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Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1839
Author(s):  
Trever T. Greene ◽  
Elina I. Zuniga

Type I Interferons (IFN-I) are a family of potent antiviral cytokines that act through the direct restriction of viral replication and by enhancing antiviral immunity. However, these powerful cytokines are a caged lion, as excessive and sustained IFN-I production can drive immunopathology during infection, and aberrant IFN-I production is a feature of several types of autoimmunity. As specialized producers of IFN-I plasmacytoid (p), dendritic cells (DCs) can secrete superb quantities and a wide breadth of IFN-I isoforms immediately after infection or stimulation, and are the focus of this review. Notably, a few days after viral infection pDCs tune down their capacity for IFN-I production, producing less cytokines in response to both the ongoing infection and unrelated secondary stimulations. This process, hereby referred to as “pDC exhaustion”, favors viral persistence and associates with reduced innate responses and increased susceptibility to secondary opportunistic infections. On the other hand, pDC exhaustion may be a compromise to avoid IFN-I driven immunopathology. In this review we reflect on the mechanisms that initially induce IFN-I and subsequently silence their production by pDCs during a viral infection. While these processes have been long studied across numerous viral infection models, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has brought their discussion back to the fore, and so we also discuss emerging results related to pDC-IFN-I production in the context of COVID-19.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1838
Author(s):  
Thomas Tu ◽  
Chaturaka Rodrigo ◽  
Simone I Strasser ◽  
D Scott Bowden ◽  
Jennifer H MacLachlan ◽  
...  

Viral hepatitis remains one of the most significant health issues globally, directly responsible for over 1 million deaths each year and affecting almost 300 million people around the world. Scientific research in recent decades has brought about improvements in the lives of people living with chronic viral hepatitis. On the 29 July 2021, the Australian Centre for Hepatitis Virology (ACHV) for the first time held a public educational forum for the general public. The main aim of this event was to inform the affected community about the importance of scientific research and give an overview of upcoming developments in the field. Here, we provide a detailed report of the panel discussion (including its organisation, execution, and lessons learned to incorporate into future events) and provide strategies that can be used by other scientific societies to hold similar events in their own communities.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1843
Author(s):  
Connor A. P. Scott ◽  
Alberto A. Amarilla ◽  
Summa Bibby ◽  
Natalee D. Newton ◽  
Roy A. Hall ◽  
...  

The use of dengue virus (DENV) vaccines has been hindered by the complexities of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Current late-stage vaccine candidates utilize attenuated and chimeric DENVs that produce particles of varying maturities. Antibodies that are elicited by preferentially exposed epitopes on immature virions have been linked to increased ADE. We aimed to further understand the humoral immunity promoted by DENV particles of varying maturities in an AG129 mouse model using a chimeric insect specific vaccine candidate, bDENV-2. We immunized mice with mature, partially mature, and immature bDENV-2 and found that immunization with partially mature bDENV-2 produced more robust and cross-neutralizing immune responses than immunization with immature or mature bDENV-2. Upon challenge with mouse adapted DENV-2 (D220), we observed 80% protection for mature bDENV-2 vaccinated mice and 100% for immature and partially mature vaccinated mice, suggesting that protection to homotypic challenge is not dependent on maturation. Finally, we found reduced in vitro ADE at subneutralising serum concentrations for mice immunized with mature bDENV-2. These results suggest that both immature and mature DENV particles play a role in homotypic protection; however, the increased risk of in vitro ADE from immature particles indicates potential safety benefits from mature DENV-based vaccines.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1844
Author(s):  
Thomas P. Thomopoulos ◽  
Margherita Rosati ◽  
Evangelos Terpos ◽  
Dimitris Stellas ◽  
Xintao Hu ◽  
...  

COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. Despite meticulous research, only dexamethasone has shown consistent mortality reduction. Convalescent plasma (CP) infusion might also develop into a safe and effective treatment modality on the basis of recent studies and meta-analyses; however, little is known regarding the kinetics of antibodies in CP recipients. To evaluate the kinetics, we followed 31 CP recipients longitudinally enrolled at a median of 3 days post symptom onset for changes in binding and neutralizing antibody titers and viral loads. Antibodies against the complete trimeric Spike protein and the receptor-binding domain (Spike-RBD), as well as against the complete Nucleocapsid protein and the RNA binding domain (N-RBD) were determined at baseline and weekly following CP infusion. Neutralizing antibody (pseudotype NAb) titers were determined at the same time points. Viral loads were determined semi-quantitatively by SARS-CoV-2 PCR. Patients with low humoral responses at entry showed a robust increase of antibodies to all SARS-CoV-2 proteins and Nab, reaching peak levels within 2 weeks. The rapid increase in binding and neutralizing antibodies was paralleled by a concomitant clearance of the virus within the same timeframe. Patients with high humoral responses at entry demonstrated low or no further increases; however, virus clearance followed the same trajectory as in patients with low antibody response at baseline. Together, the sequential immunological and virological analysis of this well-defined cohort of patients early in infection shows the presence of high levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies and potent clearance of the virus.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1837
Author(s):  
Neda Sanobar ◽  
Pin-Chun Lin ◽  
Zhao-Jun Pan ◽  
Ru-Ying Fang ◽  
Veny Tjita ◽  
...  

In plants, HEN1-facilitated methylation at 3′ end ribose is a critical step of small-RNA (sRNA) biogenesis. A mutant of well-studied Arabidopsis HEN1 (AtHEN1), hen1-1, showed a defective developmental phenotype, indicating the importance of sRNA methylation. Moreover, Marchantia polymorpha has been identified to have a HEN1 ortholog gene (MpHEN1); however, its function remained unfathomed. Our in vivo and in vitro data have shown MpHEN1 activity being comparable with AtHEN1, and their substrate specificity towards duplex microRNA (miRNA) remained consistent. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree and multiple alignment highlighted the conserved molecular evolution of the HEN1 family in plants. The P1/HC-Pro of the turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is a known RNA silencing suppressor and inhibits HEN1 methylation of sRNAs. Here, we report that the HC-Pro physically binds with AtHEN1 through FRNK motif, inhibiting HEN1’s methylation activity. Moreover, the in vitro EMSA data indicates GST-HC-Pro of TuMV lacks sRNA duplex-binding ability. Surprisingly, the HC-Pro also inhibits MpHEN1 activity in a dosage-dependent manner, suggesting the possibility of interaction between HC-Pro and MpHEN1 as well. Further investigations on understanding interaction mechanisms of HEN1 and various HC-Pros can advance the knowledge of viral suppressors.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1841
Author(s):  
Po-Yu Sung ◽  
Polly Roy

Understanding how viruses with multi-segmented genomes incorporate one copy of each segment into their capsids remains an intriguing question. Here, we review our recent progress and describe the advancements made in understanding the genome packaging mechanism of a model nonenveloped virus, Bluetongue virus (BTV), with a 10-segment (S1–S10) double-strand RNA (dsRNA) genome. BTV (multiple serotypes), a member of the Orbivirus genus in the Reoviridae family, is a notable pathogen for livestock and is responsible for significant economic losses worldwide. This has enabled the creation of an extensive set of reagents and assays, including reverse genetics, cell-free RNA packaging, and bespoke bioinformatics approaches, which can be directed to address the packaging question. Our studies have shown that (i) UTRs enable the conformation of each segment necessary for the next level of RNA–RNA interaction; (ii) a specific order of intersegment interactions leads to a complex RNA network containing all the active components in sorting and packaging; (iii) networked segments are recruited into nascent assembling capsids; and (iv) select capsid proteins might be involved in the packaging process. The key features of genome packaging mechanisms for BTV and related dsRNA viruses are novel and open up new avenues of potential intervention.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1840
Author(s):  
Mar Perez
Keyword(s):  

We do not always remember the exact moment in which we first met our friends [...]


