synthetic methods
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 160-171
Nitin Kumar ◽  
Vinod Kumar ◽  
Yogita Chowdhary

In this review article, we discussed old to new synthetic methods used for the preparation of 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrocarbazole (THCz) based on reported literature. Around the worldwide, various researchers energetically reported new synthetic methods for tetrahydrocarbazoles preparation using conventional method or microwave method or use of catalyst. This review will be helpful to synthetic and medicinal chemist to find selective method for the preparation of 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydrocarbazoles with good percentage yield and less time. This review will also useful to medicinal chemist to design new biologically active tetrahydrocarbazoles based on reported synthetic methods.

Menglu Li ◽  
Ning Wang ◽  
Sa Zhang ◽  
Jutao Hu ◽  
Haiyan Xiao ◽  

Abstract The study of layered materials has been a significant and fascinating area due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Among various layered materials, lanthanum copper oxychalcogenides (LaCuOX (X=S, Se, Te)) have drawn a lot of attention of researchers. The study of LaCuOX was initially focused on the optoelectronic performance due to its excellent optical and electronic properties. Recently, it was found that the layered LaCuOX material also exhibits good thermoelectric properties, providing an opportunity to achieve high energy conversion efficiency through the thermoelectric effects. In this report, an overview of recent advances in LaCuOX research is provided, including crystal and electronic structure, synthetic methods, physical properties, practical applications as well as some strategies to optimize their transport properties. Theoretical and experimental results on LaCuOX crystals or thin films are both discussed in this report. Finally, the challenges and outlook for LaCuOX are evaluated based on current progress.

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Geoffrey Dumonteil ◽  
Sabine Berteina-Raboin

This review describes the various synthetic methods commonly used to obtain molecules possessing conjugated dienes. We focus on methods involving cross-coupling reactions using various metals such as nickel, palladium, ruthenium, cobalt, cobalt/zinc, manganese, zirconium, or iron, mainly through examples that aimed to access natural molecules or their analogues. Among the natural molecules covered in this review, we discuss the total synthesis of a phytohormone, Acid Abscisic (ABA), carried out by our team involving the development of a conjugated diene chain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Arvind Singh ◽  
Amartya Basu ◽  
Aditi Sharma ◽  
Anu Priya ◽  
Manmmet Kaur ◽  

Abstract 2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthaquinone, commonly known as lawsone, represents an extremely important biologically active naturally occurring compound. It can easily be isolated from Lawsonia inermis (henna) tree leaf extract. Last decade has seen tremendous applications of lawsone as a starting component for the preparation of various organic scaffolds. Many of these synthesized scaffolds showed a wide range of biological activities including potential activities towards several cancer cell lines. This review deals with diverse synthetic methods of lawsone derived scaffolds and their screening against different anti-cancer cell lines along with promising results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Hamideh. Emtiazi ◽  
Ali Salari Sharif ◽  
Mina Ardestani

Background: Pyranopyrazoles have a variety of biological activities and can be obtained by various starting materials and synthetic methods. Also, pyrazolopyrano[2,3-b]quinolins that contain pyranopyrazole moiety, have some biological activities such as anti acetylcholinesterase, anti butyrylcholinesterase activity. In this research, our objective is to prepare pyranopyrazole compounds and pyrazolopyrano[2,3-b]quinolins in a simple way and then evaluate their antibacterial effect. Methods: In this study, pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives have been synthesized by condensing malononitrile, aromatic aldehydes, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one in the presence of magnesium perchlorate as a catalyst. Then we prepared pyrazolopyrano[2,3-b]quinolins via subsequent Friedlander reaction between cyclohexanone and the obtained pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles. Also, the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized pyrazolopyrano[2,3-b]quinolins against Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli were measured. Then we studied molecular docking of them to find the predicted compounds' interactions and binding energy with DNA-gyrase with the AutoDock 4.2 software. Results: Pyrazolopyrano[2,3-b]quinolins were synthesized in optimized conditions. Evaluation of their antibacterial activities showed that these compounds have moderate to good antibacterial activities against four bacteria species. Also molecular docking tests of docked compounds showed a strong bonding interaction with DNA-Gyrase and had been docked into the intercalation place of DNA of DNA-gyrase complex. The molecule bounded to the DNA stabilized by the H bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and π-π interaction. Conclusion: We have developed an efficient and one-pot ecofriendly protocol for the synthesis of some novel pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol derivatives and pyrazolopyrano[2,3-b]quinolins under simple conditions and then tested them for their antibacterial activities. Also, we studied molecular docking of them. These compounds showed moderate to good inhibitory action.

