BMC Infectious Diseases
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1471-2334, 1471-2334
Updated Friday, 03 December 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gordan McCreath ◽  
Phillip D. Whitfield ◽  
Andrew J. Roe ◽  
Malcolm J. Watson ◽  
Malcolm A. B. Sim

Abstract Background Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at an increased risk of developing secondary bacterial infections. These are both difficult to diagnose and are associated with an increased mortality. Metabolomics may aid clinicians in diagnosing secondary bacterial infections in COVID-19 through identification and quantification of disease specific biomarkers, with the aim of identifying underlying causative microorganisms and directing antimicrobial therapy. Methods This is a multi-centre prospective diagnostic observational study. Patients with COVID-19 will be recruited from critical care units in three Scottish hospitals. Three serial blood samples will be taken from patients, and an additional sample taken if a patient shows clinical or microbiological evidence of secondary infection. Samples will be analysed using LC–MS and subjected to bioinformatic processing and statistical analysis to explore the metabolite changes associated with bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients. Comparisons of the data sets will be made with standard microbiological and biochemical methods of diagnosing infection. Discussion Metabolomics analyses may provide additional strategies for identifying secondary infections, which might permit faster initiation of specific tailored antimicrobial therapy to critically ill patients with COVID-19.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ephesians N. Anutebeh ◽  
Lambed Tatah ◽  
Vitalis F. Feteh ◽  
Desmond Aroke ◽  
Jules C. N. Assob ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection despite being a vaccine preventable disease remains a global public health problem. In Cameroon, the hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the expanded program on immunisation in 2005, but there has been limited evaluation of the HBV surface antibody response post vaccination. Objective We investigated the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in infants who received the DPT-Hep B-Hib vaccine, and we assessed HBsAg carriage in non-responders. We also investigated factors associated with non-response or poor response. Methods Using a hospital based cross sectional design and a structured questionnaire over a four-month period (January to April 2019), we collected data to determine factors associated with hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) response from infants aged 6 to 9 months attending infant welfare clinics (IWC) at the Buea and Limbe regional hospitals. We collected venous blood and measured anti-HBs titres using a quantitative Foresight® ELISA. We entered and analysed data using EpiData version 3.1 and SPSS version 25 respectively. Results Of the 161 infants enrolled, 159 (98.8%) developed anti-HBs antibodies. Of these 159, 157 (97.5%) and 117 (72.7%) developed ≥ 10.0 mIU/ml (seroprotection) and ≥ 100.0 mIU/ml anti-HBs titres respectively. Being younger (6 months old) was associated with seroprotection (Cramer V = 0.322, p = 0.001). Spearman rho’s relational analysis showed that immunity against HBV reduced as the duration since the last dose increased (r = −0.172; P = 0.029). However, a Firth logistic regression showed no significant association of factors with inadequate immunity. All 12 (7.5%) infants exposed to HBV at birth, received the hepatitis B vaccine at birth, including four who received HBIG, and all were protected. Four infants (2.5%) had anti-HBs titres < 10.0 mIU/mL (non-responders) but had no peculiarity. Conclusion The seroprotective rate following hepatitis B vaccination of infants is high even in exposed infants. Our study suggests that Cameroon’s HBV vaccine in the Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) is effective against HBV, although we could not account for the 2.5% non-response rate. Large scale studies are needed to further explore non-response to the vaccine.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Amanuel Mengistu Merera

