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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Hirva Mamdani ◽  
Bryan Schneider ◽  
Susan M. Perkins ◽  
Heather N. Burney ◽  
Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi ◽  

BackgroundMost patients with resectable locally advanced esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma (AC) receive concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) followed by esophagectomy. The majority of patients do not achieve pathologic complete response (pCR) with neoadjuvant CRT, and the relapse rate is high among these patients.MethodsWe conducted a phase II study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02639065) evaluating the efficacy and safety of PD-L1 inhibitor durvalumab in patients with locally advanced esophageal and GEJ AC who have undergone neoadjuvant CRT followed by R0 resection with evidence of persistent residual disease in the surgical specimen. Patients received durvalumab 1500 mg IV every 4 weeks for up to 1 year. The primary endpoint was 1-year relapse free survival (RFS). Secondary endpoint was safety and tolerability of durvalumab following trimodality therapy. Exploratory endpoints included correlation of RFS with PD-L1 expression, HER-2 expression, and tumor immune cell population.ResultsThirty-seven patients were enrolled. The majority (64.9%) had pathologically positive lymph nodes. The most common treatment related adverse events were fatigue (27%), diarrhea (18.9%), arthralgia (16.2%), nausea (16.2%), pruritus (16.2%), cough (10.8%), and increase in AST/ALT/bilirubin (10.8%). Three (8.1%) patients developed grade 3 immune mediated adverse events. One-year RFS was 73% (95% CI, 56–84%) with median RFS of 21 months (95% CI, 14–40.4 months). Patients with GEJ AC had a trend toward superior 1-year RFS compared to those with esophageal AC (83% vs. 63%, p = 0.1534). There was a numerical trend toward superior 1-year RFS among patients with PD-L1 positive disease compared to those with PD-L1 negative disease, using CPS of ≥10 (100% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.1551) and ≥1 (84.2% vs. 61.1%, p = 0.1510) cutoffs. A higher relative proportion of M2 macrophages and CD4 memory activated T cells was associated with improved RFS (HR = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05–0.59; p = 0.0053; and HR = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15–0.93, p = 0.0351, respectively).ConclusionsAdjuvant durvalumab in patients with residual disease in the surgical specimen following trimodality therapy for locally advanced esophageal and GEJ AC led to clinically meaningful improvement in 1-year RFS compared to historical control rate. Higher PD-L1 expression may have a correlation with the efficacy of durvalumab in this setting. Higher proportion of M2 macrophages and CD4 memory activated T cells was associated with superior RFS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Gong Wang ◽  
Hao Wang ◽  
Hongqing Zhuang ◽  
Ruijie Yang

PurposeThis study was conducted in order to develop a trajectory optimization algorithm for non-coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and investigate the potential of organs at risk (OARs) sparing in locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients using non-coplanar VMAT.Methods and MaterialsFirstly, a cost map that represents the ray–OAR voxel intersections at each source position was generated using a ray-tracing algorithm. A graph search algorithm was then used to determine the least-cost path from the cost map. Lastly, full arcs or partial arcs were selected based on the least-cost path to generate the non-coplanar VMAT (ncVMAT) trajectories. Clinical coplanar VMAT (coVMAT) plans for 11 patients diagnosed with locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC) receiving 45 to 70 Gy in 25 fractions were replanned using non-coplanar VMAT trajectories. Both coplanar and non-coplanar plans were normalized to cover 95% of the PTV45 Gy volume with a prescription dose of 45 Gy. The conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), PTV coverage, and dose to the OARs were compared between coVMAT and ncVMAT plans.ResultsWith ncVMAT, the mean coverage of PTV50 Gy, PTV54 Gy, PTV60 Gy, and PTV70 Gy increased significantly. The mean conformity index of PTV45 Gy, PTV54 Gy, and PTV70 Gy was also improved in the ncVMAT plans. Compared with coVMAT plans, the ncVMAT plans resulted in significantly lower doses to the spinal cord, bilateral kidneys, stomach, and duodenum. The maximum dose to the spinal cord decreased by 6.11%. The mean dose to the left and right kidneys decreased by an average of 5.52% and 11.71%, respectively. The Dmax, Dmean, and D15% of the stomach were reduced by an average of 7.45%, 15.82%, and 16.79%, separately. The D15% and Dmean of the duodenum decreased 6.38% and 5.64%, respectively.ConclusionA trajectory optimization algorithm was developed for non-coplanar VMAT. Compared with conventional coplanar VMAT, non-coplanar VMAT resulted in improved coverage and conformity to the targets. The sparing of OARs was significantly improved in non-coplanar VMAT compared with coVMAT plans for locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

2021 ◽  
Wenqun Xing ◽  
Lingdi Zhao ◽  
Yan Zheng ◽  
Baoxing Liu ◽  
Xianben Liu ◽  

