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2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
Steve Georgakis ◽  
Peter Horton

Lawn bowls is one of the oldest formally established British sports in Australia. This paper provides an overview of the place of lawn bowls in Australian history and society from 1864 to 2021 through four eras: British nationalism (1864–1900); middle class sport (1900–1945); leading seniors sport (1945–1990); and decline (1990–2021). The four eras cover the span of Australian lawn bowls and are based on historical data from both primary and secondary sources tracing its rise and decline. The decline in lawn bowls has been a combination of both internal and external factors. This paper is not a purely chronological account of lawn bowls, but rather provides a framework to better understand the place and role of the sport in Australian culture and society. The origins of lawn bowls in Australia are directly linked to the cultural heritage that stemmed from British settlement. Lawn bowls provides a vehicle to develop insight and understanding into several past, current, and future social and cultural issues including seniors sport, sport participation rates, gender relations, nationalism, class structures, urbanisation, and the development of contemporary cities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Gianni De Petrillo ◽  
Thierry Pauyo ◽  
Corinna C. Franklin ◽  
Ross S. Chafetz ◽  
Marie-Lyne Nault ◽  

AbstractAnterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is the preferred treatment to anterior cruciate ligament injury. With the increase in anterior cruciate ligament injuries in both adults and skeletally immature patients comes the need for individualized anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction graft selection whether it is the type of graft (auto vs. allograft) or the harvesting site (hamstrings, iliotibial band, quadriceps, patella). Several factors need to be considered preoperatively in order to optimize the patients’ recovery and restore anterior cruciate ligament strength and function. These include age and bone maturity, preoperative knee flexor/extensor strength, sport participation, patient’s needs and anatomical characteristics. This paper aims at bringing evidence supporting the use of a personalized approach in graft selection for faster and more efficient return to sport and propose a theoretical framework to support the approach.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 37-50
Kyle L. Crouch ◽  
Abigail Larson ◽  
Mark DeBeliso

The motivation for youth sport involvement may differ for single-sport (non-specialists), multi-sport, and single-sport specialized athletes. To investigate differences between adolescent single-sport athletes (NSSA), multi-sport athletes (MSA), and single-sport specialized athletes (SSSA) on measures of sport enjoyment and motivation. A secondary aim was to compare these variables between age groups. Adolescent sport participants in 6th, 7th, and 8th grade from the Western United States (n=306, age=13.0±1.0 yrs) completing the Sources of Enjoyment in Youth Sport Questionnaire (SEYSQ) that assesses sport enjoyment in the subscales of self-referenced competency (SRC), other-referenced competency and recognition (ORCR), effort expenditure (EE), competitive excitement (CE), affiliation with peers (AP), and positive parental involvement (PPI). The participants also reported their age, gender, grade, years of sport participation and sport status (NSSA, MSA, SSSA). SSSA reported significantly more enjoyment in all subscales except PPI when compared to NSSA (p<0.05; ES 0.4 – 0.99). MSA and SSSA showed significant differences in the subscales of SRC and EE; however, effect size was small (0.37 and 0.33, respectively). Overall scores for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were significantly lower among NSSA compared to MSA and SSSA (p<0.01) with no differences between MSA and SSSA (p>0.05). Results revealed no significant differences in the SEYSQ’s subscales for age (p>0.05). Within the parameters of this study, adolescents that specialize in a single sport or those who compete in multiple sport both rely on intrinsic and extrinsic sources of enjoyment for motivation in very similar ways; whereas adolescent NSSA are less motivated and experience less enjoyment from sport participation compared to MSA and SSSA. Keywords: adolescent, enjoyment, SEYSQ, motivation, sport psychology

Nallely Castillo-Jiménez ◽  
Jeanette M. López-Walle ◽  
Inés Tomás ◽  
José Tristán ◽  
Joan L. Duda ◽  

Based on the conceptual model of multidimensional and hierarchical motivational climate the objective of this study was to test two models. One model (M1) of total mediation, testing the mediating mechanisms that explain why the motivational climate affects intention of continuity or dropout. Specifically, we test the mediating role of satisfaction/frustration of basic psychological needs and self-determined motivation, in the relationship between the players’ perception of the empowering and disempowering climate created by the coach, and the intention of young soccer players to continue/dropout the sport practice. The second model (M2) of partial mediation, contributes to knowing the mechanisms that link the antecedent variables included in the model (perceived empowering and disempowering motivational climate) and the outcomes (intention of continuity or dropout in sport). A total of 381 young male soccer players between 12 and 14 years of age (M = 12.41, SD = 0.89), completed a questionnaire package tapping into the variables of interest: players’ perception of the motivational climate created by the coach (empowering and disempowering), satisfaction/thwarting of basic psychological needs, self-determined motivation and the intention to continue/dropout sports participation. The hypothesized model was tested using a structural equation model technique with latent variables. The results of the partial mediation model were satisfactory (χ2= 120.92; df = 68; RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.968; TLI = 0.957) and showed that need satisfaction and self-determined motivation partially mediated the relationship between the perception of the empowering climate and the intention to continue. Moreover, need satisfaction showed a positive and significant relationship with the intention to continue sports participation. Additionally, need thwarting and self-determined motivation totally mediated the relationship between the perception of the disempowering climate and the intention to dropout. Furthermore, needs thwarting was positively and significantly related to the intention to dropout of sports participation. Findings point to the importance of fostering empowering climates and preventing the creation of disempowering climates in the grassroots football.

