Abstract Rotavirus is the main infective agent of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children under the age of five years and causing significant morbidity as well as mortality throughout the world. The study was carried out to detect the prevalence rate, genotypes strain and risk factors of Rotavirus among the children of rural and urban areas of district Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A total of 180 stool samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years from two major hospitals of Bannu from January to December (2015). The samples were analyzed by Reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Rotavirus, positive samples were further processed for genotyping (G and P type) through specific PCR. Of the total, 41 (23%) samples were positive for Rotavirus. The most prevalent G genotypes found were: G3, G8, G9 (each 29%), followed by G10 (15%), and G11 (10%). Whereas the prevalent P genotypes were: P-8 (25%), P-4 and P-10 (each 20%), P-9 (15%), followed by P-6 and P-11 (each 10%). Moreover, Rotavirus infection was more prevalent in summer (23.73%) and winter (22.7%) than spring (20%) and autumn (21.4%). Rotavirus infection exhibited high frequency in June (14%), October (8%) and November (6%). It is concluded that Rotavirus is more prevalent in children and various genotypes (G and P) of Rotavirus are present in the study area. Lack of studies, awareness and rarer testing of Rotavirus are the principal reasons of virus prevalence in district Bannu, Pakistan.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by a persistent limitation in airflow. Gut microbiota is closely correlated with lung inflammation. However, gut microbiota has not been studied in patients with declining lung function, due to chronic lung disease progression.
Subjects and methods
Stool samples were obtained from 55 patients with COPD that were in stable condition at enrolment (stage 1) and at a 1-year follow-up (stage 2). After extracting stool DNA, we performed next generation sequencing to analyse the distribution of gut microbiota.
Patients were divided to control and declining lung function groups, based on whether the rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) had declined over time. An alpha diversity analysis of initial and follow-up stool samples showed a significant difference in the community richness of microbiota in the declining function group, but not in the control group. At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes was more abundant in the control group and Firmicutes was more abundant in the declining function group. The Alloprevotella genus was more abundant in the control group than in the declining function group. At 1-year follow-up, the mean proportions of Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas significantly increased in the control and declining function groups, respectively.
Some community shifts in gut microbiota were associated with lung function decline in COPD patients under regular treatment. Future studies should investigate the mechanism underlying alterations in lung function, due to changes in gut bacterial communities, in COPD.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an emerging public health concern and there is an urgent need for ways to rapidly identify cases so that outbreaks can be managed effectively. Conventional testing for HAV relies on anti-HAV IgM seropositivity. However, studies estimate that 10–30% of patients may not be diagnosed by serology. Molecular assays that can directly detect viral nucleic acids have the potential to improve diagnosis, which is key to prevent the spread of infections. In this study, we developed a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay to detect HAV RNA for the identification of acute HAV infection. Primers were designed to target the conserved 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of HAV, and the assay was optimized on both the Qiagen Rotor-Gene and the BD MAX. We successfully detected HAV from patient serum and stool samples with moderate differences in sensitivity and specificity depending on the platform used. Our results highlight the clinical utility of using a molecular assay to detect HAV from various specimen types that can be implemented in hospitals to assist with diagnostics, treatment and prevention.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a respiratory virus that can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, with studies demonstrating detection of stool viral RNA weeks after respiratory tract clearance. It is unknown if children who test negative for SARS-CoV-2 on a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab may be shedding the virus in their stool.
To measure the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 stool shedding in children with positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 NP polymerase chain reactions (PCR) tests, and to determine clinical factors associated with GI shedding.
In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled hospitalized patients 0 to 21 years old with a positive or a negative SARS-CoV-2 NP PCR test who had respiratory and/or GI symptoms. Participants were surveyed, and stool samples were sent for viral PCR testing. Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate bivariate associations of stool PCR test positivity with categorical variables.
Sixty-seven patients were consented; 34 patients did not provide stool samples so 33 patients were included: 17 NP-positive and 16 NP-negative for SARS-CoV-2. Eight of the 17 NP-positive patients had a positive stool PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, while none of the 16 SARS-CoV-2 NP-negative patients had a positive result (P < .01). For the 17 SARS-CoV-2 NP-positive patients, GI symptoms were associated with a positive stool PCR test (P = .05) for SARS-CoV-2, but this association was not found for all 33 patients (P = .11). No associations were found with patients in an immunocompromised state or those with a comorbid condition, fever and/or chills, respiratory symptoms, headache and/or myalgias, or anosmia and/or ageusia.
SARS-CoV-2 GI shedding is common and associated with GI symptoms in NP-positive children, with 47% having positive stool PCRs for SARS-CoV-2. GI shedding was not demonstrated in SARS-CoV-2 NP-negative children.
Objective: The relationship between Hepatitis Delta infection and Helicobacter infection in patients with non-cirrhotic hepatitis B infection was retrospectively investigated.
Material and Methods: Stool samples of 117 patients included with Delta hepatitis infection in the study At total 36 of them were tested for H. Pylori infection. To detect H. Pylori, stool samples were tested using a commercial stool H. Pylori antigen assay.
Results: Of these, 13 (19%) patients had H. Pylori seropositivity in the Hepatitis B infection group and 23 (48%) patients tested positive for H. Pylori infection in hepatitis delta infection group. There was a statistically significant difference between groups regarding H. Pylori seropositivity by the faecal test (p= 0.001).
