It is unknown whether and to what degree trials submitted to the US FDA to support drug approval adhere to NCCN guideline-recommended care in their baseline and surveillance CNS imaging protocols.
We sought to characterize the frequency with which the trials cited in US FDA drug approvals for first line advanced NSCLC between 2015 and 2020 deviated from NCCN guideline-recommended care for baseline and surveillance CNS imaging.
Design, setting, and participants
Retrospective observational analysis using publicly available data of (1) list of trials cited by the FDA in drug approvals for first line advanced NSCLC from 2015 to 2020 (2) individual trial protocols (3) published trial data and supplementary appendices (4) archived versions of the NCCN guidelines for NSCLC from 2009 to 2018 (the years during which the trials were enrolling).
Main outcomes and measures
Estimated percentage of trials for first line advanced NSCLC leading to FDA approval which deviated from NCCN guideline-recommended care with regards to CNS baseline and surveillance imaging.
A total of 14 studies that had been cited in FDA drug approvals for first line advanced NSCLC met our inclusion criteria between January 1, 2015 and September 30, 2020. Of these trials, 8 (57.1%) deviated from NCCN guidelines in their baseline CNS imaging requirement. The frequency of re-assessment of CNS disease was variable amongst trials as well, with 9 (64.3%) deviating from NCCN recommendations.
Conclusions and relevance
The trials supporting US FDA drug approvals in first line advanced NSCLC often have CNS imaging requirements that do not adhere to NCCN guidelines. Many trials permit alternative, substandard methods and the proportion of patients undergoing each modality is uniformly not reported. Nonstandard CNS surveillance protocols are common. To best serve patients with advanced NSCLC in the US, drug approvals by the FDA must be based on trials that mirror clinical practice and have imaging requirements consistent with current US standard of care.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors were used for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) more and more frequently and the effects were thrilling. Toripalimab as a new immune checkpoint inhibitor has been shown to be effective in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, data regarding the safety and feasibility of surgical resection after treatment with toripalimab for NSCLC remain scarce. Here, we present a case with locally advanced NSCLC that received video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy after treatment with toripalimab in combination with chemotherapy.
A 62-year-old male patient with a history of coronary artery stenting operation for two times was found a 3.4 × 3.2 cm cavity mass in the upper lobe of the left lung and enlarged left hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. Pathological results identified squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with a locally advanced NSCLC and received VATS left upper lobectomy and lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus toripalimab for 3 cycles. The postoperative pathological results showed complete tumor remission. Short-term follow-up results were excellent, and long-term results remain to be revealed.
Our preliminary results showed that the use of neoadjuvant toripalimab and chemotherapy for the locally advanced NSCLC before surgical resection is safe and feasible.
BackgroundPALB2, a gene in the homologous recombination repair (HRR) pathway of the DNA damage response (DDR), is associated with the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and PARP inhibitor therapy in several tumors. However, the PALB2 characteristics, its correlation with immunotherapy biomarker, and the prognostic effect of immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were unknown.MethodsTumor tissue samples from advanced Chinese NSCLC patients were analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) (panel on 381/733-gene). Tumor mutation burden (TMB) is defined as the total number of somatic non-synonymous mutations in the coding region. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was evaluated by NGS of 500 known MSI loci. Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (Dako 22C3 or SP263). One independent cohort (Rizvi2018.NSCLC.240.NGS cohort) containing genomic and clinical data from 240 patients with advanced NSCLC and two cohorts (the OAK and POPLAR study cohort) containing genomic and clinical data from 429 patients with advanced NSCLC were used to analyze the prognostic effect of PALB2 on immunotherapy.ResultsGenetic mutation of 5,227 NSCLC patients were analyzed using NGS, of which 162 (3.1%) harbored germline PALB2 mutation (PALB2gmut) and 87 (1.66%) harbored somatic PALB2 mutation (PALB2smut). In NSCLC patients with PALB2gmut and PALB2smut, the most frequently mutated gene was TP53 (65%, 64%). PALB2smut (14.52 Muts/Mb) was associated with higher TMB (p < 0.001) than PALB wild-type (PALB2wt) (6.15 Muts/Mb). However, there was no significant difference in TMB between PALB2gmut (6.45 Muts/Mb) and PALB2wt (6.15 Muts/Mb) (p = 0.64). There was no difference in PD-L1 expression among PALB2gmut, PALB2smut, and PALB2wt. In the Rizvi2018.NSCLC.240.NGS cohort, there was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) (HR =1.06, p = 0.93) between PALB2 mutation (3.15 months) and PALB2wt (3.17 months). The OAK and POPLAR study cohort of NSCLC patients showed that there was no difference in overall survival (OS) (HR =1.1, p = 0.75) between PALB2 mutation (10.38 months) and PALB2wt (11.07 months).ConclusionsThese findings suggest that PALB2 may not be used as a biomarker for determining prognosis on immunotherapy in NSCLC.
BackgroundAnlotinib is a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor mainly targeting angiogenesis signaling. The predictive marker of anlotinib’s efficacy remains elusive. This study was designed to explore the predictive marker of anlotinib in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).MethodsWe prospectively enrolled 52 advanced NSCLC patients who underwent at least one line of targeted therapy or chemotherapy between August 2018 and March 2020. Patients were divided into durable responders (DR) and non-durable responders (NDR) based on the median progression-free survival (PFS, 176 days). The Olink Immuno-Oncology panel (92 proteins) was used to explore the predictive protein biomarkers in plasma samples before treatment (baseline) and on the first treatment evaluation (paired).ResultsAt baseline, the response to anlotinib was not significantly associated with age, gender, smoke history, histology, oligo-metastases, EGFR mutations, and other clinical characteristics. The results of PFS-related protein biomarkers at baseline were all not satisfying. Then we assessed the changes of 92 proteins levels in plasma on the first treatment evaluation. We obtained a Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model based on 7 proteins, with an accuracy of 100% in the original data and an accuracy of 89.2% in cross validation. The 7 proteins were CD70, MIC-A/B, LAG3, CAIX, PDCD1, MMP12, and PD-L2. Multivariate Cox analysis further showed that the changes of CD70 (HR 25.48; 95% CI, 4.90–132.41, P=0.000) and MIC-A/B (HR 15.04; 95% CI, 3.81–59.36, P=0.000) in plasma were the most significant prognostic factors for PFS.ConclusionWe reported herein a LDA model based on the changes of 7 proteins levels in plasma before and after treatment, which could predict anlotinib responders among advanced NSCLC patients with an accuracy of 100%. Further studies are warranted to verify the prediction performance of the LDA model.
Background: Predictive markers for treatment response and survival outcome have not been identified in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemoimmunotherapy. We aimed to evaluate whether imaging biomarkers of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and routinely assessed clinico-laboratory values were associated with clinical outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving pembrolizumab plus platinum-doublet chemotherapy as a first-line treatment. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 52 patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT before treatment initiation. PET/CT parameters and clinico-laboratory variables, constituting the prognostic immunotherapy scoring system, were collected. Optimal cut-off values for PET/CT parameters were determined using the maximized log-rank test for progression-free survival (PFS). A multivariate prediction model was developed based on Cox models for PFS, and a scoring system was established based on hazard ratios of the predictive factors. Results: During the median follow-up period of 16.7 months (95% confidence interval: 15.7–17.7 months), 43 (82.7%) and 31 (59.6%) patients experienced disease progression and death, respectively. Objective response was observed in 23 (44.2%) patients. In the multivariate analysis, maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumour volume2.5, total lesion glycolysis2.5, and bone marrow-to-liver uptake ratio from the PET/CT variables and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) from the clinico-laboratory variables were independently associated with PFS. The scoring system based on these independent predictive variables significantly predicted the treatment response, PFS, and overall survival. Conclusion: PET/CT variables and NLR were useful biomarkers for predicting outcomes of patients with NSCLC receiving pembrolizumab and chemotherapy as a first-line treatment, suggesting their potential as effective markers for combined PD-1 blockade and chemotherapy.