Immune checkpoint inhibitors were used for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) more and more frequently and the effects were thrilling. Toripalimab as a new immune checkpoint inhibitor has been shown to be effective in patients with advanced NSCLC. However, data regarding the safety and feasibility of surgical resection after treatment with toripalimab for NSCLC remain scarce. Here, we present a case with locally advanced NSCLC that received video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy after treatment with toripalimab in combination with chemotherapy.
A 62-year-old male patient with a history of coronary artery stenting operation for two times was found a 3.4 × 3.2 cm cavity mass in the upper lobe of the left lung and enlarged left hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. Pathological results identified squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with a locally advanced NSCLC and received VATS left upper lobectomy and lymph node dissection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus toripalimab for 3 cycles. The postoperative pathological results showed complete tumor remission. Short-term follow-up results were excellent, and long-term results remain to be revealed.
Our preliminary results showed that the use of neoadjuvant toripalimab and chemotherapy for the locally advanced NSCLC before surgical resection is safe and feasible.
Objective: To evaluate the clinical curative effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy and its impact on immunological function and the expression of ER, PR, HER-2 and SATB1 in HER-2-positive breast cancer patients.
Methods: The subjects of study were 80 patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer. Enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups, with 40 cases in each group at The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from March 2018 from March 2021. Patients in the control group were provided with neoadjuvant chemotherapy using TAC regimen merely; while those in the study group received oral administration of Apatinib Mesylate (500mg/d; three weeks a cycle) on the basis of the TAC regimen. Further comparative analysis was performed focusing on the therapeutic effect and adverse drug reaction rate of the two groups; levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ of T lymphocyte subsets in the two groups before and after treatment; as well as the expressions of ER, PR, HER-2 and SATB1 in the two groups before and after treatment.
Results: The total response rate was 77.5% and 55% in the study group and the control group, respectively, with an obviously better outcome in the former group than that in the latter group (p=0.03). Meanwhile, the incidence of adverse reactions was 40% in the study group and 45% in the control group, without statistical difference (p=0.65). There were statistically significant differences that the levels of CD3+, CD4+, and CD4+/CD8+ in the study group were significantly higher when compared with those in the control group after treatment (CD3+, p=0.00; CD4+, p=0.02; CD4+/CD8+, p=0.00); while no evident change was observed in the level of CD8+ (p=0.88). After treatment, the positive expression rates of ER, HER-2 and SATB1 were remarkably lower in the study group than those in the control group, showing statistically significant differences (ER, HER-2, p=0.03; SATB1, p=0.02). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the positive expression rate of PR between the study group and the control group (P=0.80).
Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy has significant effect on the treatment of HER-2-positive breast cancer patients. It can result in the significant enhancement of T lymphocyte function, obvious improvement in the negative converse rates of ER, HER-2 and SATB1, and no evident increase in the adverse drug reactions. The proposed therapeutic approach is safe, effective, and have certain clinical value.
How to cite this:Chen Z, Sang M, Geng C, Hao W, Jia H. Clinical curative effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy and its impact on immunological function and the expression of ER, PR, HER-2 and SATB1 in HER-2-Positive breast cancer patients. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5199
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Nutritional risk index (NRI) is an index based on ideal body weight that aims to present body weight and serum albumin levels. It has been utilized to discriminate patients at risk of postoperative complications and predict the postoperative outcome of major surgeries. However, this index remains limited for breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). The research explores the clinical and prognostic significance of NRI in breast cancer patients. This study included 785 breast cancer patients (477 cases received NACT and 308 cases did not) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The optimal NRI cutoff value was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, then reclassified as low NRI group (<112) and high NRI group (≥112). The results demonstrated that NRI independently predicted survival on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) by univariate and multivariate Cox regression survival analyses [P = 0.019, hazard ratio (HR): 1.521, 95% CI: 1.071–2.161 and P = 0.004, HR: 1.415, 95% CI: 1.119–1.789; and P = 0.026, HR:1.500, 95% CI: 1.051–2.143 and P < 0.001, HR: 1.547, 95% CI: 1.221–1.959]. According to the optimal cutoff value of NRI, the high NRI value patients had longer mean DFS and OS time in contrast to those with low NRI value patients (63.47 vs. 40.50 months; 71.50 vs. 56.39 months). Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the high NRI score patients had significantly longer mean DFS and OS time than those with low NRI score patients in early-stage breast cancer (χ2 = 9.0510, P = 0.0026 and χ2 = 9.2140, P = 0.0024) and advanced breast cancer (χ2 = 6.2500, P = 0.0124 and χ2 = 5.8880, P = 0.0152). The mean DFS and OS values in patients with high NRI scores were significantly longer in contrast to those with low NRI scores in different molecular subtypes. The common toxicities after NACT were hematologic and gastrointestinal reactions, and the NRI had no statistically significant effects on toxicities, except in nausea (χ2 = 9.2413, P = 0.0024), mouth ulcers (χ2 = 4.8133, P = 0.0282), anemia (χ2 = 8.5441, P = 0.0140), and leukopenia (χ2 = 11.0951, P = 0.0039). NRI serves as a minimally invasive, easily accessible and convenient prognostic tool for evaluating breast cancer prognoses and treatment efficacy, and may help doctors in terms of selecting measures of greater efficiency or appropriateness to better treat breast cancer.
Patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer have a generally known 5-year overall survival of approximately 58% with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). During the last decades, addition of Cisplatinum-based NAC in fit patients prior to radical cystectomy (RC), has significantly improved OS, compared to RC only. However, some published studies following NAC addition, describe an intermediate risk increase of thromboembolic events (TEEs). Placement of central venous access (CVA) before NAC has also been suggested as being a potential risk factor for thrombosis. We present a combination of images and cases from the Northern Swedish health region where three patients developed venous TEE after CVA placement for NAC-administration and found that the time until curable RC was prolonged circa one month each, with an addition of one RC cancelled. These are serious events and to our knowledge, there are no current guidelines on prevention of TEE before RC. The aim with this report was to provide examples of these events and conclude that further prospective trials are warranted on prevention and future guidelines regarding venous anticoagulant treatment for TEE that occur pre-RC in NAC-patients.
BackgroundNanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer remains controversial. We conducted a retrospective study to compare the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel with those of docetaxel as neoadjuvant regimens for HER2-negative breast cancer.MethodsIn this retrospective analysis, a total of 159 HER2-negative breast cancer patients who had undergone operation after NAC were consecutively analyzed from May 2016 to April 2018. Patients were classified into the nab-paclitaxel group (n = 79, nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m2, epirubicin 75 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2) and the docetaxel group (n = 80, docetaxel 75 mg/m2, epirubicin 75 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2) according to the drug they received for neoadjuvant treatment. The efficacy and adverse events were evaluated in the two groups.ResultsThe pathological complete response (pCR)(ypT0/isN0) rate was significantly higher in the nab-paclitaxel group than in the docetaxel group (36.71% vs 20.00%; P = 0.031). The multivariate analysis revealed that therapeutic drugs, lymph node status, and tumor subtype were the most significant factor influencing treatment outcome. At a median follow-up of 47 months, disease-free survival (DFS) was not significantly different in those assigned to nab-paclitaxel compared with docetaxel (82.28% vs 76.25%; P = 0.331). The incidence of peripheral sensory neuropathy in the nab-paclitaxel group was higher than that in the docetaxel group (60.76% vs 36.25%; P = 0.008), while the incidence of arthralgia was observed more frequently in the docetaxel group (57.50% vs 39.97%; P = 0.047).ConclusionsCompared with docetaxel, nab-paclitaxel achieved a higher pCR rate, especially those patients with triple-negative breast cancer or lymph node negative breast cancer. However, there was no significant difference in DFS between the two groups. This study provides a valuable reference for the management of patients with HER2-negative breast cancer.
Objective. To explore the application value of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating free DNA (cfDNA) from peripheral blood in the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Here, we measured CTCs and cfDNA quantity for predicting the outcome of patients. Patients and Methods. Forty-five patients with advanced gastric cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical treatment were enrolled in this study. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel + S-1 + oxaliplatin (PSOX) regimen, and CTCs and cfDNA of the peripheral blood were detected before and after neoadjuvant therapy. Relationships between the number/type of CTC or cfDNA and the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Results. Among 45 patients, 43 (95.6%) were positive, and the positive rate of mesenchymal CTC was increased with the increase in the T stage. The proportion of mesenchymal CTC was positively correlated with the N stage (
), and the larger N stage will have the higher proportion of mesenchymal CTC. Patients with a small number of mesenchymal CTC before neoadjuvant chemotherapy were more likely to achieve partial response (PR) with neoadjuvant therapy. Patients with positive CA-199 were more likely to achieve PR with neoadjuvant therapy (
). Patients in the PR group were more likely to have decreased/unchanged cfDNA concentration after neoadjuvant therapy (
). After neoadjuvant therapy (before surgery), the cfDNA concentration was higher and the efficacy of neoadjuvant therapy (SD or PD) was lower (
). Conclusions. Peripheral blood CTC, especially interstitial CTC and cfDNA, has a certain value in predicting the efficacy and prognosis of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer.