BMC Infectious Diseases
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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1471-2334, 1471-2334

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rrezart Halili ◽  
Jeta Bunjaku ◽  
Bujar Gashi ◽  
Teuta Hoxha ◽  
Agron Kamberi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Many studies examined the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within populations using seroprevalence. Healthcare workers are a high-risk population due to patient contact, and studies are needed to examine seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers. Our study investigates the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff at primary healthcare institutions in Prishtina, and factors associated with seroprevalence. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey including SARS-CoV-2 serological testing and questionnaires with primary healthcare workers from primary healthcare facilities in the Prishtina, the capital city of Kosovo. We calculated prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and of self-reported positive PCR test among primary healthcare workers, as well as crude and adjusted ORs for explanatory factors. Results Eighty-three of the healthcare workers (17.47%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies IgG or IgM, while 231 (48.63%) either had antibodies or a previous positive PCR test. Odds of seropositivity were affected by male gender (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.20, 3.61), and infected family members (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.25, 5.79) of healthcare workers. Higher education, being part of larger families and having infected family members gave higher odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity. Other healthcare workers had lower odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity than physicians. Conclusion Over 17% of healthcare workers were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and close to half of them were either seropositive or PCR self-reported positive test. Several factors are associated with decreased and increased odds for such outcomes. These findings should be explored further and addressed to Kosovo policy makers, and assist them to intensify vaccination efforts, and maintain control measures until we achieve herd immunity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhaoying Chen ◽  
Chen Jiang ◽  
Xiaoyu Cheng ◽  
Lidan Ma ◽  
Ying Xin ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Previous reports have described hypogonadism associated with virus infection such as hantavirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). However, to our best knowledge there has been no case report of secondary hypogonadism following hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Case presentation A previously healthy 28-year-old man with no history of major physical and psychological trauma, presented with bilateral gynecomastia and erectile dysfunction 2 weeks after HFMD. Laboratory testament showed the level of gonadotropin hormones declined. Imaging examination demonstrated no major abnormal change in pituitary or reproductive system. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was established. Then the patient was ordered to maintain mental health outward of hospital without drug intervention. One month after presentation, his gonadotropin hormone level and sexual desire had recovered, while bilateral gynecomastia and erectile dysfunction symptoms disappeared. Conclusions Physicians should notice the possibility for hypogonadism in adult patients with a recent history of HFMD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Limei Peng ◽  
Quan Zhou ◽  
Yu Wu ◽  
Xiaoli Cao ◽  
Zili Lv ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a rare central nervous system infection caused by the Balamuthia mandrillaris or Acanthamoeba species. Diagnosis is challenging because of the non-specific clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and radiological features. There is no effective treatment for GAE to date. Case presentation A 54-year-old male was admitted to hospital after experiencing acute onset of numbness and weakness on his left limb. Due to the initial consideration of intracranial tumor, surgical removal of the right parietal lesion was performed. However, the patient had a headache accompanied by diplopia, difficulty walking and a new lesion was found in the left occipital-parietal lobe two weeks after the first operation. High-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) detected the presence of high copy reads of the B. mandrillaris genome sequence in the patient’s blood, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue. Pathological investigation of the brain tissue showed granulomatous changes and amoebic trophozoite scattered around blood vessels under high magnification. The patient was re-operated due to developing progressive confusion caused by subfalcine herniation of the left cerebral hemisphere. The lesions of the right parietal lobe were obviously decreasing in size after the first surgery, and the lesions of the left occipital lobe and the sunfalcine herniation didn’t ameliorate two months after the second surgery. The patient was transferred to local hospital for continuous treatment with sulfamethoxazole and azithromycin. After five months of the second surgery, the patient showed good recovery with mild headache. Conclusions This is the first report of a patient with B. mandrillaris encephalitis initially confirmed by NGS and have experienced two excisions, responding favorably to the combination of surgeries and medications. Early surgical resection of intracranial lesions combined with drug treatment may offer the chance of a cure.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Matrujyoti Pattnaik ◽  
Jaya Singh Kshatri ◽  
Hari Ram Choudhary ◽  
Debaprasad Parai ◽  
Jyoti Shandilya ◽  
...  