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1845
Author(s):  
Jae-Hwan Lee ◽  
Soo-Jin Oh ◽  
Jeanho Yun ◽  
Ok Sarah Shin

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza virus (IFV) is essential for evading interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral responses, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of influenza. Mitophagy is a type of autophagy that selectively removes damaged mitochondria. The role of NS1 in IFV-mediated mitophagy is currently unknown. Herein, we showed that overexpression of NS1 protein led to enhancement of mitophagy. Mitophagy induction via carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone treatment in IFV-infected A549 cells led to increased viral replication efficiency, whereas the knockdown of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) led to the opposite effect on viral replication. Overexpression of NS1 protein led to changes in mitochondrial dynamics, including depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast, infection with NS1-deficient virus resulted in impaired mitochondrial fragmentation, subsequent mitolysosomal formation, and mitophagy induction, suggesting an important role of NS1 in mitophagy. Meanwhile, NS1 protein increased the phosphorylation of Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and the mitochondrial expression of BCL2- interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), both of which were found to be important for IFV-mediated mitophagy. Overall, these data highlight the importance of IFV NS1, ULK1, and BNIP3 during mitophagy activation.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1842
Author(s):  
Bert Vanmechelen ◽  
Zafeiro Zisi ◽  
Sophie Gryseels ◽  
Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq ◽  
Bram Vrancken ◽  
...  

Recent years have witnessed the discovery of several new viruses belonging to the family Arteriviridae, expanding the known diversity and host range of this group of complex RNA viruses. Although the pathological relevance of these new viruses is not always clear, several well-studied members of the family Arteriviridae are known to be important animal pathogens. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of four new arterivirus variants, belonging to two putative novel species. These new arteriviruses were discovered in African rodents and were given the names Lopma virus and Praja virus. Their genomes follow the characteristic genome organization of all known arteriviruses, even though they are only distantly related to currently known rodent-borne arteriviruses. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Lopma virus clusters in the subfamily Variarterivirinae, while Praja virus clusters near members of the subfamily Heroarterivirinae: the yet undescribed forest pouched giant rat arterivirus and hedgehog arterivirus 1. A co-divergence analysis of rodent-borne arteriviruses confirms that they share similar phylogenetic patterns with their hosts, with only very few cases of host shifting events throughout their evolutionary history. Overall, the genomes described here and their unique clustering with other arteriviruses further illustrate the existence of multiple rodent-borne arterivirus lineages, expanding our knowledge of the evolutionary origin of these viruses.


Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 1824
Author(s):  
Sarah Brendle ◽  
Jingwei J. Li ◽  
Nancy M. Cladel ◽  
Debra A. Shearer ◽  
Lynn R. Budgeon ◽  
...  

Papillomavirus L1 and L2, the major and minor capsid proteins, play significant roles in viral assembly, entry, and propagation. In the current study, we investigate the impact of L1 and L2 on viral life cycle and tumor growth with a newly established mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) infection model. MmuPV1 L1 knockout, L2 knockout, and L1 plus L2 knockout mutant genomes (designated as L1ATGko-4m, L2ATGko, and L1-L2ATGko respectively) were generated. The mutants were examined for their ability to generate lesions in athymic nude mice. Viral activities were examined by qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. We demonstrated that viral DNA replication and tumor growth occurred at both cutaneous and mucosal sites infected with each of the mutants. Infections involving L1ATGko-4m, L2ATGko, and L1-L2ATGko mutant genomes generally resulted in smaller tumor sizes compared to infection with the wild type. The L1 protein was absent in L1ATGko-4m and L1-L2ATGko mutant-treated tissues, even though viral transcripts and E4 protein expression were robust. Therefore, L1 is not essential for MmuPV1-induced tumor growth, and this finding parallels our previous observations in the rabbit papillomavirus model. Very few viral particles were detected in L2ATGko mutant-infected tissues. Interestingly, the localization of L1 in lesions induced by L2ATGko was primarily cytoplasmic rather than nuclear. The findings support the hypothesis that the L2 gene influences the expression, location, transport, and assembly of the L1 protein in vivo.


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