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2029 ◽  
Vol 74 (10) ◽  
pp. 6144-2029
Author(s):  
ANNA JANKOWSKA-MĄKOSA ◽  
DAMIAN KNECHT ◽  
JAKUB NICPOŃ ◽  
JÓZEF NICPOŃ ◽  
KAMIL DUZIŃSKI

Research into the determination of intestinal parasitic levels in free-living animals can provide knowledge enabling action to be taken to improve their health status. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the carcass weight of wild boars and the degree of endoparasite infection. The research was performed on 165 culled wild boars, from which a representative group (n = 50) was separated and divided according to sex (males n = 24, females n = 26) and age (2-3 years). Separate weight groups were defined for males (< 70 kg, n = 6; 70-80 kg, n = 9; > 80 kg, n = 9) and females (< 45 kg, n = 10; 45-60 kg, n = 10; > 60 kg, n = 6). Oesophagostomum spp., Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Eimeria spp. and Strongyloides ransomi were observed and defined in the study population. A statistically significant effect of the overall infection on carcass weight was obtained (F = 9.96; P ≤ 0.01). In the case of overall infection, a more than 7 kg lower carcass weight was observed in infected males. A carcass weight over 15 kg lower was noted for overall infection of females (F = 38.47; P ≤ 0.01), for which average EPG was 2946.67 ± 6485.31 with a median of 400 (50-25 300). Correlations were proven between sex and the average number of Eimeria spp. oocysts, and carcass weight for males (r = –0.84, P ≤ 0.05). In the case of females, correlations were noted between carcass weight and infection by nematodes (r = –0.63, P ≤ 0.05). Studies have shown that there is a need to monitor the environment in order to improve the condition of free-living animals.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Author(s):  
Narjes Shojaati ◽  
Nathaniel D. Osgood

Opioids have been shown to temporarily reduce the severity of pain when prescribed for medical purposes. However, opioid analgesics can also lead to severe adverse physical and psychological effects or even death through misuse, abuse, short- or long-term addiction, and one-time or recurrent overdose. Dynamic computational models and simulations can offer great potential to interpret the complex interaction of the drivers of the opioid crisis and assess intervention strategies. This study surveys existing studies of dynamic computational models and simulations addressing the opioid crisis and provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of dynamic computational models and simulations of the opioid crisis. This review gives a detailed analysis of existing modeling techniques, model conceptualization and formulation, and the policy interventions they suggest. It also explores the data sources they used and the study population they represented. Based on this analysis, direction and opportunities for future dynamic computational models for addressing the opioid crisis are suggested.


Author(s):  
Shilpa Atwal ◽  
Jitender Thakur

Background: To study the use of guidelines in statins prescription at tertiary care centre of North India Methods: Study was conducted on Patients with indications for statins presenting to cardiology OPD,Medicine OPD and Endocrinology OPD and started on statins at PGIMER, Chandigarh, within a period of 9 months. Results: In our study, 81.9% of total study population were receiving statins according to guideline and 18.1% were receiving statins not according to guideline. In the primary prevention group,91(83.5%) patients were receiving statins according to guideline and 18(16.5%) were receiving not according to guideline. In the secondary prevention group, 108(80.6%) patients were receiving statins according to guideline and 26(19.4%) patients were receiving statins not according to guideline. Concluded: In our study, more than two third of patients in our study were receiving prescriptions according to guideline Keywords: Statin, Guideline, Use


Author(s):  
Shilpa Atwal ◽  
Jitender Thakur

Background: To study the ethical versus generic prescription of statins Methods: Study was conducted on Patients with indications for statins presenting to cardiology OPD,Medicine OPD and Endocrinology OPD and started on statins at PGIMER, Chandigarh, within a period of 9 months. Results: In our study population, amongst the primary prevention group, a larger percentage about 56% were receiving generic prescription of statins and about 44% were receiving ethical prescription of statins .Whereas in secondary prevention group, about 45.5% of patients were receiving generic prescription and 54.5% were receiving ethical prescription . Concluded: In our study population patients were equally prescribed on ethical (49.8%) and generic prescriptions (50.2%). Keywords: Statin, Ethical, Generic


2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 731-735
Author(s):  
Preethi B ◽  
Preeti Mittal ◽  
Kiran Kumar K ◽  
Sriya Sridhar ◽  
Suresh Babu G

