Hepatitis A
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 100772
Author(s):  
Shi-Bing Liang ◽  
Wen-Bin Hou ◽  
Ruo-Xiang Zheng ◽  
Chang-Hao Liang ◽  
Li-Jiao Yan ◽  
...  

2203 ◽  
Vol 32 (7) ◽  
pp. 441b-441
Author(s):  
P Bachiller Luque ◽  
C Navarro Cañadas ◽  
A Almaraz Gómez ◽  
A Orduña Domingo
Keyword(s):  

Author(s):  
Huda Zaid Al-Shami ◽  
Zaid Ali Mohammed Al-Mutawakal ◽  
Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani ◽  
Muhamed Ahmed Al-Haimi ◽  
Ahmed Mohammed Al-Haddad ◽  
...  

Background: Hepatic jaundice results from abnormal metabolism of bilirubin in the liver. The main hepatic jaundice causes are severe damage to hepatocytes due to autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, drugs/ medication induced, or, less commonly, hereditary genetic diseases. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B Virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), in patients with hepatic jaundice as causes of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Sana'a city, Yemen. Subjects and Methods: Data of patients with hepatic jaundice tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, total anti-HCV antibody, and anti-HAV immunoglobulin M (IgM) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were collected from Class I Viral Diagnostic Laboratories in Sana'a for 3 years. Then the statistical analysis of the data was used where the descriptive analysis was calculated: frequency and percentage, as well as the association of infection with sex and age group by means of detection odds ratio, 95% CI and X2 more than 3.9 and P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The study included 644 males (43.8%) and 826 females (56.2%), while most patients were less than 21 years old. The rate of Hepatitis viruses positive was 27.6% positive. Hepatitis A virus infection was the most common virus diagnosed accounting for 259 cases (17.6% of the total), while HBV was less common with 104 (7.1%) and HCV only 42 cases (2.9%). The highest incidence of hepatitis B was in 11-20 years patients (18.2%), with an associated OR 9.3 (p < 0.0001). The highest incidence of hepatitis C was in 31-40 years patients (7.3%), with an associated OR 3.3 (p<0.0001). Conclusion:  Alarmingly changing the epidemiology and dynamics of hepatitis A-C viruses in Yemen, a detailed study is required to understand the definite disease problem caused by these viruses. It is noticeable in this study the high prevalence of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus in the Yemeni population with hepatic jaundice. Also, to our knowledge, this study is the first to report epidemiological transformation of hepatitis A virus in Sana'a, Yemen.                     Peer Review History: Received: 13 November 2021; Revised: 11 December; Accepted: 30 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Nuray Arı, Ankara University, Turkiye, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.5/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Gulam Mohammed Husain,, National Research Institute of Unani Medicine for Skin Disorders, Hyderabad, India, [email protected] Dr. Salfarina Ramli, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. [email protected]   Similar Articles: PREVALENCE OF DIFFERENT HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENOTYPES AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED AMONG SELECTED YEMENI PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS B INFECTION SERO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HEPATITIS B, C, HIV AND TREPONEMA PALLIDUM AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN HODEIDA CITY- YEMEN EXPLOSION OF HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUSES AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS AS A RESULT OF HEMODIALYSIS CRISIS IN YEMEN


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Author(s):  
Robert A. Kozak ◽  
Candace Rutherford ◽  
Melissa Richard-Greenblatt ◽  
N. Y. Elizabeth Chau ◽  
Ana Cabrera ◽  
...  

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an emerging public health concern and there is an urgent need for ways to rapidly identify cases so that outbreaks can be managed effectively. Conventional testing for HAV relies on anti-HAV IgM seropositivity. However, studies estimate that 10–30% of patients may not be diagnosed by serology. Molecular assays that can directly detect viral nucleic acids have the potential to improve diagnosis, which is key to prevent the spread of infections. In this study, we developed a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay to detect HAV RNA for the identification of acute HAV infection. Primers were designed to target the conserved 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of HAV, and the assay was optimized on both the Qiagen Rotor-Gene and the BD MAX. We successfully detected HAV from patient serum and stool samples with moderate differences in sensitivity and specificity depending on the platform used. Our results highlight the clinical utility of using a molecular assay to detect HAV from various specimen types that can be implemented in hospitals to assist with diagnostics, treatment and prevention.


