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the lattice vibrations of the corresponding chemical bonds from octahedral and tetrahedral positions, and the optical band gap was calculated from UV–VIS spectrophotometry. The stabilization of the spinel phase was proved by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. From field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), we found that the size of the constituent particles ranged from 10 to 40 nm. The catalytic activity of the as-prepared MgCr2O4 nanocrystals synthesized by using tartaric acid as a chelating/fuel agent was tested on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. In particular, we found that the nature of the chelating/fuel agent as well as the energy released during the auto-combustion played an important role on the structural, optical, and catalytic properties of MgCr2O4 nanoparticles obtained by this synthetic route.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1474
Author(s):  
Tomasz Berniak ◽  
Piotr Łątka ◽  
Anna Rokicińska ◽  
Karol Sidor ◽  
Piotr Kuśtrowski

A wide series of copolymer materials with various contents of 4-vinyl-diisopropyl-phtalate ester (10–90 mol%), divinylbenzene (1–11 mol%) and styrene, as monomers, were obtained by radical copolymerization. In the last steps of the synthesis, diisopropyl ester functionalities were converted into the form of N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) rings. The obtained materials with the NHPI groups immobilized in the copolymer structure were studied by various physicochemical techniques, including FT-IR, UV-Vis-DR, XPS, elemental analysis, and tested as catalysts in aerobic oxidation of p-methoxytoluene in the presence of Co(II) acetate co-catalyst. Conversion of the aromatic substrate was correlated with the NHPI content and cross-linking degree. The best catalytic performance (conversions higher than 23%) was achieved for the copolymer catalysts containing 60% and 30% of 4-vinyl-diisopropyl-phtalate ester. At too high concentrations of NHPI and DVB, some of the NHPI groups were transformed into inactive (C=O)-N=O species or not available due to embedding inside the copolymer structure. The mechanism of the process involving both NHPI centers, forming phthalimide N-oxyl (PINO) radicals, and Co(II) cations was discussed. Stability of the developed catalysts was also tested. The opening of imide rings took place during the catalytic process, resulting in the formation of carboxyl groups and the release of hydroxylamine molecules. The deactivated catalyst could be easily regenerated by repeating two last steps of closing imide ring.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1473
Author(s):  
Rund Abu-Zurayk ◽  
Aya Khalaf ◽  
Hussien A. Abbas ◽  
Rabab A. Nasr ◽  
Tarek S. Jamil ◽  
...  

Fe2−xCuxZr2−xWxO7 (x: 0, 0.05, 0.015) nanoparticles were synthesized following the Pechini method and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measurements to be used as photocatalysts in colored water remediation. All of the prepared materials were crystallized in a cubic fluorite phase as the major phase. The band gap was reduced upon doping with W6+ and Cu2+ from 1.96 eV to 1.47 eV for Fe1.85Cu0.15Zr1.85W0.15O7. Carbol fuchsin (CF) dye was used to determine the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of the prepared catalysts. Degradation efficiency was directly proportional to the dopant’s concentration. Complete removal of 20 mg/L CF was achieved under optimal conditions (pH 9, and catalyst loading of 1.5 g/L) using Fe1.85Cu0.15Zr1.85W0.15O7. The degradation rate followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The reusability for photocatalysts was tested five times, decreasing its efficiency by 4% after the fifth cycle, which indicates that the prepared Fe1.85Cu0.15Zr1.85W0.15O7 photocatalyst is a promising novel photocatalyst due to its superior efficiency in dye photodegradation.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1472
Author(s):  
Gianluca Landi

Structured catalytic reactors are widely used in the automotive sector for exhaust after-treatment, thus representing the state-of-art technology in this sector [...]


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1475
Author(s):  
Ireneusz Kocemba ◽  
Izabela Śmiechowicz ◽  
Marcin Jędrzejczyk ◽  
Jacek Rogowski ◽  
Jacek Michał Rynkowski

The concept of very strong metal–support interactions (VSMSI) was defined in regard to the interactions that influence the catalytic properties of catalysts due to the creation of a new phase as a result of a solid-state chemical reaction between the metal and support. In this context, the high catalytic activity of the 1%Pt/Al2O3 catalyst in the CO oxidation reaction at room temperature was explained. The catalyst samples were reduced at different temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 800 °C and characterized using TPR, O2/H2 titration, CO chemisorption, TPD-CO, FTIR-CO, XRD, and TOF-SIMS methods. Based on the obtained results, it was claimed that with very high temperature reduction (800 °C), nonstoichiometric platinum species [Pt(Cl)Ox] strongly anchored to Al2O3 surface are formed. These species act as the oxygen adsorption sites.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1471
Author(s):  
Zhenzhen Li ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Guolong Yang