Conclusion: This study provides new knowledge on H. Pylori infection and reflects the need for evidence-based and comorbid dieases-oriented guidelines in the field of gastroenterology.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is still a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Less than half of cases are diagnosed when the cancer is locally advanced. CRC is a heterogenous disease associated with a number of genetic or somatic mutations. Diagnostic markers are used for risk stratification and early detection, which might prolong overall survival. Nowadays, the widespread use of semi-invasive endoscopic methods and feacal blood tests characterised by suboptimal accuracy of diagnostic results has led to the detection of cases at later stages. New molecular noninvasive tests based on the detection of CRC alterations seem to be more sensitive and specific then the current methods. Therefore, research aiming at identifying molecular markers, such as DNA, RNA and proteins, would improve survival rates and contribute to the development of personalized medicine. The identification of “ideal” diagnostic biomarkers, having high sensitivity and specificity, being safe, cheap and easy to measure, remains a challenge. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent advances in novel diagnostic biomarkers for tumor tissue, blood and stool samples in CRC patients.
Determination of Gluten Immunogenic Peptides (GIP) in feces is a direct tool for gluten exposure detection. The sensitivity of GIP detection methods for cases of unintentional low gluten intakes is unknown. We studied the interindividual variability in the kinetic of excretion under homogeneously controlled dietary conditions, and the sensitivity of fecal GIP tests after low amounts of punctual gluten ingestions.
Participants (n = 20) followed the same gluten-free menu for 12 days in which two separated doses of gluten (50 mg and 2 g) were ingested and all the depositions were collected. GIP from stool samples were analyzed by ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) tests.
Most participants had detectable GIP after 50 mg and 2 g gluten ingestions using ELISA test (72.2% and 95%, respectively), whereas the LFIA test showed less sensitivity (22.2% and 80%, respectively). GIP were detected at higher either frequency or concentration in the range of 12–36 h after 50 mg intake, and 12–84 h after 2 g consumption. Considering this period, diagnostic sensitivity of GIP detection after a single 50 mg ingestion may be significatively increased analyzing three stool samples per individual. High variability among participants was found in the time and amount of GIP excretion; however, some individuals showed common patterns for both gluten intakes.
Sporadic gluten exposure detection may require several fecal samples to achieve level of sensitivity above 90%. Interindividual variability in the dynamic of GIP excretion may suggest patterns of gluten metabolism.
Objective Gastroenteritis is a disease that affects all age groups, especially children, and causes high mortality and morbidity in all countries. The most common agents of acute gastroenteritis are viral agents. As a result, millions of diarrhea attacks and hospital admissions occur worldwide every year due to viral gastroenteritis. This study uses the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to investigate the viruses that are the causative agents of viral gastroenteritis in the pediatric patient group in Konya, Turkey.
Methods Stool samples of 94 patients aged 0 to 18 years sent from Emergency clinics and Pediatric outpatient clinics, Meram Medical Faculty Hospital Pediatric clinics, Konya Necmettin Erbakan University to Medical Microbiology Laboratory with a diagnosis of gastroenteritis between February and December 2018 were included in the study. Stool samples were stored at –80°C until the time of the analysis. Deoxyribonucleic acid/ribonucleic acid isolation from stool samples was performed with EZ1 Virus Mini Kit v2.0 (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) using an automatic extraction system (BioRobot EZ1 system, Qiagen). The presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus (GI, GII), and sapovirus agents was investigated by the multiplex PCR method (Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxembourg) viral gastroenteritis kit.
Results Viral gastroenteritis agents were detected in 56.3% of the patients. One viral agent was detected in 47 (50%) of these patients and at least two viral agents in 6 (6.3%) of them. Norovirus GII was detected in 20 (21.2%) of the children included in the study, adenovirus in 13 (13.8%), rotavirus in 11 (12.8%), astrovirus in 11 (11.7%), sapovirus in 4 (4.2%), and norovirus GI in 1 (1.06%). When the distribution of viral agents was examined by months, the most number of agents were observed (21; 35%) in May, followed by April and June (12; 20%). Considering the distribution of the prevalence of the agents by age, it was seen to be mainly between 0 and 12 months (42%).
Conclusion Considering that the most common viral agent in our region is norovirus GII, it will be useful to investigate the norovirus that is not routinely examined in children who are admitted to clinics with the complaint of gastroenteritis. It will be appropriate to examine routinely adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus in the laboratory, especially in children with diarrhea and vomiting in the winter and spring months.
Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis syndrome (AFP) in children under 15 is the backbone of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Laboratory examination of stool samples from AFP cases allows the detection of, along with polioviruses, a variety of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV). The etiological significance of these viruses in the occurrence of AFP cases has been definitively established only for enteroviruses A71 and D68. Enterovirus Coxsackie A2 (CVA2) is most often associated with vesicular pharyngitis and hand, foot and mouth disease. Among 7280 AFP cases registered in Russia over 20 years (2001–2020), CVA2 was isolated only from five cases. However, these included three children aged 3 to 4 years, without overt immune deficiency, immunized with 4–5 doses of poliovirus vaccine in accordance with the National Vaccination Schedule. The disease resulted in persistent residual paralysis. Clinical and laboratory data corresponded to poliomyelitis developing during poliovirus infection. These findings are compatible with CVA2 being the cause of AFP. Molecular analysis of CVA2 from these patients and a number of AFP cases in other countries did not reveal association with a specific phylogenetic group, suggesting that virus genetics is unlikely to explain the pathogenic profile. The overall results highlight the value of AFP surveillance not just for polio control but for studies of uncommon AFP agents.
There is a paucity of information on the effect of photobiomodulation therapy on gut microbiome composition. Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder with few management options, although the gut microbiome has been suggested as a potential avenue of treatment. We retrospectively analysed the microbiome from human stool samples from a previously published study, which had demonstrated the efficacy of photobiomodulation to treat Parkinson’s patients’ symptoms. Specifically, we have observed changes in the microbiome of Parkinson’s patients after a 12-week treatment regimen with photobiomodulation to the abdomen, neck, head and nose. Noted were positive changes in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F:B) ratio, which is often interpreted as a proxy for gut health.