Author(s):  
Sandra Dudareva ◽  
Mirko Faber ◽  
Ruth Zimmermann ◽  
C.-Thomas Bock ◽  
Ruth Offergeld ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

ZusammenfassungMit Virushepatitis A bis E werden verschiedene infektiöse Entzündungen des Leberparenchyms bezeichnet, die durch die Hepatitisviren A bis E (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV und HEV) ausgelöst werden. Zwar ähneln sich die Krankheitsbilder, die Erreger gehören jedoch zu verschiedenen Virusfamilien und unterscheiden sich bezüglich der Pathogenese, der Übertragungswege, des klinischen Verlaufs und der Präventions- und Therapiemöglichkeiten. In Deutschland besteht eine namentliche Meldepflicht nach Infektionsschutzgesetz (IfSG) für den direkten oder indirekten Nachweis und für Verdacht, Erkrankung und Tod. Die Daten werden an das Robert Koch-Institut übermittelt.In diesem Beitrag wird die Epidemiologie der Hepatitiden A bis E anhand publizierter Studien und Meldedaten beschrieben und es werden aktuelle Herausforderungen und Präventionsansätze aufgezeigt. Letztere bestehen insbesondere in der verbesserten Umsetzung bereits bestehender Impfempfehlungen (Hepatitis A und B), dem verbesserten Zugang zu Prävention, Testung und Versorgung, einschließlich Therapie mit antiviralen Medikamenten (Hepatitis B, C und D), und der Erkennung und Verhinderung lebensmittelbedingter Infektionen und Ausbrüche und Verbesserungen auf dem Gebiet der Lebensmittelsicherheit (Hepatitis A und E).


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jenna Patterson ◽  
Susan Cleary ◽  
Sheetal P. Silal ◽  
Gregory D. Hussey ◽  
Annabel Enoch ◽  
...  

Abstract Background While some evidence has been demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of routine hepatitis A vaccination in middle-income countries, the evidence is still limited in other settings including in South Africa. Given this, the evidence base around the cost of care for hepatitis A needs to be developed towards considerations of introducing hepatitis A vaccines in the national immunisation schedule and guidelines. Objectives To describe the severity, clinical outcomes, and cost of hepatitis A cases presenting to two tertiary healthcare centers in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We conducted a retrospective folder review of patients presenting with hepatitis A at two tertiary level hospitals providing care for urban communities of metropolitan Cape Town, South Africa. Patients included in this folder review tested positive for hepatitis A immunoglobulin M between 1 January 2008 and 1 March 2018. Results In total, 239 folders of hepatitis A paediatric patients < 15 years old and 212 folders of hepatitis A adult patients $$\ge$$ ≥ 15 years old were included in the study. Before presenting for tertiary level care, more than half of patients presented for an initial consultation at either a community clinic or general physician. The mean length of hospital stay was 7.45 days for adult patients and 3.11 days for paediatric patients. Three adult patients in the study population died as a result of hepatitis A infection and 29 developed complicated hepatitis A. One paediatric patient in the study population died as a result of hepatitis A infection and 27 developed complicated hepatitis A, including 4 paediatric patients diagnosed with acute liver failure. The total cost per hepatitis A hospitalisation was $1935.41 for adult patients and $563.06 for paediatric patients, with overhead costs dictated by the length of stay being the largest cost driver. Conclusion More than 1 in every 10 hepatitis A cases (13.3%) included in this study developed complicated hepatitis A or resulted in death. Given the severity of clinical outcomes and high costs associated with hepatitis A hospitalisation, it is important to consider the introduction of hepatitis A immunisation in the public sector in South Africa to potentially avert future morbidity, mortality, and healthcare spending.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 100
Author(s):  
Geum-Young Lee ◽  
Won-Keun Kim ◽  
Seungchan Cho ◽  
Kyungmin Park ◽  
Jongwoo Kim ◽  
...  

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a serious threat to public health worldwide. We used multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) to derive information on viral genetic diversity and conduct precise phylogenetic analysis. Four HAV genome sequences were obtained using multiplex PCR-based NGS. HAV whole-genome sequence of one sample was obtained by conventional Sanger sequencing. The HAV strains demonstrated a geographic cluster with sub-genotype IA strains in the Republic of Korea. The phylogenetic pattern of HAV viral protein (VP) 3 region showed no phylogenetic conflict between the whole-genome and partial-genome sequences. The VP3 region in serum and stool samples showed sensitive detection of HAV with differences of quantification that did not exceed <10 copies/μL than the consensus VP4 region using quantitative PCR (qPCR). In conclusion, multiplex PCR-based NGS was implemented to define HAV genotypes using nearly whole-genome sequences obtained directly from hepatitis A patients. The VP3 region might be a potential candidate for tracking the genotypic origin of emerging HAV outbreaks. VP3-specific qPCR was developed for the molecular diagnosis of HAV infection. This study may be useful to predict for the disease management and subsequent development of hepatitis A infection at high risk of severe illness.


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