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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ziv Sade ◽  
Shahar Hegyi ◽  
Itay Halevy

Equilibration times of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) depend on conversion reactions between CO2(aq) and the dissociation products of carbonic acid [S = (H2CO3) + (HCO3−) + (CO32−)]. Here, we develop analytical equations and a numerical model to calculate chemical equilibration times of DIC during pH transitions in buffered and unbuffered solutions. We approximate the equilibration degree of the DIC reservoir by the smaller of the CO2(aq) and S pools at the new pH, since the smaller pool is always farther from equilibrium during the chemical evolution. Both the amount of DIC converted and the rate of conversion differ between a pH increase and decrease, leading to distinct equilibration times for these general cases. Alkalinity perturbations in unbuffered solutions initially drive pH overshoots (increase or decrease) relative to the new equilibrium pH. The increased rates of DIC conversion associated with the pH overshoot yield shorter equilibration times compared to buffered solutions. Salinity has opposing effects on buffered and unbuffered solutions, decreasing and increasing equilibration times, respectively.

Trinh Van Dung ◽  
Phan Quoc Thinh ◽  
Nguyen Quoc Dat ◽  
Pham Van Hung

This paper presents an investigation of Spirulina algae cultivation by the CO2 gas emitted from the combustion of rice husk. The gas emitted from the rice husk combustion containing CO2 but no toxic gas of SOx. The CO2 molecules are absorbed into the micro-algae cultivation medium and then converted into the HCO3 by the assimilation of Spirulina. At the same time, the pH values are controlled to be from 8.5 to 9.5, which is suitable for Spirulina algae. At the first seven days of cultivation in Zarrouk medium the values of Spirulina algae biomass and pH increase from 0.05 g/l and 8.5 to 1.0 g/l and 10.2, respectively. On the 8th day, when the amount of 7,6 % CO2  v/v under 35–40 ºC and 1 atm is introduced into the above medium, the decrease of pH from 10.2 to 8.6 is observed. This pH value, which is maintained over the following days, is optimal for the growth yield of the Spirulina. As a result, the biomass concentration increases from 1.0 to 1.4 g/l. The obtained results are compared with those of the control sample from Zarrouk medium without gas introduction. For the latter case, the biomass reaches the maximum and then decreases. On the basis of the obtained results, the cultivation of Spirulina algae by using the CO2 molecules emitted from the combustion of rice husk can be applied practically.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 173-175
Quroti A'yun ◽  
Resha Widyasari ◽  
Dwi Eni Purwati ◽  
Tedi Purnama

Background: Tea is an herbal product which has an antibacterial effect and ability to increase saliva pH. black tea contains polyphenols which can help prevent dental caries. The teeth of primary school-aged children are susceptible to caries, and prevention is needed as early as possible. Objective: To discover the effectiveness of gargling with black tea to the salivary pH increase on elementary school students. Method: This is a quasi-experimental research with the pretest-posttest design with control group. The population in this research was the 2nd grade students of State Elementary School are 58 students. Total Sampling was used for the sample collecting. The sample was divided to two groups, namely the treatment group of black tea gargling, and the other is the control group of distilled water gargling. The data analysis used Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney. Results: Based on the results, the average before gargling with black tea was 6.634, and increased to 7.297 after gargling with black tea. The average before gargling with distilled water was 6.648, and 6.669 after gargling with distilled water. The Wilcoxon Test result showed the value of p= 0.000< 0.05 which means there was a significant difference between before and after gargling with black tea. The Mann-Whitney Test result showed the value of p= 0.000 < 0.05 so there was an effectiveness difference between gargling with black tea and distilled water to the salivary pH increase. Conclusion: Gargling with black tea is effective in increasing the salivary pH on elementary school students. Keywords: Gargle, black tea, saliva pH

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (3) ◽  
pp. 339-354
Dagmar Samešová ◽  
Juraj Poništ ◽  
Helena Hybská ◽  
Darina Veverková

Abstract Organic waste from production processes is unutilised potential for the production of energy from renewable sources. The submitted paper studies the conditions of anaerobic degradation of selected waste from food industry (diary and distillery) when biogas is produced. Both types of organic waste have low pH values. Ash form municipal incineration as a material for the treatment of pH of waste was used. Except for the pH increase during anaerobic degradation, ash also serves as a source of macroelements for inoculum microorganisms. Kinetics of anaerobic biological digestion of organic material based on the change of pressure and biogas production depending on the ash addition (change of pH) of input samples was observed. Beside these tests, degradability of the waste was assessed by limiting biologically degradable ratio, BR and specific speed of degradability, q. pH values were adjusted with different amounts of ash (0.5; 1.8; 2.7 g/g of dry matter of organic material). Results of the research confirmed that the addition of optimum amount of ash has a positive effect on anaerobic degradation of organic materials.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1033
Lukáš Procházka ◽  
Barbara Vojvodíková ◽  
Jana Boháčová

