thematic synthesis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Jessica Grenfell ◽  
Andrew Soundy

(1) Shared decision making (SDM) has been advocated as a way of improving prudency in healthcare and has been linked to self-efficacy and empowerment of service users. The evaluation of its use in musculoskeletal (MSK) physiotherapy has been vague, but articles suggest that trust and communication are integral. (2) ENTREQ guidelines informed this systematic review and thematic synthesis. PRISMA recommendations steered a systematic literature search of AHMED, CINAHL, MEDLNE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from inception to September 2021. COREQ was used for quality appraisal of articles alongside critical discussions. Analysis and synthesis included five stages: outlining study characteristics, coding of data, development of descriptive themes, development of analytical themes and integration and refinement. The review aim was to explore people’s experiences of SDM in MSK physiotherapy and to inform our understanding of the conditions needed for successful SDM. (3) Out of 1508 studies, 9 articles were included. Four main themes (trust, communication, decision preferences and decision ability) demonstrated that the majority of people want to participate in decision-making. As described in the capacity and capability model, three core conditions were needed to facilitate someone’s’ ability to participate. (4) People want to be involved in SDM in MSK physiotherapy. For successful SDM, physiotherapists should look to develop mutual trust, utilise two-way communication and share power.

2022 ◽  
pp. 232948842110699
Stephen Taylor ◽  
Jane Simpson ◽  
Claire Hardy

The aim of this systematic review was to develop a thematic synthesis of existing qualitative studies to explore the use of humor in employee-to-employee workplace communication and provide a greater understanding of this area of research through the experiences of employees. A number of databases were searched using key terms and papers were selected using pre-specified criteria. The thematic synthesis approach of Thomas and Harden was used to review the final 23 papers. The findings from the thematic synthesis resulted in four temporal themes that described how humor was utilized during an employee’s organizational transition: (1) initiation into organizational humor, (2) joining a “tribe”—in-groups and out-groups, (3) exerting influence—humor as power, and (4) using the safety valve—humor to relieve tension. The temporal themes described in this study crossed organizational and cultural divides, where humor formed an essential part of work-based dialog.

Lovisa Cheung ◽  
Brittney McKay ◽  
Katherine Chan ◽  
Matthew G. Heffernan ◽  
Maureen Pakosh ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. bmjspcare-2021-003330
Karen Marie Sangild Stoelen ◽  
Mette Raunkiaer ◽  
Kirstine Winther ◽  
Maria Vilhelm Grubert ◽  
Benjamin Olivares Bøgeskov

BackgroundGiven limited palliative care resources, volunteers can be viewed as essential. To better understand the contribution of volunteers, it is useful to look at their roles in care systems with high level of financed public welfare, such as those found in Nordic countries.AimTo develop research-based knowledge of experiences related to volunteer roles in palliative care in Nordic countries with similar welfare systems.DesignSystematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.Data sourcesCinahl, APA PsycInfo, SocINDEX, Idunn, Cristin, SwePub, SweMed+, Doria and Danish Research Database from 2005 to 2020.Eligibility criteriaQualitative peer-reviewed studies reporting first-hand experience of volunteers in palliative care in hospital, community (homecare and nursing home) and hospice settings (hospice institution and hospice home care); English abstract and available full text.ResultsOf 1521 citations, 11 articles were included in the review: seven Norwegian articles, three Swedish articles and one Danish article. Three overall themes emerged from analysis: (1) volunteers offered something different than professionals, (2) volunteering took place in professionals’ domain, (3) volunteers were motivated by personal gains.ConclusionVolunteers provide valuable support to patients and next of kin that differs from professionals’ support. Volunteers are motivated by direct interaction with patients and next of kin. Opportunities for interactions depend on the healthcare setting and professionals’ understandings of volunteers’ role. Formal training of volunteers is limited and supportive available professionals important to volunteers. Professionals’ understandings of volunteers’ role should be improved to strengthen volunteers’ role in palliative care in Nordic countries.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42020222695.

2021 ◽  
David Healy ◽  
Aisling Flynn ◽  
Owen Conlan ◽  
Jenny McSharry ◽  
Jane Walsh

BACKGROUND Immersive virtual reality (IVR) can be defined as fully computer-generated environments that are displayed through a head-mounted display. Existing research suggests that key features of IVR can assist older adults in their everyday lives–providing opportunities in health promotion and tackling social isolation and loneliness. There has been a surge in the number of qualitative studies exploring older adults’ experiences and perceptions of IVR. However, there has been no systematic synthesis of these studies to inform the design of new, more accessible IVR technologies. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to systematically review and synthesize qualitative studies exploring older adults’ experiences and perceptions of IVR. METHODS A systematic review and thematic synthesis was conducted following the ENTREQ guidelines. Two reviewers completed title and abstract screening, full-text screening, data extraction and quality appraisal. Thematic synthesis is derived from the qualitative method, thematic analysis. It involves three key steps: initial coding and grouping of these codes, the formation of descriptive themes from these codes and finally, going beyond the data to form novel insights and theories known as analytical themes. Confidence in the evidence was assessed using the GRADE-CERQual approach. RESULTS Thirteen studies were included in the final synthesis, consisting of 224 participants ranging across nine countries and five continents. Confidence in the evidence ranged from high to moderate. Four descriptive themes were generated: (1) facilitating IVR interactions, (2) experiencing unique features of IVR, (3) perceptions of IVR and (4) accounts of agency in IVR. The findings from the descriptive themes suggested that there are several improvements that need to be made to existing IVR devices to greater facilitate older adults’ use of this technology. However, despite this, older adults’ responses to IVR were generally positive. Three analytical themes were then generated: (1) tolerating the bad to experience the good, (2) buying in to IVR: don’t judge a book by its cover and (3) “it proves to me I can do it”. The analytical themes illustrated that older adults were willing to tolerate discomforts that accompany existing IVR technologies to experience features such as immersive social networking experiences, there was a discrepancy between older adults’ perceptions of IVR prior to use–which were generally negative–and after use–which were generally positive–and, IVR provided a platform for older adults to access certain activities and environments more easily than in the real world due to limitations caused by ageing. CONCLUSIONS This review highlights the need to overcome initial negative views of IVR and perceived barriers to use by emphasizing the unique ability of IVR to increase older adults’ agency through features such as presence, immersion, and embodiment, which in turn offer new opportunities to take part in meaningful activities tailored to their needs and preferences. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT RR2-10.1177%2F16094069211009682