Tan Zhang ◽  
Denggao Guan ◽  
Ningtao Liu ◽  
Jianguo Zhang ◽  
Jinfu Zhang ◽  

Abstract This work fabricates deep-ultraviolet (DUV) photodetectors (PDs) with a metal-semiconductor-metal structure based on radio-frequency sputtered amorphous Ga2O3 films at room temperature. The Ga2O3-based PD exhibits a low dark current of 1.41×10-11 A, good responsivity of 1.77 A/W and a fast-rise response time of 114 ms. A series of annealing treatments with different atmospheres have been found effective to reduce the oxygen vacancy concentration, exhibiting a trade-off effect between the responsivity and response time. These results demonstrate a cost-effective room-temperature approach for fabricating amorphous Ga2O3-based PDs and develop possible post-synthetic methods for tuning the PD performance.

Synthesis ◽  
2022 ◽  
William D. Lubell ◽  
Yousra Hamdane ◽  
Julien Poupart

Abstract N-Amino-imidazol-2-one (Nai) residues are tools for studying peptide-backbone and side-chain conformation and function. Recent methods for substituted Nai residue synthesis, conformational analysis by X-ray crystallography and computation, and biomedical applications are reviewed, demonstrating the utility of this constrained residue to favor biologically active turn conformers with defined χ-dihedral angle orientations.1 Introduction2 Synthetic Methods3 Conformational Analysis4 Biomedical Applications5 Conclusions

Mahmoud N. M. Yousif ◽  
Abdel-Rahman B. A. El-Gazzar ◽  
Hend N. Hafez ◽  
Ahmed A. Fayed ◽  
Ahmed ElRashedy ◽  

Abstract: This review describes different synthetic methods for the preparation of sulfonamides. Generally, sulfonamides are synthesized from sulfonyl chloride derivative and amino derivative. A series of sulfonamide derivatives 7a-c, 8a,b, 9, 10, 11a,b, 12 were synthesized in alkaline media by reaction of different amino compounds with p-toluene sulfonyl chloride. Different amino derivatives 13, 15, 17, 19, 21 react with p-tolyl sulphonylchloride to afford sulfonylamides 14, 16, 18, 20, 22. Different reactions of sulfonamide derivatives have been summarized. Generally, sulfonamide function group does not take part in any reactions, but there are other functional groups in the compound which make the reactions. Sulfonamides have different biological activities e.g. antibacterial activity, anticancer activity, urease inhibitory activity, radical scavenging activity, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, non-competitive inhibitor of lactoperoxidase, antifungal activity, and anti-mycobacterial activity.

Synthesis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Kento Iwai ◽  
Haruka Yamauchi ◽  
Soichi Yokoyama ◽  
Nagatoshi Nishiwaki

Many biologically active nicotinonitriles have been reported to date. Consequently, the development of synthetic methods for multiply arylated/alkylated nicotinonitriles remains a sought-after field of research. In the present work, a new synthetic strategy for multi-substituted nicotinonitriles was provided. A FeCl3-promoted condensation-cyclization reaction of an enamino nitrile and α,β-unsaturated ketones efficiently proceeded with a wide range of substrates. It is noteworthy that this method facilitated the access to fully- and differently substituted nicotinonitriles including tetra-arylated nicotinonitriles in only three steps. Using the functionality of the cyano group, the copper-catalyzed annulation reaction of the nicotinonitrile was achieved to yield benzo[c][2,7]naphthyridin-5(6H)-one.


Transdisciplinary is a paradigm based on the integration and balance of opposite points of view (dualities). This paper methodology involves transdisciplinarity applied to problem solutions, mainly from 1) Plato philosophy; 2) Taoist principle of duality Yin Yang, 3) Jungian psychology, so connected to modern physics and 4) Weil, Leloup and Crema psychological vision of holistic transdisciplinarity. Our findings in this regard involves Figure 11 for Jungian functions and Figure 12 model for problem solving through duality plus four elements. The objective is to create a comprehensive understanding of reality through Plato and Taoist philosophies, Alchemical tradition and Jungian psychology improved by the MBTI system, as tools for problem solving. Understanding the psychological types types to comprehend on how to achieve the best of each one, due to their innate strengths and capacities, so that a synergy of results can be created within the relationships. The MBTI serves both i) for self-knowledge, to make his own self-management on a day-to-day life, and ii) to understand how other people work psychologically, so that a synergy can be created in the process of relationships. The applied transdisciplinary approach is based on the principles of i) duality – interaction and integration of opposites, specially the analytical and synthetic methods and ii) four elements - rationality, feasibility, reasonableness and meaning. However, it is not a simplistic or a magical-vitalistic approach as it may seem to rationalists at first, as far as modern physics is concerned. The holistic view of reality, including holology (the study of the whole) and holopraxis (the praxis of the whole) can´t be confused with political ideology, something that happens very frequently to scientificists, who consider themselves "exempt" and “impartial”. Finally, the core idea is to promote transformation of the culture and personal behavior, connected to reasonableness and meaning, emotional and intuitive intelligences, mainly because of psychological sustainability and mental health.  

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