Abstract Introduction In low- and middle-income nations, acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality. According to some studies, Ethiopia has a higher prevalence of childhood acute respiratory infection, ranging from 16 to 33.5%. The goal of this study was to determine the risk factors for acute respiratory infection in children under the age of five in rural Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 7911 children under the age of five from rural Ethiopia was carried out from January 18 to June 27, 2016. A two stage cluster sampling technique was used recruit study subjects and SPSS version 20 was used to extract and analyze data. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with a childhood acute respiratory infection. The multivariable logistic regression analysis includes variables with a p-value less than 0.2 during the bivariate logistic regression analysis. Adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of effect with a 95% confidence interval (CI) and variables with a p-value less than 0.05 were considered as significantly associated with an acute respiratory infection. Results The total ARI prevalence rate among 7911 under-five children from rural Ethiopia was 7.8%, according to the findings of the study. The highest prevalence of ARI was found in Oromia (12.8%), followed by Tigray (12.7%), with the lowest frequency found in Benishangul Gumuz (2.4%). A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that child from Poor household (AOR = 2.170, 95% CI: 1.631–2.887), mother’s no education (AOR = 2.050,95% CI: 1.017–4.133), mother’s Primary education (AOR = 2.387, 95% CI:1.176–4.845), child had not received vitamin A (AOR = 1.926, 95% CI:1.578–2.351), child had no diarrhea (AOR = 0.257, 95% CI: 0.210–0.314), mothers not working (AOR = 0.773, 95% CI:0.630–0.948), not stunted (AOR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.552–0.796), and not improved water source (AOR = 1.715, 95% CI: 1.395–2.109). Similarly, among under-five children, the age of the child, the month of data collection, anemia status, and the province were all substantially linked to ARI. Conclusions Childhood ARI morbidity is a serious health challenge in rural Ethiopia, according to this study, with demographic, socioeconomic, nutritional, health, and environmental factors all having a role. As a result, regional governments, healthcare staff, and concerned groups should place a priority on reducing ARI, and attempts to solve the issue should take these variables into account.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas ◽  
Daniela Munro-Rojas ◽  
Damián Pérez-Martínez ◽  
Esdras Fernandez-Morales ◽  
Ana C. Jimenez-Ruano ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Mexico is on the top five countries with the highest number of TB cases in America continent, nevertheless, information about genotypes circulating is practically unknown. Considering the above this study aims to characterize the genetic diversity of TB in the city of Veracruz, México. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among positive smear samples from patients living in Veracruz City, samples were cultured, and first-line drug profiles determined. Genotyping was made by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR 24 loci. Associations of lineages, clusters, and variables were also analyzed. Results Among the 202 isolates analyzed resistance to at least one drug was observed in 60 (30%) isolates and 41(20%) were multidrug-resistant. Three major lineages were identified: L4/Euro-American (88%), L1/Indo-Oceanic (9%), and L2/East Asian (3%). The Euro-American lineage included more than six sublineages, the most abundant were: H (32%), T (23%), LAM (18%), and X (12%). 140 isolates (70%) were placed in 42 SITs patterns. Conclusions These results provide the first baseline data on the genetic structure of TB in the city of Veracruz. Sublineages H, X and LAM were predominant; however, it was founded an important diversity of genotypes that could contribute to the dispersion of TB and explain the high prevalence. This information might be useful for the development of further interventions to reduce impact of TB.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Peizhen Zhao ◽  
Ziying Yang ◽  
Baohui Li ◽  
Mingzhou Xiong ◽  
Ye Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a simple-to-use nomogram for the prediction of syphilis infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Guangdong Province. Methods A serial cross-sectional data of 2184 MSM from 2017 to 2019 was used to develop and validate the nomogram risk assessment model. The eligible MSM were randomly assigned to the training and validation dataset. Factors included in the nomogram were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis based on the training dataset. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves was used to assess its predictive accuracy and discriminative ability. Results A total of 2184 MSM were recruited in this study. The prevalence of syphilis was 18.1% (396/2184). Multivariate logistic analysis found that age, the main venue used to find sexual partners, condom use in the past 6 months, commercial sex in the past 6 months, infection with sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the past year were associated with syphilis infection using the training dataset. All these factors were included in the nomogram model that was well calibrated. The C-index was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76–0.84) in the training dataset, and 0.79 (95% CI 0.75–0.84) in the validation dataset. Conclusions A simple-to-use nomogram for predicting the risk of syphilis has been developed and validated among MSM in Guangdong Province. The proposed nomogram shows good assessment performance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jumpei Taniguchi ◽  
Kei Nakashima ◽  
Hiroki Matsui ◽  
Tomohisa Watari ◽  
Ayumu Otsuki ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a fulminant disease with an increasing incidence. The serum beta-d-glucan (BDG) assay is used as an adjunct to the diagnosis of PCP; however, the cut-off value for this assay is not well-defined, especially in the non-HIV PCP population. Therefore, we aimed to identify the assay cut-off value for this population. Methods In this retrospective observational study, we reviewed the medical records of all patients (≥ 18 years old) with clinical suspicion of PCP who underwent evaluation of respiratory tract specimens between December 2008 and June 2014 at Kameda Medical Center. We created a receiver operating characteristic curve and calculated the area under the curve to determine the cut-off value for evaluating the inspection accuracy of the BDG assay. Results A total of 173 patients were included in the study. Fifty patients showed positive results in specimen staining, loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, and polymerase chain reaction test, while 123 patients showed negative results. The receiver operating characteristic analyses suggested that the BDG cut-off level was 8.5 pg/mL, with a sensitivity and specificity of 76% and 76%, respectively. Conclusions The Wako-BDG cut-off value for the diagnosis of non-HIV PCP is 8.5 pg/mL, which is lower than the classical cut-off value from previous studies. Clinicians should potentially consider this lower BDG cut-off value in the diagnosis and management of patients with non-HIV PCP. Trial registration: The participants were retrospectively registered.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Etsehiwot Adamu Tsegaye ◽  
Dejenie Shiferaw Teklu ◽  
Zelalem Tazu Bonger ◽  
Abebe Aseffa Negeri ◽  
Tesfaye Legesse Bedada ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Blood stream infections are serious infections that usually induce prolongation of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality in several countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial and fungal profile, their drug resistance patterns, and risk factors associated with blood stream infections. Methods A cross sectional study design was conducted from February 23 to June 23, 2020 at Ethiopian public health. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic factors and clinical conditions. Blood specimens were analyzed using standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion technique and Vitek compact 2. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were used to assess the potential risk factors. Results A total of 175 pathogens isolated from 346 blood specimens. Of these, 60% Gram-negative bacteria, 30.86% Gram-positive bacteria and 9.14% fungal isolates were identified. Burkholderia cepacia and Coagulase negative staphylococcus were the predominant pathogen among Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria respectively. Among fungus, Candida krusei (56.25%) was the most predominant isolate. The highest proportions of antibacterial resistance were observed among 3rd generation cephalosporin and penicillin. Most fungal isolates expressed resistance to fluconazole. Sex (P = 0.007), age (P < 0.001) and use of invasive medical devices (P = 0.003) were identified as risk factors for bacterial blood stream infections. Conclusion The study showed high prevalence of blood stream infection was due to B. cepacia and non-C. albicans spp. This finding alarming ongoing investigation of blood stream infection is important for recognizing future potential preventive strategies including environmental hygiene and management of comorbid medical diseases to reduce the problem.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Aisan Karimi ◽  
Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh ◽  
Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh ◽  
Obeidollah Faraji ◽  
Khaled Rahmani