BJPsych Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Mette Senneseth ◽  
Charlotte Pollak ◽  
Ragnar Urheim ◽  
Caroline Logan ◽  
Tom Palmstierna

Background There has been a call for a framework to guide recovery-oriented practices in forensic mental health services. Aims This study aims to examine personal recovery and its challenges in forensic mental health settings in relation to the established framework for personal recovery in mental illness: connectedness, hope, identity, meaning and empowerment (CHIME). Method This study is an updated and expanded systematic review and thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature. A systematic search of six electronic databases (Web of Science, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and SocIndex) was carried out in January 2019, using the terms [Recover*] AND [Forensic OR Secure] AND [Patient* OR Offend* OR Service User*]. Only studies that included service user's own perceptions and were published from 2014 onward were included in the review. Data were examined with thematic synthesis and subsequently analysed in relation to the CHIME framework. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. Findings suggest that some adjustments to the original CHIME framework are needed for it to be more relevant to forensic populations, and that an additional recovery process regarding feeling safe and being secure (safety and security) could be added to CHIME, providing the CHIME-Secure framework (CHIME-S). Specific challenges and barriers for forensic recovery were identified and found to represent the opposite of the recovery processes defined by CHIME (e.g. hopelessness). Conclusions We present the CHIME-S as a framework for the personal recovery processes of forensic mental health service users. The CHIME-S may guide the recovery-oriented work of forensic mental health services.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 868-880
Cenk Akay ◽  
Sedat Kanadli

There is a contradiction in the literature about the effect of REACT strategy on science achievement. This study aims to resolve this contradiction by determining the effect of REACT strategy on student science achievement and the factors affecting this strategy by integrating findings obtained from both qualitative and quantitative studies. The study was conducted using a mixed-research synthesis by including 19 quantitative and 10 qualitative studies. Data obtained from quantitative findings were combined using a meta-analysis method, and data from qualitative findings were combined using a thematic synthesis method. It was attempted to explain the variance between studies included in the meta-analysis by using analytic themes derived from the thematic synthesis. As a result of the meta-analysis, teaching based on the REACT strategy was found to have a strong effect on science achievement (ES = 1.041, 95% CI: 0.7876 to 1.2948). The thematic synthesis yielded four descriptive themes, “teaching-learning process in the REACT strategy”, “learning outcomes in the REACT strategy”, “limitations of the REACT strategy”, and “recommendations for practice”. Teaching based on the REACT strategy was found to contribute largely to the learning process and learning outcomes. Some limitations were found in practice, and recommendations were determined to address these limitations. Keywords: contextual teaching, mixed research synthesis, REACT strategy, science education

2021 ◽  
pp. 026921632110593
Madeleine L Juhrmann ◽  
Priyanka Vandersman ◽  
Phyllis N Butow ◽  
Josephine M Clayton

Background: There is a growing demand for community palliative care and home-based deaths worldwide. However, gaps remain in this service provision, particularly after-hours. Paramedicine may help to bridge that gap and avoid unwanted hospital admissions, but a systematic overview of paramedics’ potential role in palliative and end-of-life care is lacking. Aim: To review and synthesise the empirical evidence regarding paramedics delivering palliative and end-of-life care in community-based settings. Design: A systematic integrative review with a thematic synthesis was undertaken in accordance with Whittemore and Knafl’s methodology. Prospero: CRD4202119851. Data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched in August 2020 for primary research articles published in English, with no date limits applied. Articles were screened and reviewed independently by two researchers, and quality appraisal was conducted following the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool (2018). Results: The search retrieved 5985 articles; 23 articles satisfied eligibility criteria, consisting of mixed-methods ( n = 5), qualitative ( n = 7), quantitative descriptive ( n = 8) and quantitative non-randomised studies ( n = 3). Through data analysis, three key themes were identified: (1) Broadening the traditional role, (2) Understanding patient wishes and (3) Supporting families. Conclusions: Paramedics are a highly skilled workforce capable of helping to deliver palliative and end-of-life care to people in their homes and reducing avoidable hospital admissions, particularly for palliative emergencies. Future research should focus on investigating the efficacy of palliative care clinical practice guideline implementation for paramedics, understanding other healthcare professionals’ perspectives, and undertaking health economic evaluations of targeted interventions.

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