genome sequences
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2022 ◽  
Caroline M. Weisman ◽  
Andrew M. Murray ◽  
Sean R Eddy

Comparisons of genomes of different species are used to identify lineage-specific genes, those genes that appear unique to one species or clade. Lineage-specific genes are often thought to represent genetic novelty that underlies unique adaptations. Identification of these genes depends not only on genome sequences, but also on inferred gene annotations. Comparative analyses typically use available genomes that have been annotated using different methods, increasing the risk that orthologous DNA sequences may be erroneously annotated as a gene in one species but not another, appearing lineage-specific as a result. To evaluate the impact of such 'annotation heterogeneity', we identified four clades of species with sequenced genomes with more than one publicly available gene annotation, allowing us to compare the number of lineage-specific genes inferred when differing annotation methods are used to those resulting when annotation method is uniform across the clade. In these case studies, annotation heterogeneity increases the apparent number of lineage-specific genes by up to 15-fold, suggesting that annotation heterogeneity is a substantial source of potential artifact.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Clifton P. Bueno de Mesquita ◽  
Jinglie Zhou ◽  
Susanna Theroux ◽  
Susannah G. Tringe

Aerobic bacteria that degrade methylphosphonates and produce methane as a byproduct have emerged as key players in marine carbon and phosphorus cycles. Here, we present two new draft genome sequences of the genus Marivita that were assembled from metagenomes from hypersaline former industrial salterns and compare them to five other Marivita reference genomes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that both of these metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) represent new species in the genus. Average nucleotide identities to the closest taxon were <85%. The MAGs were assembled with SPAdes, binned with MetaBAT, and curated with scaffold extension and reassembly. Both genomes contained the phnCDEGHIJLMP suite of genes encoding the full C-P lyase pathway of methylphosphonate degradation and were significantly more abundant in two former industrial salterns than in nearby reference and restored wetlands, which have lower salinity levels and lower methane emissions than the salterns. These organisms contain a variety of compatible solute biosynthesis and transporter genes to cope with high salinity levels but harbor only slightly acidic proteomes (mean isoelectric point of 6.48).

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Qiong Wang ◽  
Qi Zou ◽  
Zhaoji Dai ◽  
Ni Hong ◽  
Guoping Wang ◽  

A hypovirulent SZ-2-3y strain isolated from diseased Paris polyphylla was identified as Botrytis cinerea. Interestingly, SZ-2-3y was coinfected with a mitovirus, two botouliviruses, and a 3074 nt fusarivirus, designated Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 8 (BcFV8); it shares an 87.2% sequence identity with the previously identified Botrytis cinerea fusarivirus 6 (BcFV6). The full-length 2945 nt genome sequence of the mitovirus, termed Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 10 (BcMV10), shares a 54% sequence identity with Fusarium boothii mitovirus 1 (FbMV1), and clusters with fungus mitoviruses, plant mitoviruses and plant mitochondria; hence BcMV10 is a new Mitoviridae member. The full-length 2759 nt and 2812 nt genome sequences of the other two botouliviruses, named Botrytis cinerea botoulivirus 18 and 19 (BcBoV18 and 19), share a 40% amino acid sequence identity with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein (RdRp), and these are new members of the Botoulivirus genus of Botourmiaviridae. Horizontal transmission analysis showed that BcBoV18, BcBoV19 and BcFV8 are not related to hypovirulence, suggesting that BcMV10 may induce hypovirulence. Intriguingly, a partial BcMV10 sequence was detected in cucumber plants inoculated with SZ-2-3y mycelium or pXT1/BcMV10 agrobacterium. In conclusion, we identified a hypovirulent SZ-2-3y fungal strain from P. polyphylla, coinfected with four novel mycoviruses that could serve as potential biocontrol agents. Our findings provide evidence of cross-kingdom mycoviral sequence transmission.

R. A. Alvarez-Quinto ◽  
Joana Serrano ◽  
Neil Olszewski ◽  
Samuel Grinstead ◽  
Dimitre Mollov ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 906
Tao Li ◽  
Nianzhi Ning ◽  
Angelo Iacobino ◽  
Liangyan Zhang ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  

Previously, a whole-genome comparison of three Clostridium butyricum type E strains from Italy and the United States with different C. botulinum type E strains indicated that the bont/e gene might be transferred between the two clostridia species through transposition. However, transposable elements (TEs) have never been identified close to the bont/e gene. Herein, we report the whole genome sequences for four neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains that originated in China. An analysis of the obtained genome sequences revealed the presence of a novel putative TE upstream of the bont/e gene in the genome of all four strains. Two strains of environmental origin possessed an additional copy of the putative TE in their megaplasmid. Similar putative TEs were found in the megaplasmids and, less frequently, in the chromosomes of several C. butyricum strains, of which two were neurotoxigenic C. butyricum type E strains, and in the chromosome of a single C. botulinum type E strain. We speculate that the putative TE might potentially transpose the bont/e gene at the intracellular and inter-cellular levels. However, the occasional TE occurrence in the clostridia genomes might reflect rare transposition events.

Tammy J. Barnaba ◽  
Jayanthi Gangiredla ◽  
Mark K. Mammel ◽  
David W. Lacher ◽  
Carmen Tartera

We present the genome sequences of nine Bacillus isolates and two Weizmannia isolates from 10 different dietary supplements and one cultured food product. Strains of these species have been associated with health benefits when ingested by humans, due to their ability to survive the stomach’s acidic environment and colonize the intestinal tract.

Adrien Biessy ◽  
Marie Ciotola ◽  
Mélanie Cadieux ◽  
Daphné Albert ◽  
Martin Filion

Numerous bacterial strains from the Burkholderia cepacia complex display biocontrol activity. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of five Burkholderia strains isolated from soil. Biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for the production of antimicrobial compounds were found in the genome of these strains, which display biocontrol activity against various lettuce pathogens.

Priyanka Jain ◽  
Rajlakshmi Viswanathan ◽  
Gourab Halder ◽  
Sulagna Basu ◽  
Shanta Dutta

We report draft whole-genome sequences of two multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg sequence type 14 strains resistant to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and/or azithromycin, which were isolated from neonatal stool and goat meat in Kolkata, India. The genome characteristics, as well as the antimicrobial resistance genes, plasmid types, and integrons, are presented in this report.

Clara Duffner ◽  
Susanne Kublik ◽  
Bärbel Fösel ◽  
Michael Schloter ◽  
Stefanie Schulz

Hydrogenotrophic denitrifiers are important bacteria for nitrate removal in wastewater and aquifers. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of three hydrogenotrophic denitrifiers, namely, Dechloromonas denitrificans strain D110, Ferribacterium limneticum strain F76, and Hydrogenophaga taeniospiralis strain H3, all of which were isolated from a nitrate-polluted aquifer in Bavaria (Germany).

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