Advances in Structural Engineering
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Published By Sage Publications

2048-4011, 1369-4332

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110606
Xue Li ◽  
Lian-guang Wang ◽  
Hai-yang Gao ◽  
Ni Zhang

Splicing glass fiber–reinforced polymer (GFRP)-concrete–steel double-skin tubular column (DSTC) is to set connection component at the joint of two or more separated GFRP tubes, and then pour concrete in the double-tube interlayer to form a continuous composite member. In this paper, the splicing DSTC composite members based on steel bar connection were designed and tested under axial compression to determine its mechanical performance. The main parameters include the connection steel ratio, the hollow ratio, and the thickness of GFRP tube. The results show that the GFRP tube presents apparent constraint effect on the concrete at about 60% of the ultimate load. The failure of splicing specimen occurred in the non-splicing section at a certain distance from the splice joint, and the stirrups at the splice joint provide effective constraint effect on the internal concrete. The proposed DSTC splicing method based on steel cage connection can satisfy the strength requirements of splice joint. Nevertheless, the increase of axial steel bar ratio cannot improve the bearing capacity of the splicing column, and the steel ratio of 2.44% is suggested for the splice joint of DSTCs under axial compression. The axial bearing capacity of splicing DSTCs significantly increases with the increase of GFRP tube thickness, but the amount of stirrups should be increased properly when a larger tube thickness is used. Two models were selected to calculate the bearing capacity of splicing members and it is found that Yu’s model is more accurate in predicting splicing DSTCs.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110651
Ruiming Cao ◽  
Bai Zhang ◽  
Luming Wang ◽  
Jianming Ding ◽  
Xianhua Chen

Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are considered an eco-friendly alternative to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions and enabling efficient waste recycling. In this paper, an innovative seawater sea-sand concrete (SWSSC), that is, seawater sea-sand alkali-activated concrete (SWSSAAC), was developed using AAMs instead of OPC to explore the application of marine resources and to improve the durability of conventional SWSSC structures. Then, three types of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars, that is, basalt-FRP, glass-FRP, and carbon-FRP bars, were selected to investigate their bond behavior with SWSSAAC at different alkaline dosages (3%, 4%, and 6% Na2O contents). The experimental results manifested that the utilization of the alkali-activated binders can increase the splitting tensile strength ( ft) of the concrete due to the denser microstructures of AAMs than OPC pastes. This improved characteristic was helpful in enhancing the bond performance of FRP bars, especially the slope of bond-slip curves in the ascending section (i.e., bond stiffness). Approximately three times enhancement in terms of the initial bond rigidity was achieved with SWSSAAC compared to SWSSC at the same concrete strength. Furthermore, compared with the BFRP and GFRP bars, the specimens reinforced with the CFRP bars experienced higher bond strength and bond rigidity due to their relatively high tensile strength and elastic modulus. Additionally, significant improvements in initial bond stiffness and bond strength were also observed as the alkaline contents (i.e., concrete strength) of the SWSSAAC were aggrandized, demonstrating the integration of the FRP bars and SWSSAAC is achievable, which contributes to an innovative channel for the development of SWSSC pavements or structures.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110700
Wenxue Zhang ◽  
Lijun Su ◽  
Cheng Zhang ◽  
Yongrui Zheng ◽  
Weifeng Yang

The seismic requirements of piers with fixed bearings (the fixed pier) for continuous girder bridges are relatively high, while the potential seismic capabilities of piers with sliding bearings (the sliding piers) are not fully utilized. To solve this contradiction, a new type of winding rope shock absorption device activated by a fluid viscous damper (WRD-D) was proposed. The WRD-D was installed on the top of the sliding piers, and the both ends of a fluid viscous damper were connected to the superstructure by winding ropes. During an earthquake, the damping force rises with the increase of relative speed between the sliding piers and the superstructure, activating the WRD-D and producing large frictional resistance, subsequently causing the sliding piers and the fixed pier to bear the seismic load cooperatively. In this study, the working mechanism of the WRD-D was researched. The shaking table test of a scaled continuous girder bridge model employing the WRD-D was conducted. The test results reveal that the WRD-D can effectively reduce the seismic requirements of the fixed pier and the superstructure displacements.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322210747
Germán Nanclares ◽  
Daniel Ambrosini ◽  
Oscar Curadelli

