Urban Fabric
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cerasella Crăciun ◽  
◽  
Atena Ioana Gârjoabă ◽  

Approximately 75% of the urban settlements in Romania are superimposed or are tangent to at least one natural protected area, these not being integrated from the point of view of their regulation in the urban strategies and in the urban planning regulations. From a spatial point of view, this type of relationship often represents a contrast between the urban fabric and the quasi-natural fabric. However, in the regulatory or strategy instruments for the development of urban settlements, where such contrasts exist, they are only integrated at the border level. The ecotone is, in most cases, the only element mentioned in urban planning instruments and is approached as a land that can only function in isolation and that in no way can support urban development. This reluctance and fear of approaching natural protected areas, also negatively influences the conception of the community, investors and the administration. Urban actors are not informed and therefore not motivated, but neither do they have the opportunity to get involved in the conservation and protection process. The purpose of this article is to research urban and biodiversity strategies at E.U level, to identify gaps in the formulation of urban planning tools, what are the reasons behind generating these gaps and how they can be eliminated, or at least mitigated. The analysis will focus on some models of urban strategies which address natural protected areas, but will also consider related elements, directly related to their conservation, urban ecology and the involvement in the process of urban actors.


Author(s):  
R. Lambarki ◽  
E. Achbab ◽  
M. Maanan ◽  
H. Rhinane

Abstract. Accelerated urban growth has affected many of the planet's natural processes. In cities, most of the surface is covered with asphalt and cement, which has changed the water and air cycles. To restore the balance of urban ecosystems, cities must find the means to create green spaces in an increasingly gray world. Green spaces provide the city and its inhabitants a better living environment. This article uses Nador city as a case study area, this project consists in studying the possibility for the roofs to receive vegetation. The first axis of this project is the quantification of the current vegetation cover at ground level by calculating the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based on Satellite images Landsat 8, then the classification of the LiDAR point cloud, and the generation of a digital surface model (DSM) of the urban area. This type of derived data was used as the basis for the various stages of estimating the potential plant cover at the roof level. In order to study the different possible scenarios, a set of criteria was applied, such as the minimum roof area, the inclination and the duration of the sunshine on the roof, which is calculated using the linear model of angstrom Prescott based on solar radiation. The study shows that in the most conservative scenario, 21771 suitable buildings that had to be redeveloped into green roofs, with an appropriate surface area of 369.26Ha allowing a 63,40% increase in the city's green space by compared to the current state contributing to the improvement of the quality of life and urban comfort. The average budget for the installation of green roofs in a building with a surface area of 100 m2 varies between 60000dh and 170000dh depending on the type of green roofs used, extensive or intensive. These results would enable planners and researchers in green architecture sciences to carry out more detailed planning analyzes.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 357
Author(s):  
Edyta Małecka-Ziembińska ◽  
Izabela Janicka

One of the currently promoted methods of counteracting climate change is nature-based climate solutions, which harness the power of nature to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable management of ecosystems is a guarantee for sustained human well-being. This underestimated, but extremely efficient and cheap method of integrating nature resources into the urban fabric is an economic “injection” for communal authorities. These “green” benefits should be standard in land-use planning in the era of anthropocentrism. Solutions based on nature were the reason for investigating their perception by Polish municipalities. The survey covered the entire country (all 2477 municipalities) from 20 July to 31 August 2021 through an electronic survey, obtaining 2128 responses (85.9% return rate). In the final result, data were obtained that support the hypotheses posed in the study. The main objective of the research was to check the level of activity of municipalities in Poland in the field of proecological activities using nature-based solutions (NbS). The survey results confirmed little knowledge of nature-based solutions, at the same time giving it an educational dimension. Half of the respondents declared that they learned about NbS only from the survey. Polish decision makers and municipal authorities introduce some solutions based on nature without being aware of their European classification and adequate nomenclature. Environmental awareness in Poland remains largely the domain of urban municipalities, with higher current budget revenues per capita and in the central and western parts of the country. NbS are marginal in rural municipalities, which can be explained by the lack of ecological specialists, less car traffic and more single-family houses and thus modest public areas. The following surveys covering the entire territory of Poland are the first to be carried out on such a large scale.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (42) ◽  
pp. 69
Author(s):  
Vissoh Ahotondji Sylvain