To study the prevalence, types and demographic profile of traditional eye medicine (TEM) use among corneal ulcer patients presenting to a tertiary eye care centre in South India.A cross-sectional study conducted on 432 new corneal ulcer patients at a tertiary eye care centre in South India from September 2018 to July 2019. Data collected included demographic profile such as name, age, sex, occupation, income, rural/urban residence, type of TEM use. Of the 432 new corneal ulcer cases, 32 used TEM. Most TEM users belonged to the age group 40- 60 years (n= 20; 62.5%). There was no difference in sex distribution. Majority of TEM users in our study resided in rural areas (n= 30; 93.75%), were involved in agriculture as occupation (n=28, 87.5%) and belonged to the lower socioeconomic status n=31(96.88%) as per Kuppuswamy classification. Profile of TEM used ranged from plant extract (n= 14; 43.75%), tongue cleaning (n= 5; 15.63%), oil (n= 7; 21.87%), breast milk (n= 4; 12.5%) and ash (n= 2; 6.25%). Use of traditional medicine is a prevalent practice in the study population. These findings offer a better understanding of health seeking behaviour of the study population which will lead to better planning, implementation and targeting of preventive and promotive eye services and awareness programmes.


Author(s):  
Alessandro Borghi ◽  
Maria Elena Flacco ◽  
Alberto Monti ◽  
Lucrezia Pacetti ◽  
Michela Tabanelli ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose The impact of malignant melanoma (MM) on patients’ psychophysical well-being has been poorly addressed. We aimed to assess the perceived burden in patients with a diagnosis of MM, using two different tools, one generic and one specific for MM, such as Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) and Melanoma Concerns Questionnaire (MCQ-28), respectively. The correlation between PRISM and MCQ-28 subscales and the relevance of disease and patient-related variables were also investigated. Methods This single-centre, cross-sectional study included all adult consecutive MM patients who attended our Dermatology Unit from December 2020 to June 2021. Demographics and disease-related data were recorded. PRISM and MCQ-28 were administered. Results One hundred and seventy-one patients were included (mean age: 59.5 ±14.9 years.; 48.0% males). Median time from MM diagnosis to inclusion was 36 months. Nearly 80% of the patients had in situ or stage I MM. Overall, 22.2% of the patients reported a PRISM score <100mm and similar percentages provided scores indicating impaired quality of life, as assessed with MCQ-28 subscales. A weak, albeit significant, correlation was found between PRISM scores and ACP, CON and SOC2 subscales. The most relevant association found was that between lower PRISM scores and higher-stage MM. Conclusions In the study population, mostly affected with superficial MM, their perception of the burden associated with MM did not appear either particularly dramatic or disabling. PRISM seems a reliable system for capturing and quantifying the domains correlated with the emotive dimension of MM, especially MM-related concerns and willingness to face life


Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Author(s):  
Chaelynne E. Lohr ◽  
Kelly R. B. Sporer ◽  
Kelsey A. Brigham ◽  
Laura A. Pavliscak ◽  
Matelyn M. Mason ◽  
...  

Characterization of the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3 gene has shown that specific alleles associate with susceptibility or resilience to the progression of bovine leukemia virus (BLV), measured by proviral load (PVL). Through surveillance of multi-farm BLV eradication field trials, we observed differential phenotypes within seropositive cows that persist from months to years. We sought to develop a multiplex next-generation sequencing workflow (NGS-SBT) capable of genotyping 384 samples per run to assess the relationship between BLV phenotype and two BoLA genes. We utilized longitudinal results from milk ELISA screening and subsequent blood collections on seropositive cows for PVL determination using a novel BLV proviral load multiplex qPCR assay to phenotype the cows. Repeated diagnostic observations defined two distinct phenotypes in our study population, ELISA-positive cows that do not harbor detectable levels of provirus and those who do have persistent proviral loads. In total, 565 cows from nine Midwest dairy farms were selected for NGS-SBT, with 558 cows: 168 BLV susceptible (ELISA-positive/PVL-positive) and 390 BLV resilient (ELISA-positive/PVL-negative) successfully genotyped. Three BoLA-DRB3 alleles, including one novel allele, were shown to associate with disease resilience, *009:02, *044:01, and *048:02 were found at rates of 97.5%, 86.5%, and 90.3%, respectively, within the phenotypically resilient population. Alternatively, DRB3*015:01 and *027:03, both known to associate with disease progression, were found at rates of 81.1% and 92.3%, respectively, within the susceptible population. This study helps solidify the immunogenetic relationship between BoLA-DRB3 alleles and BLV infection status of these two phenotypic groupings of US dairy cattle.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Joanna Podgórska ◽  
Katarzyna Pasicz ◽  
Witold Skrzyński ◽  
Bogumił Gołębiewski ◽  
Piotr Kuś ◽  
...  