The evolution of seismic design and calculation criteria for highway bridges has a direct influence on their structural behavior. This paper presents a nonlinear dynamic analysis using a detailed 3D finite element model of an existing bridge, with different design criteria for the column transverse reinforcement, according to code requirements of different times. The numerical model is able to simulate both the collapse of the structure and the generation of damage in its elements when subjected to extreme seismic actions. Through the numerical model, it is possible to represent the cyclic behavior of the concrete, and to evaluate the influence of the transverse reinforcement assigned to the column on the overall response of the bridge. The formation of plastic hinges is verified, as well as the identification of different collapse mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110723
Yasir Ibrahim Shah ◽  
Zhijian Hu ◽  
Pengfei Yao

This paper presents an experimental study of a novel composite structure used in prefabricated bridges. Corrugated pipes were used to improve the interface bond performance of the structure because of their excellent stiffening effect on the grouting material. Interface bond performance of overlap joints within corrugated pipes was explored by the load-displacement curve and load-strain curves. Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) and high-strength mortar were used as grouting materials. The diameter of steel bars, UHPC, high-strength mortar, strength grades of surrounded concrete, anchorage length, the diameter of the corrugated pipe, and lap length was taken as influential factors. Twenty specimens were designed for the pull-out test by using a larger cover thickness. The failure modes and the influence of different influential factors on the interface bond strength of each specimen were analyzed. The results show that the bond performance between UHPC and reinforcement was better than that of high-strength mortar and normal concrete, which can effectively improve the bond strength and reduce the basic anchorage length of reinforcement besides the design size of prefabricated members. In addition, the differences in anchorage length and lap length between the corrugated pipe grouting reinforcement were compared to the different specifications and prefabricated concrete members. Combined with the test phenomenon and analysis results, it is suggested that the anchorage length and lap length of connecting reinforcement should be reconsidered. Furthermore, the grouting effect under different diameters of corrugated pipe and reinforcement were compared. It is recommended that the corrugated pipe diameter should be four times that of the overlapping grouting reinforcement.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110736
Shu-Yan Liu ◽  
Zhao-Yang Zhang ◽  
Xiao Xue ◽  
Qing-Zhou Wang ◽  
Cheng-Zhi Xiao

In this study, the load level, soil cover height, rise-span ratio, and arch foot constraint state were utilized to explore the mechanical properties of buried arch glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) structures. Through the indoor scale-down test, the stress and deformation of arched GFRP structures under different load and soil cover height were investigated. Additionally, through the three-dimensional finite element method, the influence of the rise-span ratio and the constraint state of arch foot on the mechanical properties were obtained. The results indicate the new buried composite arch structure has excellent bearing capacity for the possible traffic load. Simultaneously, the semi-elliptical arch structure was believed to outperform the semi-circular arch structure when considering the external load. Specifically, increasing the soil cover height and reducing rise-span ratio were found to achieve the load-reduction effect.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110655
Huifeng Hu ◽  
Jiepeng Liu ◽  
Guozhong Cheng ◽  
Yao Ding ◽  
Yohchia Frank Chen

The hybrid coupled shear wall (HCW) with replaceable coupling beam (CB) is an optimal component to recover buildings promptly after a severe earthquake. However, the reinstallation may be difficult or impossible with an identical CB because of the inelastic relative dislocation between two wall piers. This study proposes a novel HCW with different reinforcement ratios in the connection, which was tested under cyclic loading. After the test, the bolt holes can be located through terrestrial scanning, which is then utilized to fabricate a new CB that can accommodate the deformation between two wall piers. The newly replaced HCW system was also tested. As a result, all virgin test specimens fail in web fracture and show a significant inelastic chord rotation of 0.2 rad, exhibiting an excellent energy dissipation capacity. Meanwhile, the new method to locate the bolt holes after the test is feasible. The replaced HCW fails in the pull-off of anchor bars and shows poor seismic behavior due to the unpatched concrete cover in the connection. To improve the energy dissipation for the replaced HCW, high-strength grouting in the connection can be used and high-strength material can be used to replace the usual anchor bolts.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110509
Liwen Zhang ◽  
Zhujian Xie ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Junping Zhang ◽  
Qinglun Yu ◽  