2022 ◽  
Ana Geppert ◽  
Emma M. Smith ◽  
Damian Haslett ◽  
Jennie Wong ◽  
Ikenna D. Ebuenyi ◽  

Abstract Participation in sports is a fundamental right for persons with disabilities and is facilitated by the use of specialized Assistive Technology (AT). However, little is known about the role every-day AT plays in promoting sport participation. This study explores how the 50 priority assistive products on the World Health Organization’s Assistive Products List can promote participation in sports, using a mixed-methods online survey with AT users, caregivers, and coaches (n=96). We used a thematic analysis for qualitative responses describing the use of assistive products in facilitating sport participation. Results suggest every-day assistive products are required for participation in sport for persons with disabilities. We present a conceptual model of assistive product use for sport participation. We found persons with disability participate in a range of sports, contributing to community engagement. Access to every-day assistive products is therefore integral to achieving rights of persons with disabilities for participation in sport.

Eric Legg ◽  
Jeff Rose

Youth sport parents experience an array of emotions as part of their child’s youth sport experience. This may include emotions related to watching their child play, supporting their child’s emotions, or simply related to daily parenting responsibilities. This research examined youth sport parent emotions through an expressive writing exercise. Twelve parents completed a total of 32 expressive writing exercises. In each exercise, parents were asked to write about their emotions as a youth sport parent. Quantitative analysis with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2015) software and qualitative thematic analysis were employed to analyze writings. Results indicate that though parents experienced both positive and negative emotions, negative emotions were most common and salient. Thematic analysis resulted in six themes, including one theme related to positive emotions (happiness for child experience), and five themes related to negative emotions: 1) general stress and negativity, 2) responsibilities, 3) role as parent, 4) coach, and 5) performance. Results also lead to practical implications for park and recreation administrators. First, as substantial stress is related to the time and financial responsibilities associated with sport parenting, organizations may wish to seek ways to support parents including through scholarship funds, and facilitating communication and duty sharing among parents. Parent education programs may also be a way to help parents navigate their own emotions related to parenting roles. Coaches were also a source of negative emotions for parents, though not always for the same reasons. Youth sport organizations can facilitate coach-parent communication to ensure that parent-coach goals are aligned, and provide training for coaches in both sport-specific skills and positive youth development. In addition to facilitating coach-parent communication, organizations may also encourage child-parent communication related to goals. This could include email communications with exercises designed to encourage specific conversations about goals of youth sport participation. Each of these implications is tied directly to negative emotions expressed by parents as part of this research. Assisting parents with these emotions will improve the experience for both the parent and will likely enable the youth participant to have a more positive experience as well.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Ross M. Murray ◽  
Alyona Koulanova ◽  
Catherine M. Sabiston

Introduction: Girls are often less motivated to participate in community sport compared to boys. Having a strong social identity with a sports team is positively associated with motivation to continue participation in sport, yet the mechanisms explaining this association are not well-known. In the current study, physical self-concept is tested as a mediator of the association between social identity and motivation.Method: Girl badminton athletes were recruited to examine how the team environment shapes physical self-concept, and whether this association relates to motivation to participate in sport. Ninety-two girls completed a self-report survey to measure social identity, physical self-perceptions, and motivation. Two mediation models were conducted to examine whether physical self-concept mediated the relationship between social identity and autonomous motivation and controlled motivation.Results: Physical self-concept partially mediated the relationship between social identity and autonomous motivation. The bootstrapped unstandardized indirect effect was, b = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.002 to.14. Physical self-concept fully mediated the relationship between social identity and controlled motivation. The bootstrapped unstandardized indirect effect was, b = −0.13, 95% CI = −0.30 to −0.01, p = 0.04.Discussion: These results highlight the importance of the group context in relation to individual physical self-concept and motivation. Overall, targeting aspects of the team environment in community-level sport may be an important strategy to improve girls' physical self-concept, and autonomous motivation to continue sport participation.