Abstract Background Truck, bus, transit drivers, and men with mobile jobs are at high risk for HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV and risky behaviors among truck and bus drivers in Kurdistan province. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 601 bus and truck drivers in Kurdistan province during 2018–2019. Data on high-risk behaviors were collected using a standard questionnaire. ELISA test was used to detect HIV in the study participants. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann–Whitney U tests, and logistic regression modeling in Stata-14 software. Results The mean and standard deviation of the age of study participants was 44.04 ± 11.44 years. HIV rapid test was positive in two subjects; in other words, the prevalence of HIV in the study population was 0.33%. Ninety-two (15.3%) individuals reported a history of drug use, with one (1.1%) having a history of injecting drugs. One hundred and thirty-one (21.8%) of them had a history of high-risk sexual behavior outside of marriage. Conclusion According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of high-risk behaviors in bus and truck drivers is high. It seems necessary to direct the drivers’ attention to self-care while considering disciplinary intervention programs to prevent the use of drugs, cigarettes, alcohol along with high-risk sexual behaviors to maintain the health of drivers and passengers.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sean A. P. Clouston ◽  
Olga Morozova ◽  
Jaymie R. Meliker

Abstract Background To examine whether outdoor transmission may contribute to the COVID-19 epidemic, we hypothesized that slower outdoor wind speed is associated with increased risk of transmission when individuals socialize outside. Methods Daily COVID-19 incidence reported in Suffolk County, NY, between March 16th and December 31st, 2020, was the outcome. Average wind speed and maximal daily temperature were collated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Negative binomial regression was used to model incidence rates while adjusting for susceptible population size. Results Cases were very high in the initial wave but diminished once lockdown procedures were enacted. Most days between May 1st, 2020, and October 24th, 2020, had temperatures 16–28 °C and wind speed diminished slowly over the year and began to increase again in December 2020. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted analyses revealed that days with temperatures ranging between 16 and 28 °C where wind speed was < 8.85 km per hour (KPH) had increased COVID-19 incidence (aIRR = 1.45, 95% C.I. = [1.28–1.64], P < 0.001) as compared to days with average wind speed ≥ 8.85 KPH. Conclusion Throughout the U.S. epidemic, the role of outdoor shared spaces such as parks and beaches has been a topic of considerable interest. This study suggests that outdoor transmission of COVID-19 may occur by noting that the risk of transmission of COVID-19 in the summer was higher on days with low wind speed. Outdoor use of increased physical distance between individuals, improved air circulation, and use of masks may be helpful in some outdoor environments where airflow is limited.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuanyuan Wang ◽  
Xiaoqian Shang ◽  
Liang Wang ◽  
Jiahui Fan ◽  
Fengming Tian ◽  
...  

Abstract Aim This study mainly evaluates the clinical characteristics and chest chest computed tomography (CT) findings of AFB-positive and AFB-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients to explore the relationship between AFB-positive and clinico-radiological findings. Methods A retrospective analysis of 224 hospitalized tuberculosis patients from 2018 to 2020 was undertaken. According to the AFB smear results, they were divided into AFB-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (positive by Ziehl–Neelsen staining) and AFB-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and patients’ CT results and laboratory test results were analyzed. Results A total of 224 PTB patients were enrolled. AFB-positive (n = 94, 42%) and AFB-negative (n = 130, 58%). AFB-positive patients had more consolidation (77.7% vs. 53.8%, p < 0.01), cavity (55.3% vs. 34.6%, p < 0.01), calcification (38.3% vs. 20%, p < 0.01), bronchiectasis (7.5% vs. 1.5%, p < 0.05), bronchiarctia (6.4% vs. 0.8%, p < 0.05), and right upper lobe involvement (57.5% vs. 33.1%, p < 0.01), left upper lobe involvement (46.8% vs. 33.1%, p < 0.05) and lymphadenopathy (58.5% vs. 37.7%, p < 0.01). Conclusion The study found that when pulmonary tuberculosis patients have consolidation, cavity, upper lobe involvement and lymphadenopathy on chest CT images, they may have a higher risk of AFB-positive tuberculosis.


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