Les villes accueillent souvent des évènements qui, de par leur nature et les manifestations qu’ils engendrent, marquent la trame urbaine et contribuent au développement local. Le but de la présente recherche est d’analyser l’inscription territoriale de la « fête du 15 août », le plus important évènement qu’accueille, chaque année, la ville de Savalou. L’approche méthodologique adoptée combine les recherches documentaires notamment sur la thématique ville et évènement, les enquêtes de terrain à travers l’observation participante des manifestations des éditions 2019 et 2021 de la fête du 15 août, les entretiens semi directifs avec les autorités communales et les questionnaires avec les promoteurs de réceptifs hôteliers, de restaurants ainsi que quelques forains et visiteurs urbains. Au total, 173 personnes ont été interrogées dans le cadre de cette recherche. Ces personnes ont été retenues par la méthode de choix raisonné. Les méthodes d’analyse de contenu et de statistiques descriptives ont permis de traiter les données et informations recueillies et le modèle SWOT ou FFOM (Forces, Faiblesses, Opportunités et Menaces) a été utilisé pour analyser les résultats obtenus. Il ressort des analyses que cinq (05) manifestations clés sont organisées dans le cadre de la « fête du 15 août » : il s’agit du rituel d’autorisation de la consommation des nouvelles ignames, la Grande Foire Artisanale de Savalou (GFAS), l’élection de Miss Savalou (la plus belle fille de la Commune de Savalou), la finale de la coupe de football de la commune et les concerts. Au plan spatial, l’évènement se déroule en plusieurs lieux à savoir le palais royal, la paroisse de l’église catholique, la maison des jeunes, le stade omnisport de la ville, la place Soha et le site de la foire. Il n’existe pas une structure officielle qui assure le portage de l’évènement ; chaque manifestation est organisée par un acteur donné sans qu’aucune coordination ne soit mise en place. Par ailleurs, très peu de recettes sont collectées par la mairie à l’occasion de cet évènement. On en déduit que l’évènement profite financièrement plus aux acteurs privés qu’à la municipalité.   Cities often host events which, by their nature and the events they generate, mark the urban fabric and contribute to local development. The aim of this research is to analyze the territorial inscription of the "feast of August 15", the most important event hosted each year by the city of Savalou. The methodological approach adopted combines documentary research, in particular on the city and event theme, field surveys through the participant observation of the events of the 2019 and 2021 editions of the August 15 festival, semi-structured interviews with the municipal authorities and questionnaires with the promoters of hotel receptives, restaurants as well as a few fairgrounds and urban visitors. A total of 173 people were interviewed for this research. These people were selected by the reasoned choice method. The methods of content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to process the data and information collected and the SWOT or SWOT model (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) was used to analyze the results obtained. It emerges from the analyzes that five (05) key events are organized within the framework of the “feast of August 15”: it is about the ritual of authorization of the consumption of new yams, the Great Artisanal Fair of Savalou (GFAS) , the election of Miss Savalou (the most beautiful girl in the Municipality of Savalou), the final of the municipal football cup and the concerts. Spatially, the event takes place in several locations, namely the Royal Palace, the parish of the Catholic Church, the youth center, the city's sports stadium, Soha Square and the site of the fair. There is no official structure that ensures the portering of the event; each event is organized by a given actor without any coordination being put in place. In addition, very little revenue is collected by the town hall during this event. We deduce that the event financially benefits private actors more than the municipality.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Luis Palacios Labrador ◽  
Beatriz Alonso Romero

In the 1950s, the city of Casablanca underwent a surge in demographic growth. Having become a strategic port during the French protectorate, it quickly had to accommodate more than 140,000 new arrivals from the countryside. The most extensive urban development project in the city was Carrières Centrales, introduced as a case study in the CIAM IX by the GAMMA team. Michel Écochard, Candilis and Woods reinterpreted the traditional Moroccan house in a compact horizontal fabric as well as in singular buildings. This became the typology not only for a house, but for the whole city. A revisit to Carrières Centrales 65 years after its construction provides an understanding of the metamorphosis that the urban fabric has undergone over time. The critical analysis in this research aims to uncover the main architectural and social parameters that have influenced its transformation. To achieve this goal, fieldwork was carried out during a research trip in October 2018. The work involved contacting local professors, accessing the archives of the University of Casablanca, interviewing the residents, and redrawing and graphing all the architectural elements that had changed since their construction. The urban fabric of Carrières Centrales was found to have evolved in a way that supports the following hypothesis: if an urban model imported into a developing country does not adapt to the changes in the life of its residents, it is considered a failure.