2022 ◽  
Andrew M Watson ◽  
Kevin Biese ◽  
Claudia Reardon ◽  
Allison Schwarz ◽  
Kristin Haraldsdottir ◽  

The purpose of this study was to determine whether physical activity (PA) increases were responsible for the improvements in mental health and quality of life (QOL) seen among adolescents who returned to sport during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adolescent athletes were asked to complete a survey in October 2020 regarding demographic information, whether they had returned to sport participation (no [DNP], yes [PLY]), school instruction type (virtual, in-person, hybrid), anxiety, depression, QOL, and PA. Anxiety, depression, QOL and PA were compared between PLY and DNP using least squares means from linear models adjusted for age, gender, and instruction type. Mediation analysis assessed whether the relationship between sport status and anxiety, depression, and QOL was mediated by PA. 171 athletes had returned to play, while 388 had not. PLY athletes had significantly lower anxiety (3.6 +/- 0.4 v 8.2 +/- 0.6, p < 0.001) and depression (4.2 +/- 0.4 v 7.3 +/- 0.6, p < 0.001), and significantly higher QOL (88.1 +/- 1.0 v 80.2 +/- 1.4, p < 0.001) and PA (24.0 +/- 0.5 v 16.3 +/- 0.7, p < 0.001). PA explained a significant, but relatively small portion of the difference in depression (22.1%, p = 0.02) and QOL (16.0%, p = 0.048) between PLY and DNP athletes, but did not explain the difference in anxiety (6.6%, p = 0.20). Increased PA is only responsible for a small portion of the improvements in depression and QOL among athletes who returned to sports and unrelated to improvements in anxiety. This suggests that the majority of the mental health benefits of sport participation for adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic are independent of, and in addition to, the benefits of increased PA.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjsports-2021-104545
Emily Anne Rutland ◽  
Sakinah C Suttiratana ◽  
Sheila da Silva Vieira ◽  
Rekha Janarthanan ◽  
Michael Amick ◽  

ObjectivesInterpersonal violence is an increasingly recognised risk of sport participation and causally linked to negative physical and mental health outcomes. Para athletes from low- and middle-income countries may be at highest risk of physical, psychological, sexual and neglect-related violence due to various factors; however, their perceptions of these abusive behaviours are unknown. This study examined the perceptions and experiences of abuse in para athletes from three lower resourced countries: Ghana, India and Brazil.MethodsQualitative data from semistructured focus group interviews conducted with 26 individuals were collected to explore characteristics of abuse observed, navigated and experienced by para athletes. The framework method for multidisciplinary qualitative research guided data analysis.ResultsAthletes identified a wide range of abusive behaviours they experienced within and outside of sport, including psychological, emotional, physical, sexual and neglect-related violence, which operated on both interpersonal and systemic levels. Most athletes described three less easily recognised forms of abuse in greater detail and more frequently than others: financial abuse, neglect and disability stigma.ConclusionIt is important to hear directly from athletes with diverse experiences and backgrounds and to integrate their insights and priorities into sport safeguarding policies, programmes and interventions. Understanding the requirements and challenges of para athletes and para sport is needed to achieve safe, equitable and inclusive sport. As new insights from diverse sport settings are added to the evidence base, globally balanced, athlete-generated and locally relevant preventative strategies can better protect all athletes.

Mario Kasović ◽  
Lovro Štefan ◽  
Pavel Piler ◽  
Martin Zvonar

Purpose: Tracking of physical activity (PA) and sport participation (SP) during motherhood is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to analyze the extent of tracking of maternal PA and SP. Methods: In this investigation, data were collected from the Czech ELSPAC study subsample of 4811 and 2609 women measured postnatally (1991–1992) and after 11 years of follow-up (2002–2003), respectively. The structured questionnaire was used to assess the participation and average weekly time spent in PA, and the frequency of engaging in different sports (running, cycling, strength training, racket sports, swimming, and team sports). Tracking was calculated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) with beta coefficients (β), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Moderately high tracking coefficients were observed for cycling (β = 0.69, 95% 0.67–0.72), strength training (β = 0.59, 95% 0.56–0.63), and weekly time spent in PA (β = 0.53, 95% 0.38–0.66); meanwhile, moderate tracking coefficients were generated for swimming (β = 0.48, 95% 0.44–0.52), team sports (β = 0.44, 95% 0.39–0.48), racket sports (β = 0.44, 95% 0.39–0.48), and running (β = 0.35, 95% 0.30–0.40). Mothers who did not participate in PA at baseline were 81% more likely not to participate in it at follow-up (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.53–2.13). Conclusion: Cycling- and strength-related activities and weekly PA were tracked moderately-to-moderately high during motherhood. Moreover, the strong tracking of physical inactivity indicates that the detection of this risk factor before pregnancy should be advocated.

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