Procedural modeling is now the de facto standard of material modeling in industry. Procedural models can be edited and are easily extended, unlike pixel-based representations of captured materials. In this article, we present a semi-automatic pipeline for general material proceduralization. Given Spatially Varying Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (SVBRDFs) represented as sets of pixel maps, our pipeline decomposes them into a tree of
whose spatial distributions are encoded by their associated mask maps. This semi-automatic decomposition of material maps progresses hierarchically, driven by our new spectrum-aware material matting and instance-based decomposition methods. Each decomposed sub-material is proceduralized by a novel multi-layer noise model to capture local variations at different scales. Spatial distributions of these sub-materials are modeled either by a by-example inverse synthesis method recovering Point Process Texture Basis Functions (PPTBF) [
] or via random sampling. To reconstruct procedural material maps, we propose a differentiable rendering-based optimization that recomposes all generated procedures together to maximize the similarity between our procedural models and the input material pixel maps. We evaluate our pipeline on a variety of synthetic and real materials. We demonstrate our method’s capacity to process a wide range of material types, eliminating the need for artist designed material graphs required in previous work [
]. As fully procedural models, our results expand to arbitrary resolution and enable high-level user control of appearance.
The present study reports an eco-friendly synthesis method of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using two different extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of Tagetes erecta flowers. When exposed to different biocompounds found in the plant, silver ions are reduced, thus, resulting in the green synthesis of nanoparticles. After performing the optimization of synthesis, the obtained AgNPs were characterized using various techniques. The UV–Vis spectrum of the synthesized nanoparticles showed maximum peaks at 410 and 420 nm. TEM analysis revealed that the particles were spherical with a size ranging from 10 to 15 nm, and EDX analysis confirmed the presence of silver metal. The average diameter value obtained through DLS analysis for the two types of AgNPs (obtained using aqueous and ethanolic extracts) was 104 and 123 nm. The Zeta potentials of the samples were −27.74 mV and −26.46 mV, respectively, which indicates the stability of the colloidal solution. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities assays showed that nanoparticles obtained using the aqueous extract presented enhanced antioxidant activity compared to the corresponding extract, with both types of AgNPs exhibiting improved antifungal properties compared to the initial extracts.
Considering the performance requirements in actual applications, a look-up table based fractional order composite control scheme for the permanent magnet synchronous motor speed servo system is proposed. Firstly, an extended state observer based compensation scheme was adopted to suppress the motor parametric uncertainties and convert the speed servo plant into a double-integrator model. Then, a fractional order proportional-derivative (PDμ) controller was adopted as the speed controller to provide the optimal step response performance for the servo system. A universal look-up table was established to estimate the derivative order of the PDμ controller, according to the optimal samples collected by an improved differential evolution algorithm. With the look-up table, the optimal PDμ controller can be tuned analytically. Simulation and experimental results show that the servo system using the composite control scheme can achieve optimal tracking performance and has robustness to the motor parametric uncertainties and disturbance torques.
In order to improve the visible light catalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and ensure its long-term stability on the surface of concrete, an N-TiO2/SiO2 composite was prepared using tetrabutyl titanate, nitric acid, and modified SiO2 nanospheres as the precursors by a solvothermal method. The effect of nitric acid on the phase composition, morphology and photoelectric properties of the synthesized photocatalytic composites was systematically studied by various characterization methods. The results show that the optimum nitric acid/butyl titanate volume ratio is 1/6. The nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of spherical SiO2 with a diameter of 200 nm. The degradation rate of simulated pollutants (RhB) with pH 5 and 7 exceeded 95% within 30 minutes and the catalytic effect remained excellent after five repetitions without much weakening. The excellent visible photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the doping of N replacing part of the oxygen atoms in TiO2, forming the energy level of N 2p at the O 2p energy level and reducing the TiO2 energy band gap to 2.99 eV. At the same time, the better dispersion of N-TiO2/SiO2 prepared by this new synthesis method also plays an important role in the improvement of visible light photocatalytic activity.
The by-products collected during the synthesis of carbon nanohorns via the arc discharge synthesis method is comprised of other carbon particles (OCP). At a hydrotreating operating temperature of 370°C, preliminary investigations using a bimetallic catalyst with support originating from the fine fractions of other carbon particles (OCPf) and containing 13 wt% Mo and 2.5 wt% Ni resulted in an HDS and HDN conversion of 78 and 25%, respectively. Variation of metal compositions in catalyst formulation and its impact on hydrotreating activity was therefore considered in this study to enhance the hydrotreating activity of OCPf–supported catalyst, and to determine if the best NiMo/OCPf catalyst achieved from this study could be a viable catalyst for hydrotreating applications. The co-incipient wetness impregnation was used in preparing series of hydrotreating catalysts with Ni and Mo loadings within the range of (2.5–5.0 wt%) and (13–26 wt%) respectively. Overall, the catalyst samples with maximum Ni loading of 5.0 wt% and Mo loadings of either 13 or 19 wt% showed higher dispersion and the ability to form a Type II Ni-Mo-S phase with enhanced activity. The effects of metal compositions on both HDS and HDN activities were correlated with their physicochemical properties.
Background: Pain is a common problem in patients undergoing surgery. The constant postoperative acute pain can affect the physiological and psychological aspects of the patient.Objective: Non-pharmacological therapy is widely used for the treatment of chronic pain. Non-pharmacological therapy needs to be developed in acute postoperative pain due to concerns about the side effects of pharmacological treatment. There is non-pharmacological management that effectively reduces pain intensity, namely hypnotherapy.Methods: The systematic search for this review used the Google Scholar database, Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), ProQuest, and PubMed using keywords (Hypnosis OR Hypnotism OR Hypnoanalysis OR Hypnotherapy OR Hypnotherapies OR Mesmerism) AND (Post-surgical Pain OR Post surgical Pain OR Postsurgical Pain OR Post-operative Pain OR Post operative Pain OR Post-operative Pains OR Postoperative Pain OR Acute Postoperative Pain OR Acute Post-operative Pain OR Acute Post operative Pain). The quality of journals was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) instrument. The synthesis method used was narrative synthesis (narrative synthesis).Results: 10 articles were fully reviewed from 2010-2020. The visualization technique with rapid conversational induction has the best effect than other techniques. The most effective way of conveying suggestions is indirect with a permissive approach. The study results showed that hypnotherapy tended to reduce postoperative pain in minor surgical procedures than in major surgeries.Conclusion: Hypnotherapy affects reducing the pain intensity of postoperative patients. The results of this study recommend that hypnotherapy suggestions and pain measures must be tailored to the patient's condition.