Introduction. In order to improve the efficacy of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters in characterising specific tissues, a new concept is introduced: the perfusion–diffusion ratio (PDR), which expresses the relationship between the signal S b decline rate as a result of IVIM and the rate of signal S b decline due to diffusion. The aim of this study was to investigate this novel approach in the differentiation of solid primary liver lesions. Material and Methods. Eighty-three patients referred for liver MRI between August 2017 and January 2020 with a suspected liver tumour were prospectively examined with the standard liver MRI protocol extended by DWI-IVIM sequence. Patients with no liver lesions, haemangiomas, or metastases were excluded. The final study population consisted of 34 patients with primary solid liver masses, 9 with FNH, 4 with regenerative nodules, 10 with HCC, and 11 with CCC. The PDR coefficient was introduced, defined as the ratio of the rate of signal S b decrease due to the IVIM effect to the rate of signal S b decrease due to the diffusion process, for b = 0 . Results. No significant differences were found between benign and malignant lesions in the case of IVIM parameters ( f , D , or D ∗ ) and ADC. Significant differences were observed only for PDR, with lower values for malignant lesions ( p = 0.03 ). The ROC analysis yielded an AUC value for PDR equal to 0.74, with a cut-off value of 5.06, sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 77%, and accuracy of 79%. Conclusion. PDR proved to be more effective than IVIM parameters and ADC in the differentiation of solid benign and malignant primary liver lesions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 156-162
Author(s):  
Mausumi Basu ◽  
Ripan Saha ◽  
Subhra Samujjwal Basu ◽  
Vineeta Shukla ◽  
Ankita Mishra ◽  
...  

The Government of India launched “COVID-19 vaccination drive” on 16th January, 2021 and health care workers were the first to be prioritised for vaccination. However, the uncertainty regarding safety and efficacy of the vaccine was the major concern amongst them. These led to vaccine hesitancy and ultimately drop out.To estimate the proportion of drop out of COVID-19 vaccination among vaccine-hesitant health care workers (HCWs) of a tertiary care hospital and to find out their perception and other background characteristics responsible for drop out. A facility based descriptive type of observational study, cross-sectional in design was carried out among 329 HCWs of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata from 16th March- 12thApril, 2021using a pre-designed, pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The study population selected by simple random sampling technique. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS v25.0 in the form of descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. About 44.1% of the study population didn’t take the COVID-19 vaccine. Socio-demographic factors like age, gender, religion, education, occupation,perception regarding necessity of vaccination, vaccine efficacy, dose and contraindication, safety in humans and role in future infections were significantly associated with drop out. There was a high proportion of vaccine drop out among health care workers. Different modifiable perceptions with socio-demographic factors had played important roles in COVID-19 vaccination drop out. As the global threat of COVID-19 continues, greater efforts through campaigns that target HCWs are needed to improve the intention of professionals’ vaccine acceptance.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261142
Author(s):  
Katie Bechman ◽  
Mark Yates ◽  
Kirsty Mann ◽  
Deepak Nagra ◽  
Laura-Jane Smith ◽  
...  

Background The Covid-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom has seen two waves; the first starting in March 2020 and the second in late October 2020. It is not known whether outcomes for those admitted with severe Covid were different in the first and second waves. Methods The study population comprised all patients admitted to a 1,500-bed London Hospital Trust between March 2020 and March 2021, who tested positive for Covid-19 by PCR within 3-days of admissions. Primary outcome was death within 28-days of admission. Socio-demographics (age, sex, ethnicity), hypertension, diabetes, obesity, baseline physiological observations, CRP, neutrophil, chest x-ray abnormality, remdesivir and dexamethasone were incorporated as co-variates. Proportional subhazards models compared mortality risk between wave 1 and wave 2. Cox-proportional hazard model with propensity score adjustment were used to compare mortality in patients prescribed remdesivir and dexamethasone. Results There were 3,949 COVID-19 admissions, 3,195 hospital discharges and 733 deaths. There were notable differences in age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and admission disease severity between wave 1 and wave 2. Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher during wave 1 (26.1% versus 13.1%). Mortality risk adjusted for co-variates was significantly lower in wave 2 compared to wave 1 [adjSHR 0.49 (0.37, 0.65) p<0.001]. Analysis of treatment impact did not show statistically different effects of remdesivir [HR 0.84 (95%CI 0.65, 1.08), p = 0.17] or dexamethasone [HR 0.97 (95%CI 0.70, 1.35) p = 0.87]. Conclusion There has been substantial improvements in COVID-19 mortality in the second wave, even accounting for demographics, comorbidity, and disease severity. Neither dexamethasone nor remdesivir appeared to be key explanatory factors, although there may be unmeasured confounding present.


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