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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 11771
Daniela Laura Buruiana ◽  
Cristian-Dragos Obreja ◽  
Elena Emanuela Herbei ◽  
Viorica Ghisman

The world’s rapidly growing demand for raw manganese has made it increasingly important to develop methods for the economic recovery of manganese from secondary sources. The current study aims to present possible ways for the recycling and reuse of silico-manganese slag landfilled in Tulcea, City on the Danube River close to the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in order to save the natural resources raw of manganese. In the last three decades, the ferroalloy production plant has over 2.6 million tons of slag. Slag dumping constitutes a significant source of air, water and soil pollution, which adversely affects the environment and human health. Mn present in the slag dump is an environmental pollutant with potentially toxic effects. The results obtained with a leaching method to recover manganese from slag shows two efficient ways to valorize manganese from solid fraction (54%) with size particles between 80 and 315 µm and/or reuse the leaching medium (56% Mn) with a slag size of <80 µm. The motivation of our research is the possibility to recover manganese from slag by saving natural resources of raw of manganese and the remaining fraction can be used as aggregate sources (construction and road rehabilitation by saving extract mineral aggregates and agriculture), in order to decommission the slag dump. The proposed research is in concordance with the sustainable use of natural resources for the achievement of sustainable development of the 2030 Agenda and Waste Management Legislation due of the huge ecological costs regarding non-conforming waste dumping. If we consider the cost-benefit analysis, the environmental future is more important the human health and the benefits on the quality of the population’s health and the environment which are not non-measurable in monetary value.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 41-54
Nelson Tajudeen Adewale Abd'Razack ◽  
Samuel O Medayese ◽  
Itunu Valda Martins ◽  
Idowu O.O ◽  

Nigeria is an unsustainable country due to an ecological deficit arising from the excessive utilization of natural resources. Resources are consumed more than their bio-capacity. Lifestyle and variation in the needs of households have exerted demands on the natural resources and eventually on the global environment. This research therefore aimed at estimating the Ecological Footprints of the average individual in a household in the urban and rural areas of the Minna region in Nigeria. It identifies the types of resource consumption; the impact of consumption on the EF and compares the EF of both about the level of sustainability. Data were collected employing primary and secondary sources for the study. A total of 400 households was selected for the study. Questionnaire administration was employed to collect the data and random sampling was employed. The data were analyzed through explanatory and inferential statistics. The result of the study shows that the EF of Minna and Maikunkele were 1.10 and 0.892 gha. Households require an average of 0.91 and 0.74 planets to sustain their living standard and generate 6.2 and 4.3 tonnes of CO2 annually. 9 and 6 factors influence EF. It is recommended that the lifestyle of the household in the Minna region has to be modified to reduce pressure on environmental resources and the emission of GHG for sustainable development.

2021 ◽  
pp. 097508782110494
Michael B. Aleyomi

The quest for a complementary regional hegemonic dispensation has been an enduring component in Africa. While studies have recognised the increase in power assets of some states within the continent, literature is replete with the idea that no state can equal or defeat Nigeria and South Africa in contesting for regional powers. Though, this impression appears plausible. However, there are limited scholarly contributions to the devastating conditions that undermined the regional powers’ influential position to enhance legitimacy and positive image-making for African rebirth in global politics. It is against this backdrop that the current effort examines the constraints that hinder the credibility and attractive assets of the two regional powers in African policy. Relying on key-informant interview and secondary sources for the collection of data and the interpretive qualitative method for data analysis, the findings reveal that domestic limitations are major impediments to regional hegemonic powers’ dispensation. This article argues that possession of remarkable material capabilities without corresponding legitimacy and diplomatic means of ‘appealing’ to other states is not enough in the pursuit of hegemonic status. It, therefore, concludes that Nigeria and South Africa must tackle the domestic crises that consistently decline the credibility and continental leadership to curb the global inequality against Africa.

2021 ◽  
pp. 223386592110409
Andualem Kassegn ◽  
Ebrahim Endris

The aim of this paper was to examine factors affecting loan repayment rate among smallholder farmers in the Habru District, Ethiopia, who had taken loans from the Amhara Credit and Saving Institution. In this study, both primary and secondary sources were used. The study employed a combination of multi-stage purposive and stratified sampling techniques in the selection of 384 borrowers from smallholder farmers in the study area. The Tobit model result found that a total of 10 out of the total 15 explanatory variables involved in the model were found to be statistically significant. According to the result demographic factors (age and household size), socio-economic factors (educational level, land size, livestock size, nonfarm income, purpose of borrowing), and institutional factors (road distance, contact with development agents, training received on loan use) were among the factors that influenced loan repayment rate of smallholder borrowers in the study area. Education level, land size, livestock size in tropical livestock unit, nonfarm income, purpose of borrowing, contact with agricultural extension agents, and training received on loan use were found to determine loan repayment rate of borrowers positively and significantly, while age, family size, and road distance were found to negatively and significantly determine loan repayment rate in the study area. Therefore, the overall results of this study underlined the great importance of the significant factors to profoundly achieve high repayment rate on borrowed funds from the Amhara Credit and Saving Institution in the studied area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (SI6) ◽  
Nurazlina Abdul Raof ◽  
Norazlina Abdul Aziz ◽  
Fadhlina Alias ◽  
Noraziah Abu Bakar

Commercial organisations practise corporate hospitality to develop loyalty and trust, keep in touch with clients, and weather business. A challenge exists where corporate hospitality may camouflage corruption. One of the pertinent issues is addressing the obscuring boundaries of corporate hospitality to ensure commercial organisations in Malaysia are not trapped in the labyrinth of corruption, which will affect the sustainability of the business. This research employs a doctrinal approach that utilises library-based research to procure both primary and secondary sources. The research outcome may assist the government, policymaker, and commercial organisations' stakeholders in combating corrupt practices within their organisations. Keywords: commercial organisations; corruption; corporate hospitality; guidelines eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2021. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by E-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Peer-review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. DOI:

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
Richard Hughes ◽  
Sarah Drake Brown

This study explores how undergraduates, as historical thinkers, learn to interact with history and construct their understanding of the past, and examines the role that primary and secondary sources play in narrative construction and revision. Using the African American civil rights movement as a content focus, participants used images to create initial narratives that reflected their understanding of the movement. Half the participants then read an essay on the movement written by a prominent historian, and the other half examined 18 primary sources that reflected the historian’s interpretation of the movement. Participants then each created a second narrative, again selecting images to depict their understanding of the movement. The results of the study suggest that even as students work with primary sources, they need an effective narrative framework based on recent scholarship to forge powerful counter-narratives that transcend outdated interpretations and historical myths. In terms of teaching and learning about the lengthy struggle for racial justice in the United States, simply encouraging teachers and students to ‘do history’ and conduct their own online research is unlikely to change persistent narrative structures that continue to enable and excuse systemic racism.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Colin Bien ◽  
Coco Klußmann

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework that systematically captures the ambiguity of different understandings about science, the university and its relation to society, while conceptualising sustainability. Following Corley and Gioia (2004, p. 174) on identity ambiguity and change, it seems pivotal to better understanding the ambiguity of sustainability in relation to academic cultures and university models to manage the transition more effectively. Design/methodology/approach The nature of this paper’s objectives as well as the wide thematic scope leads to the need of exploring a broad knowledge base. This was best addressed by an exploratory literature review with data collection from primary and secondary sources. The data was interpreted through a hermeneutic analysis and resulted in the inductive development of first categories and goals (further referred to as category development). In addition, a multi-method approach further adjusted the categories and raised their empirical validity and social robustness. Findings Implementing sustainability involves dealing with a double bound ambiguity due to organisational and individual identity reasons. Five fields of ambiguity were developed to systemise the conceptualisation of a sustainable university along contradictory understandings of science, the university and sustainability. These fields offer a framework to qualitatively assess the degree of sustainability in higher education institutions. Arguments for and against sustainability in universities have been categorised around five criteria and associated to the fields of ambiguity. The finding indicates that meaning in organisational change management for sustainability can be considered both, a potential driver and barrier for a sustainability transition in universities. Research limitations/implications This paper exclusively focussed on the internal perspective and left aside any external factors that influence the sustainability transition, such as political measures to stimulate sustainability in higher education. In addition, the operational dimension of a sustainable university has been neglected, which is by all means a necessary and important aspect. The interrelation of the identified goals has not been discussed. Originality/value This paper focusses on the conceptualisation and understanding of sustainability within the institution, an often-forgotten but fundamental aspect of implementation. The fields of ambiguity are designed to be applied for assessing the “degree of maturity” of a sustainable university. The fields reveal the different understandings about the role, the mission and the governance of universities, stemming from competing preferences about goals and their assumed relations by various stakeholders of a higher education institutions. The five fields are not an attempt to resolve the hidden contradictions and tensions in a sustainability transition, but to state them clearly to anticipate resistances and conflicts that hinder the development of a shared understanding.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Mathias Chukwudi Isiani ◽  
Ngozika Anthonia Obi-Ani ◽  
Chikelue Chris Akabuike ◽  
Stanley Jachike Onyemechalu ◽  
Sochima P. Okafor ◽  