This article deals with the possibility of using cement by-pass dust (CBPD) in the garden architecture elements, specifically in curbs for park use. To increase the positive effect on the environment, other secondary raw materials were also used in the research, specifically blast furnace granulated slag and silica fly ash. Mixtures were based on alkali activation, where cement as a binder was 100% replaced by raw materials with waste properties. In the research, properties of used materials and also the basic physical-mechanical and durability properties of prepared mixtures were determined Part of the research focused on the effect of the tested beams on the grassland planted around the beams. Any significant negative impact was not registered, except for low pH increase of soil. Infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis were performed on selected samples. Testing has shown that the products are in accordance with the Czech standard requirements for concrete curbs in garden architecture. The samples did not pass only the scaling test, which is, however, a condition for concrete curbs used for roads. For garden architecture this test is not required.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (9) ◽  
pp. 705
Putu Virgina Partha Devanthi ◽  
Katherine Kho ◽  
Rizky Nurdiansyah ◽  
Arnaud Briot ◽  
Mohammad J. Taherzadeh ◽  

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a valuable biopolymer typically observed in Kombucha with many potential food applications. Many studies highlight yeast’s roles in providing reducing sugars, used by the bacteria to grow and produce BC. However, whether yeast could enhance the BC yields remains unclear. This study investigates the effect of yeast Dekkera bruxellensis on bacteria Komagataeibacter intermedius growth and BC production in molasses medium. The results showed that the co-culture stimulated K. intermedius by ~2 log CFU/mL, which could be attributed to enhanced reducing sugar utilization. However, BC yields decreased by ~24%, suggesting a negative impact of D. bruxellensis on BC production. In contrast to other studies, regardless of D. bruxellensis, K. intermedius increased the pH to ~9.0, favoring the BC production. Furthermore, pH increase was slower in co-culture as compared to single culture cultivation, which could be the reason for lower BC yields. This study indicates that co-culture could promote synergistic growth but results in the BC yield reduction. This knowledge can help design a more controlled fermentation process for optimum bacterial growth and, ultimately, BC production.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 1274
Guilherme A. Soares ◽  
Deivid W. Pires ◽  
Leonardo A. Pinto ◽  
Gustavo S. Rodrigues ◽  
André G. Prospero ◽  

Pharmacomagnetography involves the simultaneous assessment of solid dosage forms (SDFs) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the drug plasmatic concentration, using a biomagnetic technique and pharmacokinetics analysis. This multi-instrumental approach helps the evaluation, as GI variables can interfere with the drug delivery processes. This study aimed to employ pharmacomagnetography to evaluate the influence of omeprazole on the drug release and absorption of metronidazole administered orally in magnetic-coated tablets. Magnetic-coated tablets, coated with Eudragit® E-100 (E100) and containing 100 mg of metronidazole, were produced. For the in vivo experiments, 12 volunteers participated in the two phases of the study (placebo and omeprazole) on different days to assess the bioavailability of metronidazole. The results indicated a shift as the pH of the solution increased and a delay in the dissolution of metronidazole, showing that the pH increase interferes with the release processes of tablets coated with E100. Our study reinforced the advantages of pharmacomagnetography as a tool to perform a multi-instrumental correlation analysis of the disintegration process and the bioavailability of drugs.

2021 ◽  
Jinhua Shan ◽  
Hongbo Liu ◽  
Haodong Zhang ◽  
Shiping Long ◽  
Eric Lichtfouse

Abstract Declining earth resources, rising ore cost and pollution call for better recycling of wastewater in the context of the circular economy. In particular, urine is a potential huge source of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) agricultural nutrients, yet the efficiency of actual methods for P and K recovery are limited. Here we designed a electrochemical crystallization system using sacrificial magnesium anodes to recover P and K in the form of K-struvite (MgKPO4·6H2O) from simulated urine at low (P/K=0.25) and high (P/K=0.6) phosphate levels, respectively. Results show optimal recoveries of 88.5% for P and 35.4% for K in the form of rod-shaped K-struvite at 3.5 mA/cm2, yet higher current density reduced recovery due to side reactions and pH increase. Adding phosphate to urine increased K recovery to 35.4% versus 15.0% without phosphate. Adding prefabricated struvite crystals at 1.6 g/L into urine enhanced the recovery of K by 14.7% and of P by 23.7% compared to the control group. Overall, our findings show that electrochemical crystallization is promising for the recovery of K-struvite fertilizers.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (7) ◽  
pp. 1223
Konstantinos Azis ◽  
Zografina Mavriou ◽  
Dimitrios G. Karpouzas ◽  
Spyridon Ntougias ◽  
Paraschos Melidis

In this work, a sand filtration-activated carbon adsorption system was evaluated to remove the fungicide content of a biologically treated effluent. The purification process was mainly carried out in the activated carbon column, while sand filtration slightly contributed to the improvement of the pollutant parameters. The tertiary treatment system, which operated under the batch mode for 25 bed volumes, resulted in total and soluble COD removal efficiencies of 76.5 ± 1.5% and 88.2 ± 1.3%, respectively, detecting total COD concentrations below 50 mg/L in the permeate of the activated carbon column. A significant pH increase and a respective electrical conductivity (EC) decrease also occurred after activated carbon adsorption. The total and ammonium nitrogen significantly decreased, with determined concentrations of 2.44 ± 0.02 mg/L and 0.93 ± 0.19 mg/L, respectively, in the activated carbon permeate. Despite that, the initial imazalil concentration was greater than that of the fludioxonil in the biologically treated effluent (i.e., 41.26 ± 0.04 mg/L versus 7.35 ± 0.43 mg/L, respectively). The imazalil was completely removed after activated carbon adsorption, while a residual concentration of fludioxonil was detected. Activated carbon treatment significantly detoxified the biologically treated fungicide-containing effluent, increasing the germination index by 47% in the undiluted wastewater or by 68% after 1:1 v/v dilution.

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