Abstract Background This study is a baseline survey to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices with regards to the anthrax disease among the communities before demonstrating a One Health approach for elimination of human anthrax in an endemic district of Odisha. A total of 2670 respondents from 112 villages of 14 blocks were interviewed for the study using a structured questionnaire by multi-stage sampling method. Descriptive statistics were reported and logistic regression was performed to estimate the relationship between the variables and knowledge of anthrax. Result Out of 2670 participants in the study, 76.25% were male and about half were illiterate. Most of the respondents (54.19%) were involved in agriculture as an occupation. 71% of the respondents had livestock in their houses and farming was the main purpose for keeping the livestock. Only one-fifth of the respondents (20.26%) knew about anthrax and a majority of them have come across the disease during community outbreaks. Almost 25.9% of livestock owners had knowledge about vaccination against anthrax disease although 83.4% of the livestock owners disposed the animal carcass by burial method. Conclusion The study findings indicated that the community members had poor knowledge of cause, symptoms, transmission and prevention of anthrax disease which may be improved by a One Health approach.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elena Chiappini ◽  
Catiuscia Lisi ◽  
Vania Giacomet ◽  
Paola Erba ◽  
Stefania Bernardi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Early start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in perinatally HIV-1 infected children is the optimal strategy to prevent immunological and clinical deterioration. To date, according to EMA, only 35% of antiretroviral drugs are licenced in children < 2 years of age and 60% in those aged 2–12 years, due to the lack of adequate paediatric clinical studies on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug safety in children. Methods An observational retrospective study investigating the rate and the outcomes of off-label prescription of HAART was conducted on 225 perinatally HIV-1 infected children enrolled in the Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children and followed-up from 2001 to 2018. Results 22.2% (50/225) of included children were receiving an off-label HAART regimen at last check. Only 26% (13/50) of off-label children had an undetectable viral load (VL) before the commencing of the regimen and the 52.0% (26/50) had a CD4 + T lymphocyte percentage > 25%. At last check, during the off label regimen, the 80% (40/50) of patients had an undetectable VL, and 90% (45/50) of them displayed CD4 + T lymphocyte percentage > 25%. The most widely used off-label drugs were: dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine (16%; 8/50), emtricitbine/tenofovir disoproxil (22%; 11/50), lopinavir/ritonavir (20%; 10/50) and elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/ tenofovir alafenamide (10%; 10/50). At logistic regression analysis, detectable VL before starting the current HAART regimen was a risk factor for receiving an off-label therapy (OR: 2.41; 95% CI 1.13–5.19; p = 0.024). Moreover, children < 2 years of age were at increased risk for receiving off-label HAART with respect to older children (OR: 3.24; 95% CI 1063–7.3; p = 0.001). Even if our safety data regarding off-label regimens where poor, no adverse event was reported. Conclusion The prescription of an off-label HAART regimen in perinatally HIV-1 infected children was common, in particular in children with detectable VL despite previous HAART and in younger children, especially those receiving their first regimen. Our data suggest similar proportions of virological and immunological successes at last check among children receiving off-label or on-label HAART. Larger studies are needed to better clarify efficacy and safety of off-label HAART regimens in children, in order to allow the enlargement of on-label prescription in children.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hui Liu ◽  
Suishan Qiu ◽  
Minghao Chen ◽  
Jun Lyu ◽  