2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 88-97
Author(s):  
Saba Sami Al Ali

Mesopotamian cities were formed sometime during the fourth millennium BCE, and many of them continued to be inhabited as much as 3000 years. While urban characteristics of these cities has been extensively studied, the current article is concerned with exploring the inhabitants' daily experience in the city; a subject that has not been sufficiently explored despite its importance in urban studies. The objective is to expand the understanding of the relation between the ancient city and its occupants. The paper adopts the concept of the City Image as introduced in the seminal work of Kevin Lunch "Image of The City" in investigating aspects of the Mesopotamian city that qualifies it to form a strong mental Image for her citizens, derived from the legibility of its elements and the structure they form. Using a descriptive analytical method in reviewing previous literature, the research first clarifies the shared characters of Mesopotamian cities, and addresses the stature of the city in Mesopotamians' culture. I then specify the five urban elements of the city image as categorised by Lynch; paths, nodes, edges, districts and landmarks, in addition to addressing manifestations of the citizens' urban life in the Mesopotamian city. Afterward, visualization of the citizen's daily experience through the urban fabric of the city is provided, to arrive at a conclusion of the Legibility of the mental image of the Mesopotamian city in the perception of its citizens.


Author(s):  
Bruna Mota Rodrigues ◽  
Mauro César de Oliveira Santos ◽  
Ivani Bursztyn

This paper articulates architecture, urbanism and mental health through the study of specific habitation, called Therapeutic Residences, for people with severe mental illness who undergo psychosocial rehabilitation. The study analyzes the insertion of these habitations in the urban scheme, in relation to the possibilities of social coexistence, access to commerce, services and other public equipment through the presentation of two case studies located in the west zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Besides the considerations linked to the urban space in its physical sense, it also touches on the subjective questions inherent to the exchanges and experiences possible in this context. The methodological strategies correspond to the survey and data analysis along with a qualitative approach. Information made available by City Hall and Mental Health Office, satellite images, semi-structured interviews directed to professionals involved in assisting at the Therapeutic Residences and, in the case of the habitants, open interviews were used. The results indicate the offer of services, the location and the relation of the houses with the street as fundamental factors to the stimulus of social coexistence. It is concluded that the closed condominium model exclusive to TR, in addition to the fragility and difficulties in the urban area in which it is inserted, it hinders the process of psychosocial rehabilitation and it still refers to the idea of an asylum institution. The model of a one-story house integrated to the consolidated urban fabric suggests more possibilities of creating community ties and appropriating the urban space.


2021 ◽  
Vol 145 (4) ◽  
pp. 354-368

The post-Fordist and post-socialist transition had a significant impact on the development of cities in East Central Europe. One of the most spectacular processes in the development of postsocialist cities has been the transformation of the inner areas and outskirts of the urban regions. In the inner areas, after the regime change, urban regeneration gained momentum and thanks to the prevailing neoliberal urban policies almost without exception triggered gentrification processes in the neighbourhoods. Outside the administrative boundaries of the city, in the agglomeration zone and in the more remote areas of the urban region, suburbanisation and urban sprawl have determined the development process. As a consequence, the previously compact urban fabric of post-socialist cities slowly disintegrated and cities became more and more fragmented. The aim of this theoretical study is to explore the most important processes of urban transformation in the post-Fordist era. We briefly introduce the theoretical background of metropoliszation, suburbanization and urban sprawl, as well as the main characteristics of commuting and land use. The role of urban regeneration and fragmentation in the urban fabric will be highlighted as well.


Author(s):  
Sumaiya Binte Azad

The Padma Multipurpose Bridge Project is the genesis of some subsequent projects in Bangladesh among which developing Mongla Port is one of the priority values. Since Mongla is an integral part of southern Bangladesh, the government has taken initiatives to integrate the port uses for neighboring countries. An agreement was signed (Intra Bangladesh, Butan, India, and Nepal (BBIN) Trade) for offering multi‐modal transit access to India and Port access to Nepal, Bhutan and Eastern India. The objective of this study is to establish a computational way to analyze the existing fabric and restore a potential optimized fabric. The methodology of this study includes developing a computational approach, collecting data from secondary sources, analyzing the data set and adjusting it to the identified existing urban fabric. In this paper, a new tool is introduced named ‘Physarealm’, based on the algorithm of Grasshopper and Rhinoceros.


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