Abstract Background There is no standard neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer in China. The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus immunotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer is still being explored. Methods This open-label, randomized phase II study was conducted at a single center between July 2019 and September 2020, 30 patients with locally advanced ESCC (T3, T4, or lymph-node positive) were enrolled. Patients were randomized according to the enrollment order at a 1:1 ratio to receive chemotherapy on day 1 and toripalimab on day 3 (experiment group) or chemotherapy and toripalimab on day 1 (control group). The chemotherapeutic regimen was paclitaxel and cisplatin. Surgery was performed 4 to 6 weeks after the second cycle of chemoimmunotherapy. The primary endpoint was pCR rate, the secondary endpoint were safety and disease-free survival. Results Thirty patients completed at least one cycle of chemoimmunotherapy; 11 in the experimental group and 13 in the control group received surgery. R0 resection was got in all these 24 patients. Four patients (36%) in the experimental group and one (7%) in the control group achieved pCR. The experimental group showed a statistically non-significant higher pCR rate (P = 0.079). PD-L1 combined positive score (CPS) examination was performed in 14 patients; one in control group had a PD-L1 CPS of 10 and pCR was achieved, while the left 13 were all ≤ 1, 11 of the 13 patients received surgery in which two (in the experimental group) got pCR. Two patients endured from ≥ grade 3 adverse events, one suffered from grade 3 immune-related enteritis after one cycle of chemoimmunotherapy and dropped off the study. Another patient died from severe pulmonary infection and troponin elevation after surgery. CONCLUSIONS Although the primary endpoint was not met, initial results of this study showed that delaying toripalimab to day 3 in chemoimmunotherapy might achieve a higher pCR rate than that on same day, and further large-sample clinical trials are needed to verify this. Trial registration: NCT 03985670, registered 10 June 2019.

2021 ◽  
Vol 157 ◽  
pp. 250-258
Alice Baggi ◽  
Pietro Quaglino ◽  
Marco Rubatto ◽  
Roberta Depenni ◽  
Michele Guida ◽  

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 4642
Tomoyuki Momma ◽  
Hirokazu Okayama ◽  
Yasuyuki Kanke ◽  
Satoshi Fukai ◽  
Hisashi Onozawa ◽  

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) followed by surgery is widely used for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. However, response to nCRT varies substantially among patients, highlighting the need for predictive biomarkers that can distinguish non-responsive from responsive patients before nCRT. This study aimed to build novel multi-gene assays for predicting nCRT response, and to validate our signature and previously-reported signatures in multiple independent cohorts. Methods: Three microarray datasets of pre-therapeutic biopsies containing a total of 61 non-responders and 53 responders were used as the discovery cohorts to screen for genes that were consistently associated with nCRT response. The predictive values of signatures were tested in a meta-analysis using six independent datasets as the validation cohorts, consisted of a total of 176 non-responders and 99 responders. Results: We identified four genes, including BRCA1, GPR110, TNIK, and WDR4 in the discovery cohorts. Although our 4-gene signature and nine published signatures were evaluated, they were unable to predict nCRT response in the validation cohorts. Conclusions: Although this is one of the largest studies addressing the validity of gene expression-based classifiers using pre-treatment biopsies from patients with rectal cancer, our findings do not support their clinically meaningful values to be predictive of nCRT response.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dongfeng Sun ◽  
Qingfa Chen ◽  
Zhibo Gai ◽  
Fengxia Zhang ◽  
Xiaoqing Yang ◽  

Esophageal cancer is the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, ranking sixth in mortality. Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for treating locally advanced esophageal cancer, yet it is ineffective in a large portion of patients. There is a need for reliable molecular markers with direct clinical application for a prospective selection of patients who can benefit from chemotherapy and patients in whom toxicity is likely to outweigh the benefit. The cytotoxic activity of platinum derivatives largely depends on the uptake and accumulation into cells, primarily by organic cation transporters (OCTs). The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of OCT expression on the clinical outcome of patients with esophageal cancer treated with oxaliplatin. Twenty patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were prospectively enrolled and surgical specimens used for screening OCT expression level by western blotting and/or immunostaining, and for culture of cancer cells. Sixty-seven patients with SCC who received oxaliplatin and for whom follow-up was available were retrospectively assessed for organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) expression by real time RT-PCR and immunostaining. OCTN2 staining was also performed in 22 esophageal adenocarcinomas. OCTN2 function in patient-derived cancer cells was evaluated by assessing L-carnitine uptake and sensitivity to oxaliplatin. The impact of OCTN2 on oxaliplatin activity was also assessed in HEK293 cells overexpressing OCTN2. OCTN2 expression was higher in tumor than in normal tissues. In patient-derived cancer cells and HEK293 cells, the expression of OCTN2 sensitized to oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin who had high OCTN2 level in the tumor tissue had a reduced risk of recurrence and a longer survival time than those with low expression of OCTN2 in tumor tissue. In conclusion, OCTN2 is expressed in esophageal cancer and it is likely to contribute to the accumulation and cytotoxic activity of oxaliplatin in patients with esophageal carcinoma treated with oxaliplatin.

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