Guangchao Yu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing-Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) has risen in patients with urinary tract infections. The objective of this study was to determine explore the risk factors of ESBL-E infection in hospitalized patients and establish a predictive model. Methods This retrospective study included all patients with an Enterobacteriaceae-positive urine sample at the first affiliated hospital of Jinan university from January 2018 to December 2019. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL-E were analyzed, and multivariate analysis of related factors was performed. From these, a nomogram was established to predict the possibility of ESBL-E infection. Simultaneously, susceptibility testing of a broad array of carbapenem antibiotics was performed on ESBL-E cultures to explore possible alternative treatment options. Results Of the total 874 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs), 272 (31.1%) were ESBL-E positive. In the predictive analysis, five variables were identified as independent risk factors for ESBL-E infection: male gender (OR = 1.607, 95% CI 1.066–2.416), older age (OR = 4.100, 95% CI 1.678–12.343), a hospital stay in preceding 3 months (OR = 1.872, 95% CI 1.141–3.067), invasive urological procedure (OR = 1.810, 95% CI 1.197–2.729), and antibiotic use within the previous 3 months (OR = 1.833, 95% CI 1.055–3.188). In multivariate analysis, the data set was divided into a training set of 611 patients and a validation set of 263 patients The model developed to predict ESBL-E infection was effective, with the AuROC of 0.650 (95% CI 0.577–0.725). Among the antibiotics tested, several showed very high effectiveness against ESBL-E: amikacin (85.7%), carbapenems (83.8%), tigecycline (97.1%) and polymyxin (98.2%). Conclusions The nomogram is useful for estimating a UTI patient’s likelihood of infection with ESBL-E. It could improve clinical decision making and enable more efficient empirical treatment. Empirical treatment may be informed by the results of the antibiotic susceptibility testing.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mahgol Taghivand ◽  
Lisa G. Pell ◽  
Mohammed Z. Rahman ◽  
Abdullah A. Mahmud ◽  
Eric O. Ohuma ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Invasive pneumococcal disease is a major cause of infant morbidity and death worldwide. Vitamin D promotes anti-pneumococcal immune responses in vitro, but whether improvements in infant vitamin D status modify risks of nasal pneumococcal acquisition in early life is not known. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data collected in a trial cohort in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Acute respiratory infection (ARI) surveillance was conducted from 0 to 6 months of age among 1060 infants of women randomized to one of four pre/post-partum vitamin D dose combinations or placebo. Nasal swab samples were collected based on standardized ARI criteria, and pneumococcal DNA quantified by qPCR. Hazards ratios of pneumococcal acquisition and carriage dynamics were estimated using interval-censored survival and multi-state modelling. Results Pneumococcal carriage was detected at least once in 90% of infants by 6 months of age; overall, 69% of swabs were positive (2616/3792). There were no differences between any vitamin D group and placebo in the hazards of pneumococcal acquisition, carriage dynamics, or carriage density (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion Despite in vitro data suggesting that vitamin D promoted immune responses against pneumococcus, improvements in postnatal vitamin D status did not reduce the rate, alter age of onset, or change dynamics of nasal pneumococcal colonization in early infancy. Trial registration Registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the registration number of NCT02388516 and first posted on March 17, 2015.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mojtaba Zare ◽  
Hossein Akbarialiabad ◽  
Hossein Parsaei ◽  
Qasem Asgari ◽  
Ali Alinejad ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by a protozoan, causes numerous deaths in humans each year. After malaria, leishmaniasis is known to be the deadliest parasitic disease globally. Direct visual detection of leishmania parasite through microscopy is the frequent method for diagnosis of this disease. However, this method is time-consuming and subject to errors. This study was aimed to develop an artificial intelligence-based algorithm for automatic diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Methods We used the Viola-Jones algorithm to develop a leishmania parasite detection system. The algorithm includes three procedures: feature extraction, integral image creation, and classification. Haar-like features are used as features. An integral image was used to represent an abstract of the image that significantly speeds up the algorithm. The adaBoost technique was used to select the discriminate features and to train the classifier. Results A 65% recall and 50% precision was concluded in the detection of macrophages infected with the leishmania parasite. Also, these numbers were 52% and 71%, respectively, related to amastigotes outside of macrophages. Conclusion The developed system is accurate, fast, easy to use, and cost-effective. Therefore, artificial intelligence might be used as an alternative for the current leishmanial diagnosis methods.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Siyeon Suh ◽  
Sol Lee ◽  
Ho Gym ◽  
Sanghyuk Yoon ◽  
Seunghwan Park ◽  
...  