Synthesized oleic acid-based wax esters (e.g., cetyl oleate), which can replace spermaceti oil or jojoba oil, have been widely used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and other industries. In this work, 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) has been successfully used as an efficient catalyst to synthesize oleic acid-based wax esters through esterification at 40 °C under solvent-free conditions. A 93.6% conversion rate of cetyl alcohol was obtained under optimal conditions: 10 mol% DBSA, a molar ratio of 1.3:1 oleic acid to alcohol, a reaction temperature 40 °C and a reaction time of 4 h. The effect of water content on esterification was investigated, and it was found that the inhibitory effect of water decreased significantly with increasing temperature. Moreover, DBSA-catalyzed esterification could be applied in the production of various oleic acid-based wax esters and excellent conversion (>90%) to esters was obtained under such mild conditions. DBSA-catalyzed low-temperature esterification is an efficient method for the production of liquid wax esters.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1462
Author(s):  
Katarzyna Rydel-Ciszek ◽  
Tomasz Pacześniak ◽  
Anna Miłaczewska ◽  
Paweł Chmielarz ◽  
Andrzej Sobkowiak

[(salen)FeIII]+MeCN complex is a useful catalyst for cyclohexene oxidation with dioxygen. As the main products, ketone and alcohol are formed. In acetonitrile, [(salen)FeII]MeCN is rapidly oxidized by dioxygen, forming iron(III) species. Voltammetric electroreduction of the [(salen)FeIII]+MeCN complex in the presence of dioxygen causes the increase in current observed, which indicates the existence of a catalytic effect. Further transformations of the oxygen-activated iron(III) salen complex generate an effective catalyst. Based on the catalytic and electrochemical results, as well as DFT calculations, possible forms of active species in c-C6H10 oxidation have been proposed.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1469
Author(s):  
Ruslan M. Mensharapov ◽  
Nataliya A. Ivanova ◽  
Dmitry D. Spasov ◽  
Elena V. Kukueva ◽  
Adelina A. Zasypkina ◽  
...  

Pt/C and Pt/x-SnO2/C catalysts (where x is mass content of SnO2) were synthesized using a polyol method. Their kinetic properties towards oxygen reduction reaction were studied by a rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique in a temperature range from 1 to 50 °C. The SnO2 content of catalyst samples was 5 and 10 wt.%. A quick evaluation of the catalyst activity, electrochemical behavior and average number of transferred electrons were performed using the RDE technique. It has been shown that the use of x-SnO2 (through modification of the carbon support) in a binary system together with Pt does not reduce the catalyst activity in the temperature range of 1–30 °C. The temperature rising up to 50 °C resulted in composite catalyst activity reduction at about 30%.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1467
Author(s):  
Elisa I. García-López ◽  
Zahra Abbasi ◽  
Francesco Parrino ◽  
Valeria La Parola ◽  
Leonarda F. Liotta ◽  
...  

Au nanoparticles supported on CeO2 have been prepared and investigated as photocatalysts for the photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol to the correspondent benzaldehydes, in aqueous suspensions and room conditions under UV, visible and natural solar light irradiation. Au nanoparticles have been supported by impregnation (1 and 3 wt.%) on two types of CeO2 (i.e., a commercial one and a home prepared oxide obtained in the presence of NaOH as precipitation agent). The Au impregnated samples showed strong visible radiation absorption at 565–570 nm associated to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The bare CeO2 samples are activated by UV light and resulted virtually inactive under visible irradiation, whereas the presence of Au improved both the conversion of the alcohols and the selectivity of the reaction towards the aldehyde, giving rise to good results, particularly under visible and natural solar light irradiation. The activity of the materials increased by increasing the Au content.


Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1463
Author(s):  
Honghai Wang ◽  
Wenda Yue ◽  
Shuling Zhang ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Chunli Li ◽  
...  

Silica xerogels have been proposed as a potential support to immobilize enzymes. Improving xerogels’ interactions with such enzymes and their mechanical strengths is critical to their practical applications. Herein, based on the mussel-inspired chemistry, we demonstrated a simple and highly effective strategy for stabilizing enzymes embedded inside silica xerogels by a polydopamine (PDA) coating through in-situ polymerization. The modified silica xerogels were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier tranform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and pore structure analyses. When the PDA-modified silica xerogels were used to immobilize enzymes of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), they exhibited a high loading ability of 45.6 mg/gsupport, which was higher than that of immobilized CALB in silica xerogels (28.5 mg/gsupport). The immobilized CALB of the PDA-modified silica xerogels retained 71.4% of their initial activities after 90 days of storage, whereas the free CALB retained only 30.2%. Moreover, compared with the immobilization of enzymes in silica xerogels, the mechanical properties, thermal stability and reusability of enzymes immobilized in PDA-modified silica xerogels were also improved significantly. These advantages indicate that the new hybrid material can be used as a low-cost and effective immobilized-enzyme support.


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