PurposeThe overall aim of this research is to interpret Ikenga and Ofo creativity as it is revered in Igbo societies. Igbo creativity, especially interpreted through material culture, suffers the threat of extinction resulting from the forces of modernity. Forces of modernisation, which appear in the personae of Christianity, education, urbanisation and industrialisation, denigrated indigenous creativity, brandishing them as devious, fetish and primitive. Ironically, in most cases, the drivers of such narratives keep these “fetish” items in their museums and will give a lot to preserve them.Design/methodology/approachThis study centred mostly on several communities in the Nsukka area of Igboland, Nigeria. It relied on both primary and secondary sources of historical enquiry. This qualitative research discussed the nuances of the subject matter as it relates to Igbo cosmos. These approaches involved visiting the study area and conducting personal interviews.FindingsArchaeologists do often rely on material culture to study, periodise and date past human societies. In this study, it is found that material culture, an expression of indigenous creativity, best interprets how society survived or related with their environment. This paper examined two Igbo sculpted artefacts – Ikenga and Ofo – while unearthing the intricacies in Igbo cosmology as regards creativity, spirituality and society.Originality/valueThe shapes, motifs, patterns and designs depict an imaginary history, the intellectualism of the past and even the present. This serves as an objective alternative to the twisted colonial narrative on Igbo material culture and consequently contribute to ongoing efforts to preserve, protect and promote cultural heritage resources in this part of the world.

Dr. Pooja Aggarwal ◽  

Workplace diversity refers to the commonalities and contrasts among individuals at work in terms of class, nationality, age, ethnic heritage, academic background, physical capabilities and impairments, gender, interpersonal, and psychological variables. As a result, organizations must create an environment that is compatible with the diversification of their workforce in order to improve their efficiency in this globalised era. The goal of managing workforce diversity is to build and keep a favorable work environment where each employee's contributions are recognized. This reseаrсh рарer сritiсаlly аnаlyses wоrkfоrсe diversity аnd its раrаdigm shift оver time in the соntext оf аn оrgаnizаtiоn. Furthermore, this planned research intends to investigate of workplace diversity and its impact on an organization's efficiency. This study's research will be solely collected from secondary sources. The reseаrch study's findings will be beneficial to the organization since they provide some guidelines and recommendations that can be utilized to develop effective раrаdigms for managing diversity in the workplace. The proposed research study concludes with the belief that appropriate handling of workplace diversity may lead to more committed, pleased, and high-performing employees, as well as make the organization a more efficient workplace.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (13) ◽  
pp. e397101321437
Antônio Alves Júnior ◽  
Tereza Virgínia Silva Bezerra do Nascimento ◽  
João Augusto Cegarra Quintiliano ◽  
Julia Maria Salgado Carvalho ◽  
Roberta Kayane Silva Leal ◽  

The present study aims to demonstrate the results of the impact of bariatric surgery on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through secondary sources available in the literature. A literature review was carried out with the descriptors "Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease" OR "NAFLD" AND "Bariatric Surgery"; “Doença Hepática Gordurosa não Alcoólica” OR “DHGNA” AND “Cirurgia Bariátrica” in the databases: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, through the Virtual Health Library, and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), through PubMed. Cohort-type studies addressing the effects of bariatric surgery on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease published in the last 5 years were included in the review. Thirty-one studies were identified, of which 10 were excluded for not performing postoperative evaluation and 8 were excluded for not containing the methodological criteria, totaling 13 studies. The current literature presents data suggestive of the association between bariatric surgery and the regression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, however, the studies observed present wide variations in methodological applications and samples with heterogeneous profiles, which makes it difficult to generalize the results. More studies are needed so that it is possible to document with greater evidence and reproducibility the action of different types of bariatric surgery on the rate of this liver disease regression.

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