Abstract Background COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become the most threatening issue to all populations around the world. It is, directly and indirectly, affecting all of us and thus, is an emerging topic dealt in global health. To avoid the infection, various studies have been done and are still ongoing. COVID-19 cases are reported all over the globe, and among the millions of cases, genetic similarity may be seen. The genetical common features seen within confirmed cases may help outline the tendency of infection and degree severity of the disease. Here, we reviewed multiple papers on SNPs related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and analyzed their results. Methods The PubMed databases were searched for papers discussing SNPs associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity. Clinical studies with human patients and statistically showing the relevance of the SNP with virus infection were included. Quality Assessment of all papers was done with Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Results In the analysis, 21 full-text literature out of 2956 screened titles and abstracts, including 63,496 cases, were included. All were human-based clinical studies, some based on certain regions gathered patient data and some based on big databases obtained online. ACE2, TMPRSS2, and IFITM3 are the genes mentioned most frequently that are related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. 20 out of 21 studies mentioned one or more of those genes. The relevant genes according to SNPs were also analyzed. rs12252-C, rs143936283, rs2285666, rs41303171, and rs35803318 are the SNPs that were mentioned at least twice in two different studies. Conclusions We found that ACE2, TMPRSS2, and IFITM3 are the major genes that are involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The mentioned SNPs were all related to one or more of the above-mentioned genes. There were discussions on certain SNPs that increased the infection and severity to certain groups more than the others. However, as there is limited follow-up and data due to a shortage of time history of the disease, studies may be limited.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marina Kunin ◽  
Mark Timlin ◽  
Chris Lemoh ◽  
David A. Sheffield ◽  
Alana Russo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In Australia, demand for specialist infectious diseases services exceeds capacity to provide timely management of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in areas of high refugee and asylum seeker settlement. A model for treating LTBI patients in primary care has been developed and piloted in a refugee-focused primary health service (Monash Health Refugee Health and Wellbeing [MHRHW]) and a universal primary care clinic. This study reports on the development and evaluation of the model, focusing on the model feasibility, and barriers and enablers to its success. Methods A convergent mix-methods design was used to evaluate the model for treating LTBI patients in primary care, where a prospective cohort study of patients commencing treatment either at MHRHW or the universal primary care clinic determined the model feasibility, while focus groups with clinicians directly involved in treating these patients explored barriers and enablers to sustainability and success of the model. Results From January 2017 to April 2018, 65 patients with confirmed LTBI presented at participating clinics. Treatment was accepted by 31 (48%) patients, of whom 15(48%) were treated at MHRHW and 16 (52%) at the universal primary care clinic. The 6-months’ treatment completion rate was higher at MHRHW compared to the universal primary care clinic (14 (93%) compared to 9 (56%) respectively, p = 0.0373). Reasons for non-completion included adverse reaction, opting out and relocation. At the completion of the pilot, 15 clinicians participated in two focus groups. Clinicians identified barriers and enablers for successful LTBI management at patient, provider, organisational and clinical levels. While barriers for treatment completion and adherence were consistent across the two pilot sites, enablers, such as resources to facilitate patient education and follow-up, were available only at MHRHW. Conclusion Screening and management of LTBI patients can be achieved within the primary care setting, considerate of barriers and enablers at patient, provider, organisational and clinical levels. Upscaling of a primary care response to the management of LTBI will require supporting primary care clinics with resources to employ dedicated clinical staff for patient education, follow-up communication and monitoring medication adherence.


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