A new type of pier anti-collision composite structure composed of honeycomb steel and polyurethane (PU) elastomer was proposed in this study. The impacts of the shape and filling materials of inner core cells on the failure mode, load–displacement cure, bearing capacity, structural stability, and energy absorption were studied by conducting uniaxial compression tests on device segments. Test results showed that the bearing capacity, structural stability, and energy absorption of honeycomb steel structure were significantly improved by PU elastomer filling. Besides, when compared with the square honeycomb structure and the regular hexagon honeycomb structure, the maximum values of average load, total energy absorption (TEA), and specific energy absorption (SEA), which were 69.6 kN, 1986.1 J, and 1300 J/kg, respectively, for the regular triangle honeycomb structure without PU filling, increased to 459.3%, 376.38%, and 212.5%, respectively, for the regular hexagonal core cell structure with PU filling, which was proved to be the most suitable core structure for pier anti-collision device.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110509
Mohammed A Sakr ◽  
Ahmad G Saad ◽  
Tamer M El-korany

This paper presents a finite element (FE) study of beam-column joints subjected to cyclic loading. This study is primarily dependent on investigating the shear behavior of joints under the influence of different column axial load ratios. Wherefore, a total range of the column axial load ratios, whether in tension or compression has been considered. This paper proposes a two-dimensional (2D) FE model that considers material non-linearity. The proposed FE model was verified with experimental results from literature that tested varying column axial load ratios and different failure modes. The examination among experiential and numerical outcomes demonstrated that the FE model can reenact the conduct of beam-column joints and can catch the different failure modes with acceptable accuracy. A parametric study was established using the proposed FE model and strut-and-tie (ST) model of Pauletta to assess the Eurocode joint shear strength equations. For this purpose, four specimens were designed according to Eurocode recommendations while two other specimens were designed to satisfy all of the Eurocode recommendations except for the required joint confinement. An interaction diagram was introduced for each specimen to express the behavior under varying column axial load ratios. The results of the comparison between Eurocode, FE model, and ST model showed some differences in calculating the joint shear strength capacity, especially under column tension loads. Furthermore, this paper proposed new design equations based on Eurocode equations taking into account the column axial load effect. These proposed equations worked to increase the accuracy in calculating the joint shear strength capacity. Proposed equations were compared to the FE model results and other experimental results available in the literature. The comparison showed that the differences with the FE model decreased and that the proposed equations had better accuracy at different tension and compression loads than the Eurocode.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110737
Nariman Fouad ◽  
Mohamed A Saifeldeen

This article proposes a new technique of monitoring neutral axis positions and deflection of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beam during corrosion of steel reinforcement using macro-strain measurements of distributed long-gauge sensors. A different group of distributed long-gauge Packaged Carbon Fiber Line (PCFL) sensors with self-compensation and effective packaging system is installed on the compression and tension fibers of the concrete surface and steel reinforcements of RC beam to verify the proposed method experimentally. An accelerated corrosion method utilizing a salt solution and the constant current was used to achieve the required corrosion levels. The estimated deflection measured by the developed method is compared with the results using Linear Variable Displacement Transducer (LVDTs). It has been demonstrated that long-gauge PCFL sensors could provide the same accuracy. The distributed measured strains were utilized to evaluate the deterioration of the structure’s health with the advance of corrosion. Based on corrosion monitoring experimental results, it can be confirmed that using distributed PCFL sensors mounted on steel reinforcements or concrete surface, the locations and progress of the damage with corrosion time can be detected effectively. The maximum error in the estimated deflection from PCFL sensors mounted on the concrete surface compared to the LVDTs before the onset and after 24 h of accelerated corrosion was 0.5% and 2.5%, respectively.

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